Research on Chemical Intermediates

, Volume 44, Issue 5, pp 2951–2963 | Cite as

Activation of hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) by TiO2 nanoparticles for protection of alcohols and phenols: the effect of the catalyst phase on catalytic activity

  • Alireza Azad
  • Mohammad G. DekaminEmail author
  • Shahrara Afshar
  • Azadeh Tadjarodi
  • Afsaneh Mollahosseini


Anatase TiO2 nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) were synthesized by the sol–gel method using titanium tetra-isopropoxide (TTIP), isopropyl alcohol, and distilled water and then calcined at 400 °C for 3 h. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy methods, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were used for characterization of the obtained TiO2 NPs. The obtained anatase TiO2 NPs were used as heterogeneous catalyst for trimethylsilation of various alcohols or phenols with hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) in CH3CN at room temperature. High to quantitative yields of the products were obtained within short reaction times at room temperature using a very low loading of pure TiO2 NPs without any post-modification with Bronsted or Lewis acid species such as ClSO3H or HClO4. The catalyst can be recycled at least three times without significant loss of its activity. The results of this study provide evidence that the pure anatase phase of TiO2 exhibits higher catalytic activity in terms of catalyst loading and required reaction time compared to a mixture of anatase and rutile phases found in the commercial samples for trimethylsilation of various alcohols or phenols with HMDS.


Anatase TiO2 Nano-catalyst Sol–gel Protection of alcohols Trimethylsilyl ethers Hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) 



We are grateful for the financial support from The Research Council of Iran University of Science and Technology (IUST), Tehran, Iran (Grant No. 160/771).

Supplementary material

11164_2016_2519_MOESM1_ESM.docx (335 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 334 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alireza Azad
    • 1
  • Mohammad G. Dekamin
    • 1
    Email author
  • Shahrara Afshar
    • 1
  • Azadeh Tadjarodi
    • 1
  • Afsaneh Mollahosseini
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of ChemistryIran University of Science and TechnologyTehranIran

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