A notice on newly synthesized silica-induced boron trisulfonic acid catalyst towards biodiesel synthesis from refined soybean oil


In the present investigation, silica-based boron trisulfonic acid was successfully synthesized via chlorosulfonation of boric acid at ambient conditions. Also, work was investigated to synthesize biodiesel fuel via transesterification of soybean oil over silica boron trisulfonic acid, as an efficient, recoverable, and recyclable solid-acid catalyst. The highest biodiesel yield observed was 94.53 %. Synthesized catalyst was fittingly characterized by FT-IR, NH3-TPD, BET, XRD, and SEM analysis, whereas synthesized biodiesel fuel was duly characterized by FT-IR, 1H NMR, and 13C NMR spectroscopic techniques.

Graphical Abstract

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5


  1. 1.

    A. Nezihe, D. Aysegul, Fuel 86, 2639 (2007)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    D.V. Manh, Y.H. Chen, C.C. Chang, M.C. Chang, C.Y. Chang, J. Taiwan Inst. Chem. Eng. 42, 640 (2011)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    S.B. Lee, J.D. Lee, I.K. Hong, J. Ind. Eng. Chem. 17, 138 (2011)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    A.P. Vyas, J.L. Verma, N. Subrahmanyam, Fuel 89, 1 (2010)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    A.A. Apostolakou, I.K. Kookos, C. Marazioti, K.C. Angelopoulos, Fuel Process. Technol. 90, 1023 (2009)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    T.H. Chang, H.M. Su, Energy 35, 2807 (2010)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Biodiesel Magazine, in 2009 Biodiesel Industry Directory. 5th edn. (BBI International, Grand Forks, ND, 2008)

  8. 8.

    M.A. Olutoye, B.H. Hameed, Bioresour. Technol. 102, 6392 (2011)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    L. Gao, G. Teng, G. Xiao, R. Wei, Biomass Bioenergy 34, 1283 (2010)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    K.E. Abebe, K. Yohannes, Z. Rolando, Energy 36, 2693 (2011)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    L. Wen, Y. Wang, D. Lu, S. Hu, H. Han, Fuel 89, 2267 (2010)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    M.J. Ramos, A. Casas, L. Rodriguez, R. Romero, A. Perez, Appl. Catal. A Gen. 346, 79 (2008)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    C.V. McNeff, L.C. McNeff, B. Yan, D.T. Nowlan, M. Rasmussen, A.E. Gyberg, B.J. Krohn, R.L. Fedie, T.R. Hoye, Appl. Catal. A Gen. 343, 39 (2008)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    P. Scherrer, Nachr. Ges. Wiss. Gottingen. 26, 98 (1918)

    Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    M.L. Savaliya, B.Z. Dholakiya, Catal. Lett. 144, 1339 (2014)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    B.Z. Dholakiya, Arch. Appl. Sci. Res. 4, 551 (2012)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    M.J. Nye, T.W. Williamson, S. Deshpande, J.H. Schrader, W.H. Snively, T.P. Yurkewich, J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 60, 1598 (1983)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    U.S. Nestor Jr, R. Venditti, D.S. Argyropoulos, Fuel 88, 560 (2009)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    R. Guzatto, T.L.D. Martini, D. Samios, Fuel Process. Technol. 92, 2083 (2011)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Q. Shu, B. Yang, H. Yuan, S. Qing, G. Zhu, Catal. Commun. 8, 2159 (2007)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    M.L. Savaliya, B.Z. Dholakiya, Res. Chem. Intermed. (2014). doi:10.1007/s11164-014-1548

    Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    H. Yanqin, Soybean Sci. 30, 488 (2011)

    Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    M. Canakci, J. Van Gerpen, Am. Soc. Agric. Eng. 42, 4205 (1999)

    Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    C.M. Garcia, S. Teixeira, L.L. Marciniuk, U. Schuchardt, Bioresour. Technol. 99, 6608 (2008)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Y.M. Park, J.Y. Lee, S.H. Chung, I.S. Park, S.Y. Lee, D.K. Kim, Bioresour. Technol. 101, 59 (2010)

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references


This work was financially supported by the Technical Education Quality Improvement Programme (TEQIP), Phase-II, S. V. National institute of Technology, Surat and Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), New Delhi, India (Sanction Order Letter No. 02(0170)/13/EMR-II). For texture analysis of catalysts, we are very much thankful to the Department of Mechanical Engineering, S. V. National Institute of Technology, Surat, Gujarat, India.

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to Bharatkumar Z. Dholakiya.

Electronic supplementary material

Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.

Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 514 kb)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Savaliya, M.L., Dholakiya, B.Z. A notice on newly synthesized silica-induced boron trisulfonic acid catalyst towards biodiesel synthesis from refined soybean oil. Res Chem Intermed 41, 8199–8210 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11164-014-1885-1

Download citation


  • Boric acid
  • Crude glycerol
  • Green fuel
  • Refined soybean oil
  • Esterification
  • Saponification