Research on Chemical Intermediates

, Volume 45, Issue 6, pp 3301–3310 | Cite as

Preparation of a dual-functionalized fumed silica nanoparticle catalysis for synthesis of azaluorenone derivatives

  • Maedeh Bagheri
  • Parisa GholamzadehEmail author
  • Ghodsi Mohammadi Ziarani
  • Alireza Badiei


A dual-functional silica-based catalyst was prepared by treating fumed silica with amino-containing silane then 1,4-butane sultone. The presence of functional groups on the surface of the prepared amino sulfonic acid fumed silica (FSi–PrNH–Bu–SO3H) was confirmed by Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) elemental analysis showed the presence of S, N, C, O, and Si on the surface of the catalyst. The size of the agglomerated particles was observed to lie in the range of 30–50 nm by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Finally, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) revealed that the amount of organic compounds grafted on the surface of FSi–PrNH2 and FSi–PrNH–BuSO3H was 2.59 and 1.12 mmol/g, respectively. After well characterizing the FSi–PrNH–BuSO3H, it was used to catalyze the reaction of 1,3-indandione, isatin, ethyl acetoacetate, and ammonium acetate for synthesis of azafluorenone derivatives.

Graphical abstract


Fumed silica Sultone Azafluorenone Nanoparticle Indandione Multicomponent 



We gratefully acknowledge the financial support from the Research Council of Alzahra University and the University of Tehran.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

There are no conflicts of interest to declare.

Supplementary material

11164_2019_3740_MOESM1_ESM.docx (490 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 489 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of ChemistryAlzahra UniversityTehranIran
  2. 2.School of Chemistry, College of ScienceUniversity of TehranTehranIran

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