Cyclodextrin nanosponges: a potential catalyst and catalyst support for synthesis of xanthenes


The nanoporous framework of a cyclodextrin nanosponge was used as catalyst for accelerating the one-pot, three-component reaction of dimedone, aldehyde, and phenols for synthesis of xanthene derivatives. Moreover, the nanocavities of cyclodextrin nanosponges were exploited for immobilization of heteropolyacids through the wet impregnation method. This catalyst exhibited superior catalytic performance compared to the bare cyclodextrin nanosponge. Despite the good catalytic activity, the leaching of the catalytic species did not allow efficient recovery and reusability. To circumvent this problem, the cyclodextrin nanosponge was amine-functionalized prior to heteropolyacid immobilization. The results proved that the amine functionalities had an effective role in preserving the catalytic species and improving the reusability through decreasing the leaching time. This catalyst was used for synthesis of a variety of xanthenes in aqueous media. The catalytic amount of catalyst afforded the desired product in excellent yields and with a relatively short reaction time. The results suggested cyclodextrin nanosponge-based catalysts as potential candidates for promoting chemical reactions.

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The authors appreciate partial financial support from Iran Polymer and Petrochemical Institute and Alzahra University. MMH is also thankful to INSF for financial support given under cover of given individual grant.

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Correspondence to Samahe Sadjadi or Majid M. Heravi.

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Sadjadi, S., Heravi, M.M. & Daraie, M. Cyclodextrin nanosponges: a potential catalyst and catalyst support for synthesis of xanthenes. Res Chem Intermed 43, 843–857 (2017).

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  • Heteropolyacids
  • Cyclodextrin nanosponge
  • Heterogeneous catalyst
  • Xanthenes