Facile synthesis of Pd-decorated ZnO nanoparticles for acetone sensors with enhanced performance
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ZnO and Pd nanoparticles (NPs) with average diameter of 38 and 10 nm were prepared in advance through a chemical solution method. Pd-functionalized ZnO nanoparticles (Pd@ZnO) were simply synthesized by adding ethanol solution of Pd NPs into ZnO powder, and annealing in argon atmosphere at 500 °C for 1 h after grinding for 30 min. The morphology and structure of the materials were systemically analyzed using Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET), X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. A weak peak in the XRD pattern of Pd@ZnO belonging to the (111) plane of elemental Pd indicated successfully loading of Pd. EDS and TEM results further confirmed successfully coating of Pd NPs onto the surface of ZnO. Sensors using ZnO NPs decorated with Pd (1 wt%) on the surface of exhibited highly elevated sensitivity of 76 in comparing with the response of 36 when based on pure ZnO NPs. In addition, such modification also resulted in a decrease in the operating temperature from 370 to 340 °C for 100 ppm acetone vapor. The sensing mechanism of the sensor based on Pd@ZnO NPs is discussed. Addition of Pd NPs can play an important role in improving the performance of gas sensors, including high sensitivity, good selectivity, and short response/recovery times.
KeywordsZinc oxide Pd nanoparticles Sensors Acetone
The authors are grateful for the financial support from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC 21301158), Outstanding Young Scholars Program of Henan Province (164100510011), Back bone Teacher Project (2014GGJS-081 and 2012XGGJS04), and Graduate’s Scientific Research Foundation of Zhengzhou University of Light Industry.
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