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Table 15 Independent variables included in the wage equation

From: Are School-Provided Skills Useful at Work? Results of the Wiles Test

Independent variable Value classes
Job matching
Job match 1—good (the Job Match Index equals 5 or 6);
2—poor (the Job Match Index ranges from 2 to 4);
3*—none (the Job Match Index equals 0 or 1)
Job match 1 (alternative definition) 1—good (the Job Match Index equals 6);
2—poor (the Job Match Index ranges from 1 to 5);
3*—none (the Job Match Index equals 0)
Job match 2 (alternative definition) 1—good (the Job Match Index ranges from 4 to 6);
2—poor (the Job Match Index equals 3);
3*—none (the Job Match Index ranges from 0 to 2)
School provided skills and knowledge
Education 1*—basic vocational; 2—secondary comprehensive; 3—secondary vocational (secondary technical, profiled secondary, post-secondary); 4—tertiary
Grade point average (on the diploma or certificate of the last school or university attended) 1*—low (ranging 2.0–3.5); 2—medium (ranging 3.5–4.5); 3—high (ranging 4.5–6.0)
Process of education
Field of study 1*—teacher education, pedagogy; 2—foreign languages; 3—humanities; 4—art; 5—business administration and marketing; 6—social sciences; 7—economics; 8—law; 9—administration; 10—natural sciences; 11—physical sciences; 12—mathematics, statistics; 13—information technology; 14—engineering and technology; 15—production and processing; 16—architecture and construction; 17—agriculture, forestry, fishery; 18—services; 19—healthcare, social services; 20—military/police; 21—security and safety; 22—general programs; 23—other; 24—unknown
Ownership status of the last school or university attended 1*—public; 2—non-public; 3—unknown
Schooling mode 1*—full time; 2—evening/part time; 3—unknown
Extracurricular activities: language classes 1—participation in extracurricular organized foreign language classes at the last stage of schooling; 2*—no participation
Extracurricular activities: information technology classes 1—participation in extracurricular organized information technology classes at the last stage of schooling; 2*—no participation
Extracurricular activities: sports and tourism 1—participation in extracurricular organized sports or tourist activities at the last stage of schooling; 2*—no participation
Extracurricular activities: artistic activities 1—participation in extracurricular organized artistic activities at the last stage of schooling; 2*—no participation
Extracurricular activities: technical activities 1—participation in extracurricular organized technical classes at the last stage of schooling; 2*—no participation
Extracurricular activities: scouting 1—participation in scout meetings at the last stage of schooling; 2*—no participation
Internship: paid 1—yes; 2*—no
Internship: voluntary 1—yes; 2*—no
Other characteristics of the respondent and local labor market
Gender 1*—woman; 2—man
Age when graduated continuous variable
Father’s education 1*—primary or less; 2—basic vocational; 3—secondary (comprehensive, vocational, post-secondary); 4—tertiary; 5—unknown
Mother’s education 1*—primary or less; 2—basic vocational; 3—secondary (comprehensive, vocational, post-secondary); 4—tertiary; 5—unknown
Place of residence 1*—rural; 2—town ≤ 100,000 inhabitants; 3—town > 100,000 inhabitants
Region (voivodship) 1*—Dolnośląskie; 2—Kujawsko-Pomorskie; 3—Lubelskie; 4—Lubuskie; 5—Łódzkie; 6—Małopolskie; 7—Mazowieckie; 8—Opolskie; 9—Podkarpackie; 10—Podlaskie; 11—Pomorskie; 12—Śląskie; 13—Świętokrzyskie; 14—Warmińsko-mazurskie; 15—Wielkopolskie; 16—Zachodniopomorskie
Year of graduation Continuous variable (1998–2005)
First job characteristics
Occupation on the first job Binary variables for major groups of occupations according to ISCO-08
Company ownership sector 1*—public; 2—private; 3—public–private
Company size 1*—up to 9 employees; 2—10–49 employees; 3—50–249 employees; 4—250 employees or more
Company economic sector 1—agriculture; 2—industry; 3*—services
  1. Sources Authors’ own elaboration
  2. Asterisks indicate the base category