Modulated large-pore mesoporous silica as an efficient base catalyst for the Henry reaction
In this study, mesoporous silica materials with tuned pores and surface areas were successfully synthesized by adjusting the amount of applied hexane and controlling the hydrothermal temperature. The synthesized silica materials were then functionalized by an amine group to produce solid base catalysts and be applicable as efficient heterogeneous base catalysts for the Henry reaction. The mesoporous silica catalysts possessing large-pores and surface area expose their active catalytic sites and thereby improve contacts with reactants fulfilling the reactions expeditiously in comparison with solid base catalysts possessing small-pores and surface area. The results indicated that the yield of the products is significantly dependent on the structure of the applied solid base catalysts. The modulated large-pore solid base catalysts presented high catalytic activity in Henry reactions and could be reused for five consecutive cycles.
KeywordsBase catalyst Henry reaction Heterogeneous catalyst Mesoporous materials Nitroaldol condensation Silica
The financial support of Iran’s National Elites Foundation, Iran University of Science and Technology and Malayer University are appreciated.
- 2.S.M. Rafiaei, A. Kim, M. Shokouhimehr, Nanosci. Nanotechnol. Lett. 12, 244 (2016)Google Scholar
- 4.S.D. Huang, S. Basu, A.K. Khitrin, M. Shokouhimehr, E.S. Soehnlen, Materials and methods for MRI contrast agents and drug delivery, US Patent 8580230 (2013)Google Scholar
- 9.M. Shokouhimehr, Prussian Blue Nanoparticles and Its Analogues as New-Generation T1-Weighted MRI Contrast Agents for Cellular Imaging (Kent State University, Kent, 2010)Google Scholar
- 20.J.R.H. Ross, Heterogeneous Catalysis: Fundamentals and Applications (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2011)Google Scholar
- 21.Y. Toshiyuki, K. Yoshihiro, T. Takashi, Appl. Catal. A Gen. 421, 14 (2012)Google Scholar
- 26.J.M. Thomas, W.J. Thomas, Principles and Practice of Heterogeneous Catalysis (Wiley, Weinhein, 1996)Google Scholar
- 27.M. Shokouhimehr, Heterogeneous Heck Reaction Catalyzed by Polymer-Supported N-Heterocyclic Carbene Palladium Complex (Seoul National University, Seoul, 2006)Google Scholar
- 34.L.C.R. Henry, Acad. Sci. Ser. C. 1, 1265 (1895)Google Scholar
- 35.J. Hagen, Industrial Catalysis: A Practical Approach (Wiley, Weinhein, 2006)Google Scholar
- 37.J.M. Thomas, W.J. Thomas, Principles and Practice of Heterogeneous Catalysis (Wiley, Weinhein, 1996)Google Scholar