Taking stock: a Large Marine Ecosystem perspective of socio-economic and ecological trends in East China Sea fisheries

Abstract

The East China Sea (ECS) Large Marine Ecosystem (LME) is a globally significant fishing ground, but the absence of cooperative regional management impedes the future sustainability of ECS fisheries. To navigate around nationally focused perspectives, we provide an up to date synthesis about the socio-economic importance and status of ECS fisheries at the ecosystem level, which is currently lacking in the literature. Our review indicates that ECS LME fisheries contribute around 6 million t in catch and USD 13 billion in landed value annually, and employ up to an estimated 1.4 million, the majority of who are small-scale fishers. However, the fisheries benefits are threatened by intense fishing pressure and rapid economic development which exacerbates the effects of overfishing. The future of ECS fisheries also faces climate uncertainties, which has already been associated with shifts in species distribution and spatial distribution of fishing effort. At the LME level, political disputes that inhibit crucial multilateral fisheries management threaten the future sustainability of ECS fish stocks, and also weaken the effects of national management measures which have largely failed to address fisheries overcapacity and coastal marine degradation. Continuing on a path focussed on national interests without considering LME wide dynamics risks jeopardising the significant fisheries socio-economic and ecological benefits that accrue to all LME countries. Thus, our review emphasises the urgency for multilateral ECS fisheries management to enhance ecosystem resilience so that fisheries resources can continue to support the region’s human, social, and economic well-being into the future.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2

Source: Sea Around Us

Fig. 3

Source: Sea Around Us

Fig. 4

Source: Sea Around Us

Fig. 5

Data source: Compiled from national fisheries statistics of China, Japan, Korea, and Taiwan

Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8

Source: Sea Around Us (2019)

Notes

  1. 1.

    East China Sea population was estimated by summing up the population living in prefectures or districts bordering the ECS in China, Japan, Korea, and Taiwan. The population breakdown is as follows:

    China: 197,690,000 (Shanghai municipality and Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Fujian provinces) Source: National Bureau of Statistics of China http://data.stats.gov.cn.

    Japan: 12,184,000 (Fukuoka, Saga, Nagasaki, Kumamoto, Kagoshima, Okinawa prefectures) Source: Japan Statistical Yearbook 2017.

    Korea: 623,332 (Jeju island) Source: Statistics Korea kostat/go.kr.

    Taiwan: 6,499,071 (New Taipei, Taoyuan, Keelung, Yilan districts) Source: National Statistics Taiwan https://eng.stat.gov.tw.

  2. 2.

    Small-scale fisheries in the Sea Around Us database consist of artisanal (small-scale commercial fishing), subsistence (fishing for home consumption only), and recreational sectors. Small-scale fisheries are defined as those that operate within the Inshore Fishing Area, i.e., within domestic waters to a maximum of 50 km from the coast or to 200 m depth, whichever comes first. See seearoundus.org/catch-reconstruction-and-allocation-methods/for details.

  3. 3.

    Consumption rates provided by FAO refer to fish supply per capita, rather than actual consumption.

  4. 4.

    Source: http://www.cinon.com.au/item/509188.aspx.

  5. 5.

    South China Sea Fisheries Resources and Management Workshop, held in Kaoshiung, Taiwan, June 2017. Participants included national fisheries scientists and managers from China, Vietnam, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, Philippines, and Taiwan.

  6. 6.

    Seventh Experts Meeting on Maritime Confidence Building, held in Beijing, China, December 2017. Participants included maritime enforcement agencies from China, Malaysia, Philippines, Vietnam, and Indonesia.

References

  1. Allison EH, Ratner BD, Asgard B, Willmann R, Pomeroy R, Kurien J (2012) Rights-based fisheries governance: from fishing rights to human rights. Fish Fish 13:14–29

    Google Scholar 

  2. Belkin IM (2009) Rapid warming of large marine ecosystems. Prog Oceanogr 81:207–213

    Google Scholar 

  3. Cao L, Naylor R, Henriksson P, Leadbitter D, Metian M, Troell M, Zhang W (2015) China’s aquaculture and the world’s wild fisheries. Science 347:133–135

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  4. Cao L, Chen Y, Dong S, Hanson A, Huang B et al (2017a) Opportunity for marine fisheries reform in China. Proc Natl Acad Sci 114:435–442

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  5. Cao Y, Zhao R, Lu W, Cai R, Yin Y, Chen S (2017b) Current situation and problems of marine fishery in China. Asian Agric Res 9:1–8

    Google Scholar 

  6. Cashion T, Le Manach F, Zeller D, Pauly D (2017) Most fish destined for fishmeal production are food-grade fish. Fish Fish 18:837–844

    Google Scholar 

  7. Chang NN, Shiao JC, Gong GC (2012) Diversity of demersal fish in the East China Sea: implication of eutrophication and fishery. Cont Shelf Res 47:42–54

    Google Scholar 

  8. Chang Y, Chan JW, Huang YCA, Lin WQ, Lee MA, Lee KT, Liao CH, Wang KY, Kuo YC (2014) Typhoon-enhanced upwelling and its influence on fishing activities in the southern East China Sea. Int J Remote Sens 35:6561–6572

    Google Scholar 

  9. Chao M, Quan W, Li C, Chen Y (2005) Changes in trophic level of marine catches in the East China Sea region. Mar Sci 29:51–55

    Google Scholar 

  10. Chen T (2007) Taiwanese offshore (distant water) fisheries in Southeast Asia, 1936-1977. Dissertation, Murdoch University

  11. Chen CL (2012) Unfinished business: Taiwan’s experience with rights-based coastal fisheries management. Mar Policy 36:955–962

    Google Scholar 

  12. Chen TY (2014) Evolution and development of the Taiwanese offshore tuna fishery. Historical perspectives of fisheries exploitation in the Indo-Pacific. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 133–152

    Google Scholar 

  13. Chen CS, Lee BW (2013) Trends in trawl-targeted species landings off northern Taiwan and effects of fishing and environmental factors. Fish Sci 79:163–176

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  14. Chen YY, Tang Y (2014) Study on co-management of China’s small-scale fisheries based on fishermen’s organization. Guangdong Agric Sci. https://doi.org/10.16768/j.issn.1004-874x.2014.06.050

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Chen W, Zheng Y, Chen Y, Mathews C (1997) An assessment of fishery yields from the East China Sea Ecosystem. Mar Fish Rev 59:1–7

    Google Scholar 

  16. Chen CC, Gong GC, Shiah FK (2007) Hypoxia in the East China Sea: one of the largest coastal low-oxygen areas in the world. Mar Environ Res 64:399–408

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  17. Chen JL, Lin YS, Chuang CT (2018) Improving the management of Taiwanese fishery resource conservation zones based on public perceptions and willingness to pay for ecosystem services. J Coast Conserv 22:385–398

    Google Scholar 

  18. Cheong SM (2004) Managing fishing at the local level: the role of fishing village cooperatives in Korea. Coast Manage 32:191–201

    Google Scholar 

  19. Choa H, Kang E (2015) For the preservation of memories Jeju Haenyeo. Paper presented at World Aquaculture, Jeju, Korea, May 26–30, 2015. http://www.aquaculturewithoutfrontiers.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/11/1.-Choa_428_71.pdf. Accessed 8 August 2019

  20. Chung S, Suzaki H, Kasai A, Nakata H (2015) The response of fish communities to climate and human-induced changes inferred from fishery landings in an enclosed bay. Estuaries Coasts 38:1365–1375

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  21. Cohen PJ, Allison EH, Andrew NL, Cinner J, Evans LS, Fabinyi M et al (2019) Securing a just space for small-scale fisheries in the Blue Economy. Front Mar Sci. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2019.00171

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Ding H, Xu H, Wu J, Le Quesne WJF, Sweeting CJ, Polunin NVC (2008) An overview of spatial management and marine protected areas in the East China Sea. Coast Manag 36:443–457

    Google Scholar 

  23. Divovich E, Farber L, Shon SH, Zylich K (2015) An updated catch reconstruction of the marine fisheries of Taiwan from 1950–2010. Fisheries Centre Working Paper Series #2015-78. The University of British Columbia, Vancouver

  24. Dong Z, Liu D, Keesing JK (2010) Jellyfish blooms in China: dominant species, causes and consequences. Mar Pollut Bull 60:954–963

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  25. EU (2016) Study on the subsidies to the fisheries, aquaculture, and marketing and processing subsectors in major fishing nations beyond the EU. https://publications.europa.eu/en/publication-detail/-/publication/45f78bf8-d24b-11e6-ad7c-01aa75ed71a1. Accessed 16 Sept 2019

  26. Fabinyi M (2012) Historical, cultural and social perspectives on luxury seafood consumption in China. Environ Conserv 39:83–92

    Google Scholar 

  27. Fabinyi M (2016) Sustainable seafood consumption in China. Mar Policy 74:85–87

    Google Scholar 

  28. FAO (2004) Fishery and Aquaculture Country Profiles. Republic of Korea. http://www.fao.org/fishery/ Accessed 8 Aug 2019

  29. FAO (2015) Voluntary guidelines for securing sustainable small-scale fisheries in the context of food security and poverty eradication. FAO, Rome

    Google Scholar 

  30. FAO (2017) FAO Food balance sheets of fish and fishery products. http://www.fao.org/fishery/statistics/global-consumption/en. Accessed 1 Apr 2020

  31. FAO (2018) The State of the World Fisheries and Aquaculture 2018. FAO, Rome, p 210

    Google Scholar 

  32. Free CM, Thorson JT, Pinsky ML, Oken KL, Wiedenmann J, Jensen OP (2019) Impacts of historical warming on marine fisheries production. Science 363:979–983

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  33. Funge-Smith S, Lindebo E, Staples D (2005) Asian fisheries today: The production and use of low value/trash fish from marine fisheries in the Asia-Pacific region. FAO, Bangkok

    Google Scholar 

  34. GEF TWAP (2015) Transboundary Water Assessment Programme LME Factsheets—LME 47 East China Sea. http://onesharedocean.org/public_store/lmes_factsheets/factsheet_47_East_China_Sea.pdf. Accessed 6 Aug 2019

  35. Gibson D, Sumaila UR (2017) Determining the degree of ‘small-scaleness’ using fisheries in British Columbia as an example. Mar Policy 86:121–126

    Google Scholar 

  36. Goldstein LJ (2013) Chinese fisheries enforcement: environmental and strategic implications. Mar Policy 40:187–193

    Google Scholar 

  37. Greenpeace East Asia (2017) Research report on China’s trash fish fisheries. https://secured-static.greenpeace.org/eastasia/Global/eastasia/publications/reports/oceans/2017/Investigation%20into%20China%27s%20marine%20trash%20fish%20fisheries_GPEA%20Media%20Briefing.pdf. Accessed 1 Apr 2020

  38. Heileman S, Tang Q (2008) X-22 East China Sea: LME. In: Sherman K, Hempel G (eds) The UNEP Large Marine Ecosystem Report: A Perspective on Changing Conditions in LMEs of the World’s Regional Seas. UNEP, Nairobi, pp 383–392

    Google Scholar 

  39. Heo NC, Lee HJ (2018) Sea deity beliefs of the Kuroshio oceanic cultural sphere: maritime traditions and cultural interaction among Jeju Island, Zhoushan Archipelago, and the Ryuku Islands. Isl Stud J 13:171–184

    Google Scholar 

  40. Hilty A (2015) Jeju Haenyeo Women Divers. Jeju Sea Grant Center, Jeju National University, Jeju

    Google Scholar 

  41. Hiyama Y, Yoda M, Ohshimo S (2002) Stock size fluctuations in chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus) in the East China Sea and the Japan/East Sea. Fish Oceanogr 11:347–353

    Google Scholar 

  42. Ho CH, Lu HJ, He JS, Lan KW, Chen JL (2016a) Changes in patterns of seasonality shown by migratory fish under global warming: evidence from catch data of Taiwan’s coastal fisheries. Sustainability 8:273. https://doi.org/10.3390/su8030273

    Article  Google Scholar 

  43. Ho CH, Chen JL, Nobuyuki Y, Lur HS, Lu HJ (2016b) Mitigating uncertainty and enhancing resilience to climate change in the fisheries sector in Taiwan: policy implications for food security. Ocean Coast Manag 130:355–372

    Google Scholar 

  44. Huang HW, Chuang CT (2010) Fishing capacity management in Taiwan: experiences and prospects. Mar Policy 34:70–76

    Google Scholar 

  45. Huang S, He Y (2019) Management of China’s capture fisheries: review and prospect. Aquacult Fish 4:173–182

    Google Scholar 

  46. Hung CM, Shaw D (2006) The impact of upstream catch and global warming on the Grey Mullet Fishery in Taiwan: a non-cooperative game analysis. Mar Resour Econ 21:285–300

    Google Scholar 

  47. Hyun K, Song MY, Kim S, Chon TS (2005) Using an artificial neural network to patternize long-term fisheries data from South Korea. Aquat Sci 67:382–389

    Google Scholar 

  48. IMF (2017) Regional economic outlook Asia and Pacific: preparing for choppy seas. IMF, Washington

    Google Scholar 

  49. IOC-UNESCO and UNEP (2016) Large Marine Ecosystems: Status and Trends, Summary for Policy Makers. United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), Nairobi

    Google Scholar 

  50. Jang HM, Kim YB, Choi S, Lee Y, Shin SG, Unno T, Kim YM (2018) Prevalence of antibiotic resistance genes from effluent of coastal aquaculture, South Korea. Environ Pollut 233:1049–1057

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  51. Jentoft S, Eide A (eds) (2011) Poverty mosaics: realities and prospects in small-scale fisheries. Springer, Netherlands

    Google Scholar 

  52. Jiang H, Cheng HQ, Xu HG, Arreguín-Sánchez F, Zetina-Rejón MJ, Del Monte Luna P, Le Quesne WJF (2008) Trophic controls of jellyfish blooms and links with fisheries in the East China Sea. Ecol Model 212:492–503

    Google Scholar 

  53. Jiang YZ, Cheng JH, Li SF (2009) Temporal changes in the fish community resulting from a summer fishing moratorium in the northern East China Sea. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 387:265–273

    Google Scholar 

  54. Jung S, Pang IC, Lee J, Choi I, Cha HK (2014) Latitudinal shifts in the distribution of exploited fishes in Korean waters during the last 30 years: a consequence of climate change. Rev Fish Biol Fish 24:443–462

    Google Scholar 

  55. Kang JS (2006) Analysis on the development trends of capture fisheries in North-East Asia and the policy and management implications for regional cooperation. Ocean Coast Manag 49:42–67

    Google Scholar 

  56. Kang B, Liu M, Huang XX, Li J, Yan YR, Han CC, Chen SB (2018) Fisheries in Chinese seas: what can we learn from controversial official fisheries statistics. Rev Fish Biol Fish 28:503–519

    Google Scholar 

  57. Kim S, Zhang C (2016) Ch. 13 Fish and Fisheries. In: Chang K, Zhang C, Kang D, Ju S, Lee S, Wimbush M (eds) Oceanography of the East Sea (Japan Sea). Springer, Switzerland

    Google Scholar 

  58. Kim S, Zhang CI, Kim JY, Oh JH, Kang S, Lee JB (2007) Climate variability and its effects on major fisheries in Korea. Ocean Sci J 42:179–192

    Google Scholar 

  59. Kim DH, An HC, Lee KH, Hwang J (2008) Optimal economic fishing efforts in Korean common octopus Octopus minor trap fishery. Fish Sci 74:1215–1221

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  60. Kim BT, Brown CL, Kim DH (2019) Assessment on the vulnerability of Korean aquaculture to climate change. Mar Policy 99:111–122

    Google Scholar 

  61. Kleisner K, Pauly D (2011) Stock-status plots of fisheries for regional seas. In: Christensen V, Lai S, Palomares MLD, Zeller D and Pauly D (eds) The state of biodiversity and fisheries in regional seas. Fisheries Centre Research Reports 19 (3). University of British Columbia, Vancouver, pp 37–40

    Google Scholar 

  62. Kleisner K, Mansour H, Pauly D (2014) Region-based MTI: resolving geographic expansion in the Marine Trophic Index. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 512:185–199

    Google Scholar 

  63. Korean Statistical Information Service (2018) Agriculture, Forestry and Fishery Statistical Database. www.kosis.kr/eng/ Accessed 7 Feb 2018

  64. Lan K, Lee M, Zhang C, Wang P, Wu L, Lee K (2014) Effects of cyclic fluctuations in climate change on the annual fishing conditions of Grey Mullet (Mugil cephalus) in the Taiwan Strait. Clim Change 126:189–202

    Google Scholar 

  65. Lee SG, Midani RA (2014) National comprehensive approaches for rebuilding fisheries in South Korea. Mar Policy 45:156–162

    Google Scholar 

  66. Lee SG, Midani RA (2015) Productivity change under the vessel buyback program in Korean fisheries. Fish Sci 81:21–28

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  67. Lee S, Park YK, Park H, Kil Y, Park H (2017) The complex legal status of the current fishing pattern zone in the East China Sea. Mar Policy 81:219–228

    Google Scholar 

  68. Li R (2015) National and regional socio-economic dependence on the fishery sector in mainland China. Fish Manag Ecol 22:33–44

    Google Scholar 

  69. Li DJ, Daler D (2004) Ocean pollution from land-based sources: East China Sea, China. Ambio 33:107–113

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  70. Li Y, Zhang Y (2012) Fisheries impact on the East China Sea Shelf ecosystem for 1969–2000. Helgol Mar Res 66:371–383

    Google Scholar 

  71. Li HR, Houseton JE, Wang SM, Lee HJ (2001) Factors affecting consumer preferences for fish in Taiwan. In: Proceedings of the International Institute of Fisheries Economics and Trade

  72. Li Y, Chen Y, Olson D, Yu N, Chen L (2009) Evaluating ecosystem structure and functioning of the East China Sea Shelf ecosystem, China. Hydrobiologia 636:331

    Google Scholar 

  73. Liang C, Pauly D (2017) Fisheries impacts on China’s coastal ecosystems: unmasking a pervasive ‘fishing down’ effect. PLoS ONE 12(3):e0173296

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  74. Lin L, Zheng Y, Cheng J, Liu Y, Ling J (2006) A preliminary study on fishery biology of main commercial fishes surveyed from the bottom trawl fisheries in the East China Sea. Mar Sci 30:21–25

    Google Scholar 

  75. Lin HY, Chiu MY, Shih YM, Chen IS, Lee MA, Shao KT (2016) Species composition and assemblages of ichthyoplankton during summer in the East China Sea. Cont Shelf Res 126:64–78

    Google Scholar 

  76. Liu JY (2013a) Status of Marine Biodiversity of the China Seas. PLoS ONE 8:e50719

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  77. Liu WH (2013b) Managing the offshore and coastal fisheries in Taiwan to achieve sustainable development using policy indicators. Mar Policy 39:162–171

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  78. Liu Y, Gao J (2009) Preliminary discussion on livelihood and commerce fishery. Hunan Agric Sci 5:143–145

    Google Scholar 

  79. Liu M, Sadovy de Mitcheson Y (2008) Profile of a fishery collapse: why mariculture failed to save the large yellow croaker. Fish 9:219–242

    Google Scholar 

  80. Ma ZJ, Melville DS, Liu JG, Chen Y, Yang HY et al (2014) Rethinking China’s new great wall. Science 346:912–914

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  81. Ma Q, Jiao Y, Ren Y (2017) Linear mixed-effects models to describe length-weight relationships for yellow croaker (Larimichthys Polyactis) along the north coast of China. PLoS ONE 12(2):e0171811

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  82. MAFF (2013) 2013 Census of Fisheries. https://www.stat.go.jp/english/data/nenkan/65nenkan/1431-08.html. Accessed 20 July 2019

  83. MAFF (2015) FY 2015 Trends in Fisheries FY 2016 Fisheries Policy. White Paper on Fisheries: Summary http://www.maff.go.jp/e/data/publish/attach/pdf/index-68.pdf. Accessed 7 Feb 2018

  84. MAFF (2017) FY 2016 Trends in Fisheries FY 2017 Fisheries Policy. White Paper on Fisheries: Summary http://www.maff.go.jp/e/data/publish/attach/pdf/index-68.pdf. Accessed 7 Feb 2018

  85. Makino M (2011) Fisheries Management in Japan Its institutional features and case studies. Springer, Dordrecht

    Google Scholar 

  86. Makino M (2018) Rebuilding and full utilization of alternating pelagic species around Japan: A social-ecological approach. In: Garcia SM, Ye Y (eds) Rebuilding of marine fisheries Part 2: Case studies. FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Technical Paper 630/2. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, pp 61–73

  87. Makino M, Matsuda H (2005) Co-management in Japanese coastal fisheries: institutional features and transaction costs. Mar Policy 29:441–450

    Google Scholar 

  88. Mallory T (2013) China’s distant water fishing industry: evolving policies and implications. Mar Policy 38:99–108

    Google Scholar 

  89. Mallory TG (2016) Fisheries subsidies in China: quantitative and qualitative assessment of policy coherence and effectiveness. Mar Policy 68:74–82

    Google Scholar 

  90. Matsuda H, Making M, Tomiyama M, Gelcich S, Castilla JC (2010) Fishery management in Japan. Ecol Res 25:899–907

    Google Scholar 

  91. Munro GR (1990) The optimal management of transboundary fisheries: game theoretic considerations. Nat Resour Model 4:403–426

    Google Scholar 

  92. Muscolino MS (2010) Fishing wars and environmental change in late Imperial and modern China. Harvard University Press, Cambridge

    Google Scholar 

  93. National Bureau of Statistics of China (2018) National Data. http://data.stats.gov.cn/english/ Accessed 7 Feb 2018

  94. OECD/FAO (2017) OECD-FAO Agricultural Outlook 2017-2026. OECD Publishing, Paris. http://doi.org/10.1787/agr_outlook-2017-en. Accessed 8 Feb 2018

  95. Ohshimo S, Yasuda T, Tanaka H, Sassa C (2012) Biomass fluctuation of two dominant lanternfish Diaphus garmani and D. chrysorhynchus with environmental changes in the East China Sea. Fish Sci 78:33–39

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  96. Ou CH, Tseng HS (2010) The fishery agreements and management systems in the East China Sea. Ocean Coast Manag 53:279–288

    Google Scholar 

  97. Park JY (ed) (2016) Korea’s fisheries sector assessment. WWF-Korea, Seoul

    Google Scholar 

  98. Park SK, Lee DW, Jung JH (2009) Assessment of effectiveness of improved fisheries management techniques. United Nations Office for Project Services. Korean Fisheries Association, Seoul

    Google Scholar 

  99. Park SK, Davidson K, Pan ML (2012) Economic relationships between aquaculture and capture fisheries in the Republic of Korea. Aquacult Econ Manag 16:102–116

    Google Scholar 

  100. Pauly D, Le Manach F (2015) Tentative adjustments of China’s marine fisheries catches (1950–2010). Fisheries Centre Working Paper Series 2015-28. The University of British Columbia, Vancouver

  101. Pauly D, Zeller D (2016) Catch reconstructions reveal that global marine fisheries catches are higher than reported and declining. Nat Commun 7:10244

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  102. Pauly D, Christensen V, Dalsgaard J, Froese R, Torres F Jr (1998) Fishing down marine food webs. Science 279:860–863

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  103. Popescu I, Ogushi T (2013) Fisheries in Japan. Directorate General for Internal Policies Policy Department B: Structural and Cohesion Polices IP/B//PECH/NT/2-13-04. http://www.europarl.europa.eu/studies. Accessed 8 Feb 2018

  104. Rebstock GA, Kang YS (2003) A comparison of three marine ecosystems surrounding the Korean peninsula: responses to climate change. Prog Oceanogr 59:357–379

    Google Scholar 

  105. Rosenberg D (2005) Managing the resources of the China Seas: China’s bilateral fisheries agreements with Japan, South Korea, and Vietnam. The Asia-Pacific Journal Japan Focus 3:1–5

    Google Scholar 

  106. Sadovy de Mitcheson Y, Leadbitter D, Law C (2018) Situation analysis of trawl fisheries in the East and South China Seas; feed fish component 2018—China

  107. Schofield CH, Townsend-Gault I (2011) Choppy waters ahead in “a sea of peace cooperation and friendship”?: slow progress towards the application of maritime joint development to the East China Sea. Mar Policy 35(1):25–33

    Google Scholar 

  108. Schuhbauer A, Chuenpagdee R, Cheung WWL, Greer K, Sumaila UR (2017) How subsidies affect the economic viability of small-scale fisheries. Mar Policy 82:114–121

    Google Scholar 

  109. Shen G, Heino M (2014) An overview of marine fisheries management in China. Mar Policy 44:265–272

    Google Scholar 

  110. Sherman K (2014) Toward ecosystem-based management (EBM) of the world’s large marine ecosystems during climate change. Environ Dev 11:43–66

    Google Scholar 

  111. Shon S, Harper S, Zeller D (2014) Reconstruction of marine fisheries catches for the Republic of Korea (South Korea) from 1950–2010. Fisheries Centre Working Paper #2014-19, p 13

  112. Song AM (2015) Towards a governable co-management in South Korean small-scale fisheries: Interactions of institutions and stakeholders’ mindset. In: Jentoft S, Chuenpagdee R (eds) Interactive Governance for Small-Scale Fisheries. MARE Publication Series, Vol 13. Springer, Cham

    Google Scholar 

  113. Sumaila UR (2019) Large marine ecosystems of Asia. In: Teh LSL, Cashion T, Alava Saltos JJ, Cheung WWL, Sumaila UR (2019) Status, trends, and the future of fisheries in the East and South China Seas. Fisheries Centre Research Reports 27 (1) University of British Columbia, Vancouver, pp 8–15

  114. Sumaila UR, Cheung WWL (2015) Boom or Bust the future of fish in the South China Sea. ADM Foundation, Hong Kong

    Google Scholar 

  115. Sumaila UR, Lam V, Le Manach F, Swartz W, Pauly D (2016) Global fisheries subsidies: an updated estimate. Mar Policy 69:189–193

    Google Scholar 

  116. Sun ZG, Sun WG, Tong C, Zeng CS, Yu X, Mou XJ (2015) China’s coastal wetlands: conservation history, implementation efforts, existing issues and strategies for future improvement. Environ Int 79:25–41

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  117. Swartz W, Ishimura G (2014) Baseline assessment of total fisheries related biomass removal from Japan’s Exclusive Economic Zone: 1950–2010. Fish Sci 80:643–651

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  118. Szuwalski CS, Burgess MG, Costello C, Gaines SD (2017) High fishery catches through trophic cascades in China. Proc Natl Acad Sci 114:717–721

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  119. Ta N, Chen H, Jiang H, Ni Y, Sambe B, Yang Z (2010) The coastal transects analysis model (CTAM) of the East China Sea with emphasis on fisheries: a case study on the Zhoushan Islands. Resources Science 32:634–639

    Google Scholar 

  120. Takeda I (2010) The measures for sustainable marine aquaculture in Japan. Aquaculture 1:135–141

    Google Scholar 

  121. Teh LSL, Witter A, Cheung WWL, Sumaila UR, Yin XY (2017) What is at stake? Status and threats to South China Sea fisheries. Ambio 46:57–72

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  122. Teh LSL, Cashion T, Alava Saltos JJ, Cheung WWL, Sumaila UR (2019) Status, trends, and the future of fisheries in the East and South China Seas. Fisheries Centre Research Reports 27 (1) University of British Columbia, Vancouver

  123. Teng S (2007) Republic of Korea. Review of the state of world marine capture fisheries management: Pacific Ocean FAO Fisheries Technical Paper No. 488/1. FAO, Rome, pp 397–413

  124. Tseng H, Ou C (2010) Taiwan and China: a unique fisheries relationship. Mar Policy 34:1156–1162

    Google Scholar 

  125. Uye S (2008) Blooms of the giant jellyfish Nemopilema nomurai: a threat to the fisheries sustainability of the East Asian Marginal Seas. Plankton Benthos Res 3(Suppl):125–131

    Google Scholar 

  126. van der Horst L (2016) Taiwan’s Illegal Fishing Is “Out of Control.” https://thediplomat.com/2016/04/taiwans-illegal-fishing-is-out-of-control/ Accessed 20 July 2019

  127. Wang Y, Zheng J, Yu C (2014) Stock assessment of chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus) in the central East China Sea based on length data. J Mar Biol Assoc UK 94:211–217

    Google Scholar 

  128. Wang H, Dai M, Liu J, Kao SJ, Zhang C et al (2016) Eutrophication-Driven Hypoxia in the East China Sea off the Changjiang Estuary. Environ Sci Technol 50:2255–2263

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  129. Watson R, Pauly D (2001) Systematic distortions in world fisheries catch trends. Nature 414:534–536

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  130. Xue G (2004) The LOSC and China’s practice: Sino-Japanese and Sino-Korean Fisheries agreements. Maritime Studies 2004:1–8

    Google Scholar 

  131. Xue G (2005) Bilateral Fisheries agreements for the cooperative management of the Shared resources of the China Seas: a note. Ocean Dev Int Law 36:363–374

    Google Scholar 

  132. Yan L, Li S, Ding F (2004) The preliminary studies on the dynamics of macro-jellyfish resources and their relationship with fisheries in the East China Sea and yellow Sea. Mar Fish 26:9–12

    Google Scholar 

  133. Yang H, Ma M, Thompson JR, Flower RJ (2017) Reform China’s fisheries subsidies. Science 356:1343

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  134. Yeh YH, Tseng HS, Su DT, Ou CH (2015) Taiwan and Japan: a complex fisheries relationship. Mar Policy 51:293–301

    Google Scholar 

  135. Yeon K, Lee J, Hong B, Kim Y, Lee D, Choi K, Kim J (2010) Long-term changes in the small yellow croaker, Larimichthys polyactis, population. Bull Korean Soc Fish Technol 46:392–405

    Google Scholar 

  136. Yoo S (2018) Republic of Korea Seafood Market Brief Update 2018. USDA Foreign Agricultural Service

  137. Yu HG, Yu YJ (2008) Fishing capacity management in China: theoretic and practical perspectives. Mar Policy 32:351–359

    Google Scholar 

  138. Zhang HZ (2015a) Averting Asia’s fishing crisis: China’s fishing policies need to be reformed. Policy Report. S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore

  139. Zhang HZ (2015b) China’s fishing industry: Current status, government policies, and future prospects. China as a “Maritime Power” conference, July 28029 2015, Arlington, Virginia. https://www.cna.org/cna_files/pdf/China-Fishing-Industry.pdf Accessed 20 July 2019

  140. Zhang K (2016a) Regime shifts and resilience in China’s coastal ecosystems. Ambio 45:89–98

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  141. Zhang HZ (2016b) Chinese fishermen in disputed waters: not quite a “people’s war”. Mar Policy 68:65–73

    Google Scholar 

  142. Zhang CI, Kim S, Gunderson D, Marasco R, Lee JB, Park HW, Lee JH (2009) An ecosystem-based fisheries assessment approach for Korean fisheries. Fish Res 100:26–41

    Google Scholar 

  143. Zhang CI, Lim JH, Kwon Y, Kang HJ, Kim DH, Seo YI (2014) The current status of west sea fisheries resources and utilization in the context of fishery management of Korea. Ocean Coast Manag 102:493–505

    Google Scholar 

  144. Zou KY (2003) Sino-Japanese joint fishery management in the East China Sea. Mar Policy 27:125–142

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

This study forms part of the Ocean Asia project funded by ADM Capital Foundation, Hong Kong. Our review benefitted from the insights and expertise of the participants in the ‘Ocean Asia East China Sea Expert Consultation Workshop’ held at the Ocean University of China, Qingdao, China, from August 20–21, 2018.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Louise S. L. Teh.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Electronic supplementary material

Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.

Supplementary material 1 (PDF 242 kb)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Teh, L.S.L., Cashion, T., Cheung, W.W.L. et al. Taking stock: a Large Marine Ecosystem perspective of socio-economic and ecological trends in East China Sea fisheries. Rev Fish Biol Fisheries 30, 269–292 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11160-020-09599-8

Download citation

Keywords

  • Fisheries
  • East China Sea
  • Socio-economic
  • Sustainability
  • Fish stock status