Research in Higher Education

, Volume 58, Issue 6, pp 672–694

Faculty Service Loads and Gender: Are Women Taking Care of the Academic Family?

Article

Abstract

This paper investigates the amount of academic service performed by female versus male faculty. We use 2014 data from a large national survey of faculty at more than 140 institutions as well as 2012 data from an online annual performance reporting system for tenured and tenure–track faculty at two campuses of a large public, Midwestern University. We find evidence in both data sources that, on average, women faculty perform significantly more service than men, controlling for rank, race/ethnicity, and field or department. Our analyses suggest that the male–female differential is driven more by internal service—i.e., service to the university, campus, or department—than external service—i.e., service to the local, national, and international communities—although significant heterogeneity exists across field and discipline in the way gender differentials play out.

Keywords

Faculty Academic service Gender 

References

  1. Antonio, A. L., Astin, H. S., & Cress, C. M. (2000). Community service in higher education. The Review of Higher Education, 23(4), 373–397.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Babcock, L., & Laschever, S. (2003). Women don’t ask. Negotiation and the gender divide. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  3. Babcock, L., Recalde, M. P., Vesterlund, L., & Weingart, L. (2017). Gender differences in accepting and receiving requests for tasks with low promotability. American Economic Review, 107(3), 714–747.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bellas, M. L., & Toutkoushian, R. K. (1999). Faculty time allocations and research productivity: Gender, race and family effects. The Review of Higher Education, 22(4), 367–390.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bird, S., Litt, J., & Wang, Y. (2004). Creating status of women reports: Institutional housekeeping as “women’s work”. NWSA Journal, 16(1), 194–206.Google Scholar
  6. Bowles, H. R., Babcock, L., & Lai, L. (2007). Social incentives for gender differences in the propensity to initiate negotiations: Sometimes it does hurt to ask. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 103, 84–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Carr, P. L., Gunn, C. M., Kaplan, S. A., Raj, A., & Freund, K. M. (2015). Inadequate progress for women in academic medicine: Findings from the national faculty study. Journal of Women’s Health, 24(3), 190–199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chisholm, S. W., et al. (1999). A study of the status of women faculty in science at MIT. Cambridge, MA: Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Retrieved April 21, 16 from http://web.mit.edu/fnl/women/women.html.
  9. Eagly, A. H., & Johnson, B. T. (1990). Gender and leadership style: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 108(2), 233–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Gilligan, C. (1982). In a different voice. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  11. Jaffee, S., & Hyde, J. S. (2000). Gender differences in moral orientation: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 126(5), 703–726.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Kanter, R. M. (1977a). Men and women of the corporation. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  13. Kanter, R. M. (1977b). Some effects of proportions on group life: Skewed sec ratios and responses to token women. American Journal of Sociology, 82(5), 965–990.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kohlberg, L. (1958). The development of modes of moral thinking and choice in the years 10 to 16. Doctoral Dissertation, The University of Chicago.Google Scholar
  15. Kohlberg, L., & Hersh, R. H. (1977). Moral development: A review of theory. Theory into Practice, 16(2), 53–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Link, A. N., Siegel, D. S., & Bozeman, B. (2007). An empirical analysis of the propensity of academics to engage in informal university technology transfer. Industrial and Corporate Change, 16(4), 641–655.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Misra, J., Lundquist, J.H., Holmes, E., & Agiomavritis, S. (2011). The ivory ceiling of service work. Retrieved April 21, 2016 from http://www.aaup.org/article/ivory-ceiling-service-work#.VxllJzArI2x.
  18. Mitchell, S. M., & Hesli, V. L. (2013). Women don’t ask? Women don’t say no? Bargaining and service in the political science profession. Political Science & Politics, 46(2), 355–369.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Neumann, A., & Terosky, A. (2007). To give and to receive: Recently tenured professors’ experiences of service in major research universities. The Journal of Higher Education, 78(3), 282–310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. O’Laughlin, E. M., & Bischoff, L. G. (2005). Balancing parenthood and academia: Work/family stress as influenced by gender and tenure status. Journal of Family Issues, 26(1), 79–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Olson, D., Maple, S., & Stage, F. (1995). Women and minority faculty job satisfaction: Professional role interests, professional satisfactions, and institutional fit. The Journal of Higher Education, 66(3), 267–293.Google Scholar
  22. Perna, L. W. (2001). Sex and race differences in faculty tenure and promotion. Research in Higher Education, 42(5), 541–567.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Porter, S. R. (2007). A closer look at faculty service: What affects participation on committees? The Journal of Higher Education, 78(5), 523–541.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Pyke, K. (2011). Service and gender inequity among faculty. Political Science & Politics, 44(1), 85–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Russell, S., Fairweather, J., Hendrickson, R., & Zimbler, L. (1991). Profiles of faculty in higher education institutions. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education Office of Educational Research and Improvement (NCES 91-389).Google Scholar
  26. Schiebinger, L., & Gilmartin, S. K. (2010). Housework is an academic issue. Academe, 96(1), 39–44.Google Scholar
  27. Singell, L. D., Jr., Lillydahl, J., & Singell, L. D., Sr. (1996). Will changing times change the allocation of faculty time? Journal of Human Resources, 31(2), 429–449.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Street, D. L., Baril, C. P., & Benke, R. L. (1993). Research, teaching, and service in promotion and tenure decisions of accounting faculty. Journal of Accounting Education, 11, 43–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Toutkoushian, R. K. (1999). The status of academic women in the 1990s: No longer outsiders, but not yet equals. The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, 39, 679–698.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Toutkoushian, R. K., & Conley, V. M. (2005). Progress for women in academe, yet inequities persist: Evidence from NSOPF:99. Research in Higher Education, 46(1), 1–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Vesterlund, L., Babcock, L., & Weingart, L. (2011). Breaking the glass ceiling with “no”: Gender differences in declining requests for non-promotable tasks. Unpublished draft.Google Scholar
  32. Ward, K. (2003). Faculty service roles and the scholarship of engagement. ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Report, 29, 5.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of California RiversideRiversideUSA
  2. 2.Indiana University BloomingtonBloomingtonUSA

Personalised recommendations