Nitrogen-doped ZnWO4 nanophotocatalyst: synthesis, characterization and photodegradation of methylene blue under visible light

  • Mahbobeh Rahmani
  • Tahereh SedaghatEmail author


Nitrogen-doped ZnWO4 nanoparticles have been synthesized by a sol–gel method using sodium tungstate and zinc acetate in the presence of urea to supply nitrogen. This photocatalyst was characterized by X-Ray diffraction (XRD), field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS), the Brunauer–Emmett–Teller technique (BET), photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy and UV–vis diffuse–reflectance spectrum (DRS). The band gap energy of N-doped ZnWO4 was about 2.99 eV and the absorption wavelength shifted to the visible region in comparison to pure ZnWO4. Also, N-doped catalyst shows enhanced photocatalytic activity for the degradation of methylene blue (MB). The apparent photodegradation rate constant (k) of N-doped ZnWO4 was observed 3.57 × 10−2 min−1 under visible light irradiation.


ZnWO4 Nitrogen doping Photocatalyst Methylene blue 



Support of this work by Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Iran (Grant No. 1397) is gratefully acknowledged.


  1. 1.
    M. Daous, V. Iliev, L. Petrov, J. Mol. Catal. A Chem. 392, 194 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    G. Sanzone, M. Zimbone, G. Cacciato, F. Ruffino, R. Carles, V. Privitera, M. Grimaldi, Superlattices Microstruct. 123, 394 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Q.-Y. Lin, Q. Lin, Y.-Q. Zhang, H.-X. Lin, T.-H. Zhou, S.-B. Ning, X.-X. Wang, Res. Chem. Intermed. 43, 5067 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    M.A. Subhan, P.C. Saha, P. Sarker, M. Al-Mamun, Res. Chem. Intermed. 44, 6311 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    L. Wei, H. Zhang, J. Cao, Mater. Lett. 236, 171 (2019)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    H. She, H. Zhou, L. Li, L. Wang, J. Huang, Q. Wang, ACS Sustain. Chem. Eng. 6, 11939 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Y.-M. Pan, W. Zhang, Z.-F. Hu, Z.-Y. Feng, L. Ma, D.-P. Xiong, P.-J. Hu, Y.-H. Wang, H.-Y. Wu, L. Luo, J. Lumin. 206, 267 (2019)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    D.P. Dutta, P. Raval, J. Photochem. Photobiol. A 357, 193 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Z. Liu, J. Tian, D. Zeng, C. Yu, L. Zhu, W. Huang, K. Yang, D. Li, Mater. Res. Bull. 94, 298 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    A. Phuruangrat, P. Dumrongrojthanath, S. Thongtem, T. Thongtem, Mater. Lett. 166, 183 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    X.C. Song, Y.F. Zheng, E. Yang, G. Liu, Y. Zhang, H.F. Chen, Y.Y. Zhang, J. Hazard. Mater. 179, 1122 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    J. Arin, P. Dumrongrojthanath, O. Yayapao, A. Phuruangrat, S. Thongtem, T. Thongtem, Superlattices Microstruct. 67, 197 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Q. Wang, Y. Shi, T. Niu, J. He, H. She, B. Su, J. Sol–Gel. Sci. Technol. 83, 555 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Q. Wang, Y. Shi, Y. Sun, H. She, J. Yu, Y. Yang, New J. Chem. 41, 1028 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    P. Huo, Y. Tang, M. Zhou, J. Li, Z. Ye, C. Ma, L. Yu, Y. Yan, J. Ind. Eng. Chem. 37, 340 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Y. Wu, J. Tie, C. Chen, N. Luo, D. Yang, W. Hu, X. Liu, Ceram. Int. 45, 13656 (2019)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    X. Jiang, X. Zhao, L. Duan, H. Shen, H. Liu, T. Hou, F. Wang, Ceram. Int. 42, 15160 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    L. Sun, X. Zhao, X. Cheng, H. Sun, Y. Li, P. Li, W. Fan, J. Phys. Chem. C 115, 15516 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    G. Huang, Y. Zhu, CrystEngComm 14, 8076 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    G.-T. Xiong, W. Zhang, Z.-F. Hu, P.-J. Hu, Y.-M. Pan, Z.-Y. Feng, L. Ma, Y.-H. Wang, L. Luo, J. Lumin. 206, 370 (2019)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    U. Alam, A. Khan, D. Bahnemann, M. Muneer, J. Environ. Chem. Eng. 6, 4885 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    M.I. Litter, Appl. Catal. B 23, 89 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    D. Dvoranova, V. Brezova, M. Mazúr, M.A. Malati, Appl. Catal. B 37, 91 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    R. Asahi, T. Morikawa, T. Ohwaki, K. Aoki, Y. Taga, Science 293, 269 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    S.U. Khan, M. Al-Shahry, W.B. Ingler, Science 297, 2243 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    T. Morikawa, R. Asahi, T. Ohwaki, K. Aoki, Y. Taga, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, L561 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    M. Rahmani, T. Sedaghat, J. Inorg. Organomet. Polym. 29, 220 (2019)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    R. Dai, Z. Wang, Z. Zhang, Z. Ding, Surf. Interface Anal. 46, 1151 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    S.-M. Lam, J.-C. Sin, A.Z. Abdullah, A.R. Mohamed, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 450, 34 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    S. Ebraheem, A. El-Saied, Mater. Sci. Appl. 4, 324 (2013)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    H. Fu, J. Lin, L. Zhang, Y. Zhu, Appl. Catal. A 306, 58 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    D. Zhang, J. Gong, J. Ma, G. Han, Z. Tong, Dalton Trans. 42, 16556 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    A.B. Patil, K.R. Patil, S.K. Pardeshi, J. Hazard. Mater. 183, 315 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    L.-C. Chen, Y.-J. Tu, Y.-S. Wang, R.-S. Kan, C.-M. Huang, J. Photochem. Photobiol. A 199, 170 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    M. Batzill, E.H. Morales, U. Diebold, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 026103 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    J. Huang, L. Gao, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 89, 3877 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    M. Hojamberdiev, G. Zhu, Y. Xu, Mater. Res. Bull. 45, 1934 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    C. Zhang, H. Zhang, K. Zhang, X. Li, Q. Leng, C. Hu, A.C.S. Appl, Mater. Interfaces 6, 14423 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    J. Tang, Z. Zou, J. Yin, J. Ye, Chem. Phys. Lett. 382, 175 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    A. Houas, H. Lachheb, M. Ksibi, E. Elaloui, C. Guillard, J.-M. Herrmann, Appl. Catal. B 31, 145 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Chemistry, Faculty of ScienceShahid Chamran University of AhvazAhvazIran

Personalised recommendations