Optimizing Intent to Transfer: Engagement and Community College English Learners

Abstract

Researchers have long struggled to accurately identify the needs of English learner (EL) students and the factors that facilitate their postsecondary success. Although prior research suggests that EL students disproportionately select into community colleges, there is a dearth research that examines transfer to four-year schools among community college English learner (CCEL) students. In this study, we examined whether and to what extent community college students’ linguistic status shapes the relationship between engagement and intent to transfer to a four-year institution. Using data from the Community College Survey of Student Engagement, we used logistic regression to examine how, if at all, the relationships between the multiple forms of student engagement and intent to transfer might differ by linguistic status, net of various student and school-level controls. Ultimately, our findings suggest that students’ returns to engagement do differ by linguistic status, with CCEL students experiencing the greatest gains relative to their intent to transfer. Not only are CCEL students are more likely to engage in academic discourse, internalize teachers’ pedagogical offerings, and recognize institutional supports than their non-CCEL peers, but they appear to derive greater benefits from both academic engagement and instruction in the use critical thinking skills than their non-CCEL peers. We conclude with recommendations for educators, policymakers, and researchers seeking to improve CCEL students’ educational attainment and engagement.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1

Notes

  1. 1.

    One consequence of the federal requirements regarding K-12 EL identification is that this status carries legal requirements for the K-12 school system; in contrast, higher education has neither a shared definition, nor standardized identification processes (Núñez et al. 2016).

  2. 2.

    Some prior US-based research has used the term language minority to refer to individuals who speak a first or home language in addition to English, while other research uses the term bilingual; for the sake of simplicity, we use the term bilingual throughout our review and our work.

  3. 3.

    Ordinal Response Scales: Frequency: 1 = never, 2 = sometimes, 3 = often, 4 = very often. Extent: 1 = very little, 2 = some, 3 = quite a bit, 4 = very much.

  4. 4.

    More than half of CCEL students (62.2%) as well as non-CCELs (53.3%) reported transfer as their primary goal. Similarly, 23.7% of CCELs and 22.0% of non-CCELs reported transfer as their secondary goal.

  5. 5.

    Specifically, CCSSE items ask whether students have completed, are enrolled in, or plan to complete each of these courses. For our research purposes, we selected on respondents who reported having completed the course(s).

  6. 6.

    For the sake of brevity, in Table 1 we display indicators of first-generation college student status (capturing parental educational attainment) and prior postsecondary experience as dichotomous measures; full models in Tables 2 and 3 include broader categorical variables.

  7. 7.

    Although we use the term Latinx in the review of the literature in accordance with current empirical norms, here we report on students’ racial identification using CCSSE survey terminology, with the understanding that the terms are used interchangeably.

References

  1. Aguirre-Muñoz, Z., & Pantoya, M. L. (2016). Engineering literacy and engagement in kindergarten classrooms. Journal of Engineering Education, 105(4), 630–654. https://doi.org/10.1002/jee.20151.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Almon, C. (2014). College persistence and engagement in light of a mature English language learner (ELL) student’s voice. Community College Journal of Research and Practice, 39(5), 461–472.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Astin, A. (1993a). How are students affected? Change, 25(2), 44–50.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Astin, A. (1993b). What matters in college? Liberal Education, 79(4), 4–17.

    Google Scholar 

  5. Autor, D. H., Katz, L. F., & Kearney, M. S. (2008). Trends in US wage inequality: Revising the revisionists. The Review of Economics and Statistics, 90(2), 300–323.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Bahr, P. R. (2008). Cooling out in the community college: What is the effect of academic advising on students’ chances of success? Research in Higher Education, 49, 704–732. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11162-008-9100-0.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Bailey, T. R., Jenkins, D., & Leinbach, D. T. (2005). What we know about community college low-income and minority student outcomes. New York, NY: Community College Research Center, Columbia University.

    Google Scholar 

  8. Barnett, E. A. (2011). Validation experiences and persistence among community college students. The Review of Higher Education, 34(2), 193–230.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Baum, S., Little, K., & Payea, K. (2011). Trends in community college education: Enrollment, prices, student aid, and debt levels. Washington, DC: The College Board.

    Google Scholar 

  10. Bensimon, E. M., Dowd, A. C., Stanton-Salazar, R., & Davila, B. A. (2009). The role of institutional agents in providing institutional support to Latinx students in STEM. The Review of Higher Education, 42(4), 1689–1721.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Bifuh-Ambe, E. (2011). Postsecondary learning: Recognizing the needs of English language learners in mainstream university classrooms. Multicultural Education, 19(3), 13–19.

    Google Scholar 

  12. Bragg, D. D., Kim, E., & Barnett, E. A. (2006). Creating access and success: Academic pathways reaching underserved students. New Directions for Community Colleges, 135, 5–19. https://doi.org/10.1002/cc.243.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Braxton, J. M., Hirschy, A. S., & McClendon, S. A. (2004). Understanding and reducing college student departure: ASHE-ERIC higher education report, (Vol. 30(3)). Jossey-Bass.

  14. Brooks-Terry, M. (1988). Tracing the disadvantages of first-generation college students: An application of Sussman’s option sequence model. In S. K. Steinmetz (Ed.), Family and support systems across the life span (pp. 121–134). Boston, MA: Springer.

    Google Scholar 

  15. Bunch, G. C., Endris, A., Panayotova, D., Romero, M., & Llosa, L. (2011). Mapping the terrain: Language testing and placement for US-educated language minority students in California’s community colleges. Menlo Park, CA: William and Flora Hewlett Foundation.

    Google Scholar 

  16. Bunch, G. C., & Kibler, A. K. (2015). Integrating language, literacy, and academic development: Alternatives to traditional English as a second language and remedial English for language minority students in community colleges. Community College Journal of Research and Practice, 39(1), 20–33.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Cabrera, A. F., Alberto, F., Nora, A., Ternezini, P. T., Pascarella, E. T., & Serra, H. L. (1999). Campus racial climate and the adjustment of students to college: A comparison between White students and African-American students. The Journal of Higher Education, 70(2), 134–160.

    Google Scholar 

  18. Calderon, M. E., & Slakk, S. (2018). Teaching reading to English learners, grades 6–12: A framework for improving achievement in the content areas. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.

    Google Scholar 

  19. Callahan, R., Hartman, C., & Yu, H. (2021). Heterogeneity among community college English learners: Who are our ELs in FYC and how do they compare? In M. Siegal & B. Gilliland (Eds.), Empowering the community college first-year composition teacher: Pedagogies and policies (pp. 157–181). University of Michigan Press.

  20. Callahan, R. M., & Humphries, M. (2016). Undermatched? School-based linguistic status, college-going, and the immigrant advantage. American Educational Research Journal, 53(2), 263–295. https://doi.org/10.3102/0002831215627857.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Callahan, R. M., & Shifrer, D. (2016). Equitable access for secondary English learner students: Course taking as evidence of EL program effectiveness. Educational Administration Quarterly, 52(3), 463–496. https://doi.org/10.1177/0013161X16648190.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Chrispeels, J. H., & Rivero, E. (2001). Engaging Latino families for student success: How parent education can reshape parents’ sense of place in the education of their children. Peabody Journal of Education, 76(1), 119–169.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Community College Survey of Student Engagement (CCSSE). (2020a). About the community college survey of student engagement. Retrieved October 19, 2020, from http://www.ccsse.org/aboutccsse/aboutccsse.cfm

  24. Community College Survey of Student Engagement (CCSSE). (2020b). About the CCSSE survey. Retrieved October 19, 2020, from http://www.ccsse.org/aboutsurvey/aboutsurvey.cfm

  25. Community College Survey of Student Engagement (CCSSE). (2020c). Sampling and administration. Retrieved October 19, 2020, from http://www.ccsse.org/aboutsurvey/sampling.cfm

  26. Community College Survey of Student Engagement (CCSSE). (2020d). Understanding survey results. Retrieved October 19, 2020, from https://www.ccsse.org/survey/reports/2014/understanding.cfm

  27. Cejda, B. D., & Hoover, R. E. (2010). Strategies for faculty-student engagement: How community college faculty engage Latino students. Community College Review, 29(1), 35–57.

    Google Scholar 

  28. Cejda, B. D., & Kaylor, A. J. (2001). Early transfer: A case study of traditional-aged community college students. Community College Journal of Research and Practice, 25, 621–638.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. Center for Community College Student Engagement (CCCSE). (2017). Even one semester: Full-time enrollment and student success. Austin, TX: The University of Texas at Austin.

    Google Scholar 

  30. Chan, H.-Y., & Wang, X. (2020). Reconciling intent with action: Factors associated with the alignment between transfer intent and coursework completion patterns among two-year college students in STEM. The Journal of Higher Education. https://doi.org/10.1080/00221546.2020.1740533.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  31. Chang, M. J., Denson, N., Sáenz, V., & Misa, K. (2006). The educational benefits of sustaining cross-racial interaction among undergraduates. The Journal of Higher Education, 77(3), 430–455.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  32. Charity Hudley, A. H., & Mallinson, C. (2011). Understanding English language variation in U.S. schools. New York, NY: Teachers College Press.

    Google Scholar 

  33. Choi, Y. (2013). Teaching social studies for newcomer English language learners: Toward culturally relevant pedagogy. Multicultural Perspectives, 15(1), 12–18.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  34. Cohen, A. M., Brawer, F. B., & Kisker, C. B. (2013). The American community college (6th ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

    Google Scholar 

  35. Conway, K. M. (2010). Educational aspirations in an urban community college: Differences between immigrant and native student groups. Community College Review, 37(3), 209–242.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  36. Crisp, G., & Nora, A. (2010). Hispanic student success: Factors influencing the persistence and transfer decisions of Latino community college students enrolled in developmental Education. Research in Higher Education, 51, 175–194.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  37. Dougherty, K. J., & Kienzl, G. S. (2006). It’s not enough to get through the open door: Inequalities by social background in transfer form community colleges to four-year colleges. Teachers College Record, 108(3), 452–487.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  38. Dunstan, S. B., & Jaeger, A. J. (2015). Dialect and influences on the academic experiences of college students. The Journal of Higher Education, 86(5), 777–803. https://doi.org/10.1353/jhe.2015.0026.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  39. Eddy, P. L., Christie, R., & Rao, M. (2006). Factors affecting transfer of “traditional” community college students. The Community College Enterprise, 12(1), 73–92.

    Google Scholar 

  40. Erisman, W., & Looney, S. (2007). Opening the door to the American dream: Increasing higher education access and success for immigrants. Washington, DC: Institute for Higher Education Policy.

    Google Scholar 

  41. Every Child Succeeds Act (ESSA) of 2015, Public Law No. 114-95, S.1177, 114th Cong. (2015). Retrieved October 19, 2020, from https://www.congress.gov/bill/114th-congress/senate-bill/1177/text

  42. Facione, N. C., Facione, P. A., & Sanchez, C. A. (1994). Critical thinking disposition as a measure of competent clinical judgment: The development of the California critical thinking disposition inventory. Journal of Nursing Education, 33(8), 345–350.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  43. Fong, C. J., Kim, Y., Davis, C. W., Hoang, T., & Kim, Y. W. (2017). A meta-analysis on critical thinking and community college student achievement. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 26, 71–83.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  44. Ganga, E., Mazzariello, A., & Edgecombe, N. (2018). Developmental education: An introduction for policymakers. Denver, CO: Education Commission of the States.

    Google Scholar 

  45. Gay, G. (2010). Culturally responsive teaching (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Teachers College Press.

    Google Scholar 

  46. Ginsberg, M. B., & Wlodkowski, R. J. (2009). Diversity and motivation: Culturally responsive teaching in college. Hoboken: Wiley.

    Google Scholar 

  47. Goldrick-Rab, S. (2010). Challenges and opportunities for improving community college student success. Review of Educational Research, 80(3), 437–469. https://doi.org/10.3102/0034654310370163.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  48. Gonzales, R. G. (2009). Young lives on hold: The college dream of undocumented students. Washington, DC: The College Board.

    Google Scholar 

  49. Gray, M. J., Rolph, E., & Melamid, E. (1996). Immigration and higher education: Institutional responses to changing demographics. Santa Monica, CA: RAND.

    Google Scholar 

  50. Greene, T. G., Marti, C. M., & McClenney, K. (2008). The effort-outcome gap: Differences for African American and Hispanic community college students in student engagement and academic achievement. The Journal of Higher Education, 79(5), 513–539.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  51. Harklau, L. (2000). From the “good kids” to the “worst”: Representations of English language learners across educational settings. TESOL Quarterly, 34(1), 35–67.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  52. Harklau, L. (2013). Why Izzie didn’t go to college: Choosing work over college as Latina feminism. Teachers College Record, 115(1), 1–32.

    Google Scholar 

  53. Harklau, L., Losey, K. M., & Siegal, M. (1999). Generation 1.5 meets college composition: Issues in the teaching of writing to U.S.-educated learners of ESL. New York, NY: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  54. Hartman, C. E. (2019). Understanding student engagement and intentions to transfer among community college English learners [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. The University of Texas at Austin.

  55. Hodara, M. (2015). The effects of English as a second language courses on language minority community college students. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 37(2), 243–270. https://doi.org/10.3102/0162373714540321.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  56. Holmes, M., Fanning, C., Morales, A., Espinosa, P., & Herrera, S. (2012). Contextualizing the path to academic success: Culturally and linguistically diverse students gaining voice and agency in higher education. In Y. Kanno & L. Harklau (Eds.), Linguistic minority students go to college: Preparation, access, and persistence (pp. 201–219). New York, NY: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  57. Horn, L., & Skomsvold, P. (2011). Web tables: Community college student outcomes: 1994–2009 (NCES 2012–253). Washington, DC: US Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Statistics.

    Google Scholar 

  58. Hurtado, S., Carter, D. F., & Spuler, A. (1996). Latino student transition to college: Assessing difficulties and factors in successful college adjustment. Research in Higher Education, 37(2), 135–157.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  59. Hurtado, S., Han, J. C., Sáenz, V. B., Espinosa, L. L., Cabrera, N. L., & Cerna, O. S. (2007). Predicting transition and adjustment to college: Biomedical and behavioral science aspirants and minority students’ first year of college. Research in Higher Education, 48(7), 841–887.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  60. Jabbar, H., Serrata, C., Epstein, E., & Sánchez, J. (2019). “Échale ganas”: Family support of Latino/a community college students’ transfer to four-year universities. Journal of Latinos and Education, 18(3), 258–276.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  61. Jenkins, D., Brown, A. E., Fink, J., Lahr, H., & Yanagiura, T. (2018). Building guided pathways to community college student success: Promising practices and early evidence from Tennessee. New York, NY: Community College Research Center.

    Google Scholar 

  62. Jenkins, D., & Fink, J. (2016). Tacking transfer: New measures of institutional and state effectiveness in helping community college students attain bachelor’s degrees. New York, NY: Community College Research Center.

    Google Scholar 

  63. Johnson, A. (2019). The effects of English learner classification on high school graduation and college attendance. AERA Open. https://doi.org/10.1177/2332858419850801.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  64. Kanno, Y. (2018). High-performing English learners’ limited access to four-year college. Teachers College Record, 120(4), 1–46.

    Google Scholar 

  65. Kanno, Y., & Grosik, S. A. (2012). Immigrant English learners’ access to four-year universities. In Y. Kanno & L. Harklau (Eds.), Linguistic minority students go to college: Preparation, access, and persistence (pp. 130–147). New York, NY: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  66. Karp, M. M., Hughes, K. L., & O’Gara, L. (2010). An exploration of Tinto’s integration framework for community college students. Journal of College Student Retention: Research, Theory and Practice, 12(1), 69–86.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  67. Kranstuber, H., Carr, K., & Hosek, A. M. (2011). “If you can dream it, you can achieve it.” Parent memorable messages as indicators of college student success. Communication Education, 61(1), 44–66.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  68. Kuh, G. D., Kinzie, J., Cruce, T. M., Shoup, R., & Gonyea, R. M. (2007b). Connecting the dots: Multi-faceted analyses of the relationships between student engagement results from NSSE, and the institutional practices and conditions that foster student success. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Center for Postsecondary Research.

    Google Scholar 

  69. Kuh, G. D., Vesper, N., & Pace, C. R. (1997). The development of process indicators to estimate student gains associated with good practices in undergraduate education. Research in Higher Education, 38, 435–454.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  70. Kuh, G. D., Kinzie, J., Buckley, J. A., Bridges, B. K., & Hayek, J. C. (2007a). Piecing together the student success puzzle: Research, propositions, and recommendations. ASHE Higher Education Report, 32(5), 1–182.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  71. Ladson-Billings, G. (2014). Culturally relevant pedagogy 2.0: a.k.a. the remix. Harvard Educational Review, 84(1), 74–84.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  72. Lau v. Nichols, 414 U.S. 563, 566-69, 94 S.Ct. 786, 788-90, 39 L.Ed.2d 1 (1974).

  73. Linquanti, R., & Cook, H. G. (2013). Toward a “common definition of English learner": A brief defining policy and technical issues and opportunities for state assessment consortia. Washington, DC: Council of Chief State School Officers.

    Google Scholar 

  74. Lippi-Green, R. (2011). English with an accent: Language, ideology and discrimination in the United States. New York, NY: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  75. López, F. A. (2017). Asset pedagogies in Latino youth identity and achievement: Nurturing confianza. New York: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  76. Foundation, L. (2019). A stronger nation: Learning beyond high school builds American talent. Indianapolis, IN: Lumina Foundation.

    Google Scholar 

  77. Marti, C. N. (2008). Latent postsecondary persistence pathways: Educational pathways in American two-year colleges. Research in Higher Education, 49(4), 317–336.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  78. McClenney, K. M., & Marti, C. M. (2006). Exploring relationships between student engagement and student outcomes in community colleges: Report on validation research. Austin, TX: Center for Community College Student Engagement, Community College Leadership Program.

    Google Scholar 

  79. Mellom, P. J., Straubhaar, R., Balderas, C., Ariail, M., & Portes, P. R. (2018). “They come with nothing:” How professional development in a culturally responsive pedagogy shapes teacher attitudes towards Latino/a English language learners. Teaching and Teacher Education, 71, 98–107.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  80. Murie, R., & Fitzpatrick, R. (2009). Situating generation 1.5 in the academy: Models for building academic literacy and acculturation. In M. Roberge, M. Siegal, & L. Harklau (Eds.), Generation 1.5 in College Composition (pp. 153–170). New York, NY: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  81. Museus, S. D., & Neville, K. M. (2012). Delineating the ways that key institutional agents provide racial minority students with access to social capital in college. Journal of College Student Development, 53(3), 436–452.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  82. Napoli, A. R., & Wortman, P. M. (1998). Psychosocial factors related to retention and early departure of two-year community college students. Research in Higher Education, 39(4), 419–455.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  83. Nielsen, K. (2015). Fake it ‘til you make it”: Why community college students’ aspirations “hold steady. Sociology of Education, 88(4), 265–283.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  84. Nora, A. (2003). Access to higher education for Hispanic students: Real or illusory? In J. Castellanos & L. Jones (Eds.), The majority in the minority: Expanding representation of Latino/a faculty, administration and students in higher education (pp. 47–67). Sterling, VA: Stylus Publishing.

    Google Scholar 

  85. Núñez, A. M., Rios-Aguilar, C., Kanno, Y., & Flores, S. M. (2016). English learners and their transition to postsecondary education. In Higher education: Handbook of theory and research (pp. 41–90). Springer, Cham.

  86. Núñez, A.-M., & Sparks, P. J. (2012). Who are linguistic minority students in higher education? An analysis of the beginning postsecondary students study 2004. In Y. Kanno & L. Harklau (Eds.), Linguistic minority students go to college: Preparation, access, and persistence (pp. 110–129). New York, NY: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  87. Pascarella, E. T., Edison, M., Nora, A., Hagedorn, L., & Terenzini, P. T. (1996). Influences on students’ openness to diversity and challenge in the first year of college. Journal of College Student Development, 67, 174–195.

    Google Scholar 

  88. Pascarella, E. T., & Terenzini, P. T. (2005). How college affects students: A third decade of research. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

    Google Scholar 

  89. Perna, L. W. (2006). Studying college access and choice: A proposed conceptual model. In J. C. Smart (Ed.), Higher education: Handbook of theory and research (Vol. 21, pp. 99–157). Dordrecht: Springer.

    Google Scholar 

  90. Raufman, J., Brathwaite, J., & Santikian Kalamkarian, H. (2019). English learners and ESL programs in the community college: A review of the literature. New York, NY: Community College Research Center, Teachers College, Columbia University.

    Google Scholar 

  91. Reynolds, D. W., Bae, K.-W., & Wilson, J. S. (2009). Individualizing pedagogy: Responding to diverse needs in freshman composition for non-native speakers. In M. Roberge, M. Siegal, & L. Harklau (Eds.), Generation 1.5 in college composition (pp. 185–203). New York, NY: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  92. Roksa, J., & Kinsley, P. (2018). The role of family support in facilitating academic success of low-income students. Research in Higher Education. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11162-018-9517-z.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  93. Rosenbaum, J. E., Deil-Amen, R., & Person, A. E. (2006). After admission: From college access to college success. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation.

    Google Scholar 

  94. Ryan, C. (2013). Language use in the United States: 2011: American community survey reports. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Commerce, Economics and Statistics Administration, U.S. Census Bureau.

    Google Scholar 

  95. Sáenz, V. (2002). Hispanic students and community colleges: A critical point for intervention (ERIC Clearinghouse for Community Colleges No. EDO-JC-02-08). Los Angeles, CA: ERIC Clearinghouse for Community Colleges.

    Google Scholar 

  96. Sáenz, V. B., Hatch, D. K., Bukoski, B. E., Kim, S., Lee, K., & Valdez, P. (2011). Community college student engagement patterns: A typology revealed through exploratory cluster analysis. Community College Review, 39(3), 235–267.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  97. Santibañez, L., & Zarate, M. E. (2014). Bilinguals in the U.S. and college enrollment. In R. M. Callahan & P. C. Gándara (Eds.), The bilingual advantage: Language, literacy, and the U.S. labor market (pp. 211–233). Bristol: Multilingual Matters.

    Google Scholar 

  98. SAS Institute Inc. (2010). SAS/STAT 9.22 user’s guide. Cary, NC: SAS Institute Inc.

    Google Scholar 

  99. Schudde, L. (2019). Short- and long-term impacts of engagement experiences with faculty and peers at community colleges. The Review of Higher Education, 42(2), 385–426. https://doi.org/10.1353/rhe.2019.0001.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  100. Schudde, L., & Brown, R. S. (2019) Understanding variation in estimates of diversionary effects of community college entrance: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Sociology of Education, 92(3), 247–268.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  101. Schudde, L., & Goldrick-Rab, S. (2015). On second chances and stratification: How sociologists think about community colleges. Community College Review, 43(1), 27–45. https://doi.org/10.1177/0091552114553296.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  102. Schudde, L., Jabbar, H., & Hartman, C. (2020). How political and ecological contexts shape community college transfer. Sociology of Education. https://doi.org/10.1177/0038040720954817.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  103. Schwitzer, A. M., Griffin, O. T., Ancis, J. R., & Thomas, C. (1999). Social adjustment experiences of African American college students. Journal of Counseling and Development, 77, 189–197.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  104. Shapiro, D., Dundar, A., Huie, F., Wakhungu, P. K., Bhimdiwali, A., Nathan, A., & Youngsik, H. (2018). Transfer and mobility: A national view of student movement in postsecondary institutions (signature report no. 15). Herndon, VA: National Student Clearinghouse Research Center.

    Google Scholar 

  105. Solórzano, D. G., Rivas, M. A., & Velez, V. N. (2005). Community college as a pathway to Chicana/o doctorate production. Los Angeles, CA: University of California, Los Angeles, Chicano Studies Research Center.

    Google Scholar 

  106. Song, B. (2006). Failure in a college ESL course: Perspectives of instructors and students. Community College Journal of Research and Practice, 30, 417–431.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  107. Swigart, T. E., & Murrell, P. H. (2001). Factors influencing estimates of gains made among African-American and Caucasian community college students. Community College Journal of Research and Practice, 25, 297–312.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  108. Szelenyi, K. (2001). Minority student retention and academic achievement in community colleges. ERIC Digests, ED451859.

  109. Szelenyi, K., & Chang, J. C. (2002). Educating immigrants: The community college role. Community College Review, 30(2), 55–73.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  110. Taylor, J. L., & Jain, D. (2017). The multiple dimensions of transfer: Examining the transfer function in American higher education. Community College Review, 45(4), 273–293.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  111. Thompson, J. (2009). To question or not to question: The effects of two teaching approaches on students’ thinking dispositions, critical thinking skills, and course grades in a critical thinking course. Retrieved from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global. (AAT 3355859)

  112. U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. (2018). Digest of education statistics, table 204.27. Retrieved October 19, 2020, from https://nces.ed.gov/programs/coe/indicator_cgf.asp#info

  113. U.S. Department of Education. (2006). Spellings focuses on English language learners. The Achiever, 5(1), 1–6.

    Google Scholar 

  114. Valero, A., & Van Reenen, J. (2019). The economic impact of universities: Evidence from across the globe. Economics of Education Review, 68, 53–67.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  115. Wang, X. (2009). Baccalaureate attainment and college persistence of community college transfer students at four-year institutions. Research in Higher Education, 50(6), 570–588.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  116. Wang, X., Lee, S., & Prevost, A. (2017). The role of aspirational experiences and behaviors in cultivating momentum for transfer access in STEM: Variations across gender and race. Community College Review, 45(4), 311–330.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  117. Wassmer, R., Moore, C., & Shulock, N. (2004). Effect of racial/ethnic composition on transfer rates in community colleges: Implications for policy and practice. Research in Higher Education, 45(6), 651–672.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  118. Wolf, M. K., Herman, J. L., Bachman, L. F., Bailey, A. L., & Griffin, N. (2008). Recommendations for assessing English language learners: English language proficiency measures and accommodation uses (CRESST Report 737). Los Angeles, CA: National Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards, and Student Testing.

    Google Scholar 

  119. Wolf-Wendel, L., Ward, K., & Kinzie, J. (2009). A tangled web of terms: The overlap and unique contribution of involvement, engagement, and integration to understanding college student success. Journal of College Student Development, 50(4), 407–428.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  120. Wood, J. L., Nevarez, C., & Hilton, A. A. (2012). Determinants of transfer among community college students. Journal of Applied Research in the Community College, 19(2), 64–69.

    Google Scholar 

  121. Wood, J. L., & Palmer, R. T. (2016). Determinants of intent to transfer among Black male community college students: A multinomial, multi-level investigation of student engagement. Teachers College Record, 118(8), 1–28.

    Google Scholar 

  122. Xu, D., Jaggars, S. S., Fletcher, J., & Fink, J. E. (2018). Are community college transfer students “a good bet” for 4-year admissions? Comparing academic and labor-market outcomes between transfer and native 4-year college students. The Journal of Higher Education, 89(4), 478–502.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  123. Yucel, E., Schudde, L., & Jabbar, H. (2019). Navigating transfer in Texas: A network approach to understanding how community college students seek support throughout their transfer journey. Paper presented at the meeting of the Association for the Study of Higher Education, Portland, OR.

  124. Zalaquett, C. P. (1999). Do students of non college-educated parents achieve less academically than students of college-educated parents? Psychological Reports, 85(2), 417–421.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Catherine Hartman.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Appendices

Appendix 1

See Table 4.

Table 4 Engagement items used in exploratory factor analyses (full analytic sample)

Appendix 2

See Table 5.

Table 5 Correlation and relationships between student engagement factors

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Hartman, C., Callahan, R. & Yu, H. Optimizing Intent to Transfer: Engagement and Community College English Learners. Res High Educ (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11162-020-09619-3

Download citation

Keyword

  • Community college transfer
  • English learners
  • Student engagement
  • Student success