Research in Higher Education

, Volume 46, Issue 1, pp 1–28 | Cite as

Progress For Women In Academe, Yet Inequities Persist: Evidence from NSOPF:99

Article

Abstract

In this study, we use data from the 1999 National Study of Postsecondary Faculty (NSOPF:99) to measure the unexplained wage gap between men and women in academe. We pay particular attention to how these unexplained wage gaps have changed over time by comparing the results from the 1999 survey to published results from previous national surveys and test for the sensitivity of these findings to the method used for measuring the unexplained wage gap and the type of institution or field being examined. We found that there has been a notable reduction in the overall unexplained wage gap between men and women, and that there is no longer any evidence of a statistically significant pay differential between men and women in doctoral-level or liberal arts institutions. The results also show that significant pay differentials still persist in some segments of academe, and that overall women with comparable qualifications to men have lower salaries.

Keywords

discrimination compensation faculty gender 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Ashraf, J. 1996The influence of gender on faculty salaries in the United States, 1969–89Applied Economics28 857864CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Barbezat, D. 1987aSalary differentials or sex discrimination? Evidence from the academic labor marketPopulation Research and Policy Review6 6984CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Barbezat, D. 1987bSalary differentials by sex in the academic labor marketJournal of Human Resources22 443455Google Scholar
  4. Barbezat, D. 1989Affirmative action in higher education: Have two decades altered salary differentials by sex and race?Research in Labor Economics 10 107156Google Scholar
  5. Barbezat, D. 1991Updating estimates of male-female salary differentials in the academic labor marketEconomics Letters 36 191195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Barbezat, D., Donihue, M. 1998Do faculty salaries rise with job seniority?Economics Letters 58239244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Barbezat, D. 2002

    History of pay equity studies

    Toutkoushian, R. eds. Conducting Salary-Equity Studies: Alternative Approaches to Research. New Directions for Institutional Research No. 115Jossey-BossSan Francisco940
    Google Scholar
  8. Bayer, A. 1973Teaching Faculty in Academe: 1972–73American Council on EducationWashington, D.C.Google Scholar
  9. Bayer, A., Astin, H. 1975Sex differentials in the academic reward systemScience 188 796802Google Scholar
  10. Becker, W., Goodman, R. 1991The semilogarithmic earnings equation and its use in assessing salary discrimination in academeEconomics of Education Review 10 323333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Becker, W., Toutkoushian, R. 2003

    Measuring gender bias in the salaries of tenured faculty

    Toutkoushian, R. eds. Unresolved Issues in Conducting Salary-Equity Studies. New Directions for Institutional Research No. 117Jossey-BassSan Francisco520
    Google Scholar
  12. Bellas, M. 1993Faculty salaries: Still a cost of being female?Social Science Quarterly 74 6275Google Scholar
  13. Blau, F., Kahn, L. 1997Swimming upstream: Trends in the gender wage differential in the 1980sJournal of Labor Economics 15 142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Blinder, A. 1973Wage discrimination: Reduced form and structural estimatesJournal of Human Resources 8 436455Google Scholar
  15. Cotton, J. 1988On the decomposition of wage differentialsReview of Economics and Statistics 70 236243Google Scholar
  16. Ehrenberg, R. 2003Unequal progress: The annual report on the economic status of the profession 2002–03Academe 89 22103Google Scholar
  17. Even, W., Macpherson, D. 1993The decline of private-sector unionism and the gender wage gapThe Journal of Human Resources 28 279296Google Scholar
  18. Ferber, M., Loeb, J. 2002

    Issues in Conducting an Institutional Salary-Equity Study

    Toutkoushian, R. eds. Conducting Salary-Equity Studies: Alternative Approaches to Research. New Directions for Institutional Research No. 115Jossey-BassSan Francisco4170
    Google Scholar
  19. Fogg, P. 2003The gap that won’t go awayChronicle of Higher Education 49A12A14Google Scholar
  20. Johnson, G., Stafford, F. 1974The earnings and promotion of women facultyAmerican Economic Review 64 888903Google Scholar
  21. Katz, L., Murphy, K. 1992Changes in relative wages, 1963–1987: Supply and demand factorsQuarterly Journal of Economics 1073578Google Scholar
  22. Mincer, J. 1974Schooling, Experienceand EarningsColumbia University PressNew York and LondonGoogle Scholar
  23. Murphy, K., Welch, F. 1993Inequality and relative wagesAmerican Economic Review 83 104109Google Scholar
  24. Neumark, D. 1988Employers’ discriminatory behavior and the estimation of wage discriminationJournal of Human Resources 23 279297Google Scholar
  25. Oaxaca, R. 1973Male--female wage differentials in urban labor marketsInternational Economic Review 14693709Google Scholar
  26. O’Neill, J. 2003The gender gap in wages, circa 2000American Economic Review 93 309314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Perna, L. 2001Sex differences in faculty Salaries: A cohort analysisReview of Higher Education 24 283307Google Scholar
  28. Perna, L. 2002Sex differences in the supplemental earnings of college and university facultyResearch in Higher Education 43 3158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Ransom, M., Megdal, S. 1993Sex differences in the academic labor market in the affirmative action eraEconomics of Education Review 12 2143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Reimers, C. 1983Labor market discrimination against Hispanic and black menReview of Economics and Statistics 65570579Google Scholar
  31. Schultz, T. 1961Investment in human capitalAmerican Economic Review 51117Google Scholar
  32. Smart, J. 1991Gender equity in academic rank and salaryReview of Higher Education 14511526Google Scholar
  33. Thomas, S., Heck, R. 2001Analysis of large-scale secondary data in higher education research: Potential perils associated with complex sample designsResearch in Higher Education 42 517540CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Toutkoushian, R. 1998Sex matters less for younger faculty: Evidence of disaggregate pay disparities from the 1988 and 1993 NCES surveysEconomics of Education Review 17 5571CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Toutkoushian, R. 1999The status of academic women in the 1990s: No longer outsiders, but not yet equalsThe Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance 39 679698CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Toutkoushian, R., Hoffman, E. 2002

    Alternatives for measuring the unexplained wage gap

    Toutkoushian, R. eds. Conducting Salary-Equity Studies: Alternative Approaches to Research. New Directions for Institutional Research No. 115Jossey-BassSan Francisco7189
    Google Scholar
  37. Tuckman, B., Tuckman, H. 1976The status of salaries at American universitiesThe Journal of Higher Education 47 5163Google Scholar
  38. U.S. Department of Education National Center for Education Statistics 2002a. In: Ellen M. B., and Anna C. S. (eds.), Gender and Racial/Ethnic Differences in Salary Other Characteristics of Postsecondary Faculty: Fall 1998(NCES 2002–170), Project Officer: Linda J. Zimbler. Washington, DC Google Scholar
  39. U.S. Department of Education National Center for Education Statistics 2002b. In: Sameer, A., Darby, S., Margrethe, M., Brian, K., Roger, T., Bob, M., and Manas, R. (eds.), 1999 National Study of Postsecondary Faculty (NSOPF:99) Methodology Report, (NCES 2002–154), Project Officer:Linda J. Zimbler Washington, DC. Google Scholar
  40. U.S. General Accounting Office. (2003). Women’s Earnings: Work Patterns Partially Explain Difference between Men’s and Women’s Earnings October Washington, DC.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert K. Toutkoushian
    • 1
  • Valerie Martin Conley
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Educational Leadership and Policy StudiesIndiana UniversityBloomington
  2. 2.Higher EducationOhio UniversityAthens

Personalised recommendations