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Table 1 Example of items in the pre- and post-tests

From: Students’ Conceptual Sense-making of Animations and Static Visualizations of Protein Synthesis: a Sociocultural Hypothesis Explaining why Animations May Be Beneficial for Student Learning

1 What are the connections among the following concepts: chromosome, DNA, base, cell nucleus and gene? (Draw a figure and explain using words)
2 Your body consists of thousands of cells. What do you know about the following parts in the cell: cell nucleus, ribosome, mitochondria, inner channel system, cytoplasm and cytosol and cell membrane?
3 Some people have a disease called diabetes. These people need insulin injections. The producers of medical drugs can now make insulin using gene technology. Do you know how insulin is created? (Draw and explain)
4 When you grow up, your body must create more cells, which can be used as building blocks. We call this process cell division. Can you describe how cell division takes place? (Draw and explain)
5 Underneath, you can see several imagesa showing how genetic information is transferred from a gene to a protein. Provide an explanation for each image
  1. aThe images for this item consist of screenshots from the animation of protein synthesis displayed in Appendix 1. However, all text was extracted from the screenshots for use in the pre- and post-test.