Governing fisheries through the critical decade: the role and utility of polycentric systems

  • C. Cvitanovic
  • A. J. Hobday
  • J. McDonald
  • E. I. Van Putten
  • K. L. Nash
Reviews

Abstract

The next 10 years are considered a critical decade for fisheries. Declining fish stocks in combination with mounting climate pressure are likely to lead to significant and adverse socio-ecological impacts, threatening sustainability. Responding to these challenges requires modes of governance that are capable of dealing with the complexity and uncertainty associated with the world’s fisheries and their ecosystems. While a range of governance frameworks exist, the concept of polycentric governance has gained prominence in the environmental sector and is posited as a key principle underpinning the resilience of complex socio-ecological systems. However, the application of polycentric governance to fisheries management has been seldom explored. To examine this prospect, we review the literature on polycentric governance to elucidate its potential value in improving the outlook for fisheries and their associated ecosystems. We highlight a number of unique characteristics that overcome known limitations in other forms of governance—polycentric systems are highly participatory and promote the broadest levels of stakeholder involvement, they increase policy freedom at the local level, and they improve the spatial fit between knowledge, action and socio-ecological contexts to ensure that governance responses are implemented at the most appropriate scale. Through fisheries case-studies, we demonstrate that these characteristics are important in helping fisheries respond to complex challenges. Finally, we articulate key knowledge gaps that should be addressed through future research to understand the conditions under which polycentric governance systems are most suited, and the ways in which they can be operationalised most effectively.

Keywords

Fisheries Governance Learning Networks Research needs Stakeholder participation 

References

  1. Acheson JM (1997) The politics of managing the Maine Lobster Industry: 1860 to the present. Hum Ecol 25:3–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Acheson JM (2003) Capturing the commons: devising institutions to manage the Maine Lobster Industry. University Press of New England, LebanonGoogle Scholar
  3. Alcala AC, Russ GR (2006) No-take marine reserves and reef fisheries management in the Philippines: a new people power revolution. Ambio 35:245–254PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Alexander SM, Armitage D, Charles A (2015) Social networks and transitions to co-management in Jamaican marine reserves and small-scale fisheries. Glob Environ Change 35:213–225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Alexander SM, Andrachuk M, Armitage D (2016) Navigating governance networks for community-based conservation. Front Ecol Environ 14(3):155–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Aligica PD, Tarko V (2012) Polycentricity: from Polanyi to Ostrum, and beyond. Governance 25(2):237–262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Allison EH, Perry AL, Badjeck M-C, Adger N, Brown K, Conway D, Halls AS, Pilling GM, Reynolds JD, Andrew NL, Dulvy NK (2009) Vulnerability of national economies to the impacts of climate change on fisheries. Fish Fish 10(2):173–196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Alston LJ, Libecap G, Mueller B (1999) Titles, conflicts and land use: the development of property rights and land reform on the Brazilian frontier. University of Michigan Press, Ann ArborCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Andersson K, Ostrom E (2008) Analyzing decentralised natural resource governance from a polycentric perspective. Policy Sci 41(1):1–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Andersson K, van Laerhoven F (2007) From local strongman to facilitator: institutional incentives for participatory municipal governance in Latin America. Comp Pol Stud 40:1085–1111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Armitage DR, Plummer R, Berkes F, Arthur RI, Charles AT, Davidson-Hunt IJ, Diduck AP, Doubleday NC, Johnson DS, Marschke M, McConney P, Pinkerton EW, Wollenberg EK (2009) Adaptive co-management for social ecological complexity. Front Ecol Environ 7:95–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Aswani S, Hamilton RJ (2004) Integrating indigenous ecological knowledge and customary sea tenure with marine and social science for conservation of bumphead parrotfish (Bolbometopon muricatum) in the Roviana Lagoon, Solomon Islands. Environ Conserv 31:69–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Basurto X, Nenadovic M (2012) A systematic approach to studying fisheries governance. Glob Policy 3:222–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bell JD, Ganachaud A, Gehrke PC, Griffiths SP, Hobday AJ, Hoegh-Guldberg O, Johnson JE, Le Borgne R, Lehodey P, Lough JM, Matear RJ, Pickering TD, Pratchett MS, Gupta AS, Senina I, Waycott M (2013) Mixed responses of tropical Pacific fisheries and aquaculture to climate change. Nat Clim Change 3(6):591–599Google Scholar
  15. Bennett E, Neiland A, Anang E, Bannerman P, Rahman AA, Huq S, Bhuiya S, Day M, Fulford-Gardiner M, Clerveaux W (2001) Towards a better understanding of conflict management in tropical fisheries: evidence from Ghana, Bangladesh and the Caribbean. Mar Policy 25:365–376CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Berkes F (2009) Evolution of co-management: role of knowledge generation, bridging organizations and social learning. J Environ Manage 90:1692–1702PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Biggs R, Schlüter M, Biggs D, Bohensky EL, Burnsilver S, Cundill G, Dakos V, Daw T, Evans LS, Kotschy K, Leitch AM, Meek C, Quinlan A, Raudsepp-Hearne C, Robards MD, Schoon ML, Schultz L, West PC (2012) Toward principles for enhancing the resilience of ecosystem services. Ann Rev Environ Resour 37:421–428CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Birner R, Wittmer H (2004) On the ‘efficient boundaries of the state’: the contribution of transaction-costs economics to the analysis of decentralization and devolution in natural resource management. Environ Plan C 22:667–685CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bodin O, Crona BI (2009) The role of social networks in natural resource governance: what relational patterns make a difference. Glob Environ Change 19:366–374CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Bodin O, Prell C (2011) Social networks and natural resource management: uncovering the social fabric of environmental governance. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Borgatti SP, Halgin DS (2011) On network theory. Org Sci 22:1168–1181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Branch TA, Watson R, Fulton EA, Jennings S, McGilliard CR, Pablico GT, Ricard D, Tracey SR (2010) The trophic fingerprint of marine fisheries. Nature 468:431–435PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Brander K (2012) Climate and current anthropogenic impacts on fisheries. Clim Change 119(1):9–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Bundy A, Chuenpagdee R, Jentoft S, Mahon R (2008) If science is not the answer, what is? An alternative governance model for the world’s fisheries. Front Ecol Environ 6:152–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Burns T, Stöhr C (2011) Power, knowledge, and conflict in the shaping of commons governance. The case of EU Baltic fisheries. Int J Commons 5(2):233–258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Camp EV, Pine WE III, Havens K, Kane AS, Walters CJ, Irani T, Lindsey AB, Morris JG Jr. (2015) Collapse of a historic oyster fishery: diagnosing causes and identifying paths towards increased resilience. Ecol Soc 20(3):45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Carpenter SR, Mooney HA, Agard J, Capistrano D, DeFries RS, Diaz S, Dietz T, Duraiappah AK, Oteng-Yeboah A, Miguel Pereira H, Perrings C, Reid WV, Sarukhan J, Scholes RJ, Whyte A (2009) Science for managing ecosystem services: beyond the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 106:1305–1312PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Chaffin BC, Garmestani AS, Gosnell H, Craig RK (2016) Institutional networks and adaptive water governance in the Klamath River Basin, USA. Environ Sci Pol 57:112–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Cheung WWL, Watson R, Pauly D (2013) Signature of ocean warming in global fisheries catch. Nature 497:365–368PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Cochrane K (2016) An integrated view of fisheries: tunnelling between silos. ICES J Mar Sci. doi:10.1093/icesjms/fsw198 Google Scholar
  31. Coral Triangle Initiative on Coral Reefs, Fisheries, and Food Security (CTI-CFF) (2009) Regional plan of action: coral triangle initiative on coral reefs, fisheries and food security (CTI-CFF), security. The coral triangle initiative on coral reefs, fisheries, and food securityGoogle Scholar
  32. Cornell S, Berkhout F, Tuinstra W, Tàbara JD, Jäger J, Chabay I, de Wit B, Langlais R, Mills D, Moll P, Otto IM, Petersen A, Pohl C, van Kerkhoff L (2013) Opening up knowledge systems for better responses to global environmental change. Environ Sci Pol 28:60–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Crona BI, Bodin O (2006) What you know is who you know? Communication patterns among resources extractors as a prerequisite for co-management. Ecol Soc 11:7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Crowder LB, Osherenko G, Young OR, Airamé S, Norse EA, Baron N, Day JC, Douvere F, Ehler CN, Halpern BS, Langdon SJ, McLeod KL, Ogden JC, Peach RE, Rosenberg AA, Wilson JA (2006) Resolving mismatches in US ocean governance. Science 313:617–618PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Cunningham R, Cvitanovic C, Measham T, Jacobs B, Dowd AM, Harman B (2016) Engaging communities in climate adaptation: the potential of social networks. Clim Pol 16(7):894–908CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Cvitanovic C, Hobday AJ, van Kerkhoff L, Wilson SK, Dobbs K, Marshall NA (2015) Improving knowledge exchange among scientists and decision-makers to facilitate the adaptive governance of marine resources: a review of knowledge and research needs. Ocean Coast Manage 112:25–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Cvitanovic C, McDonald J, Hobday AJ (2016) From science to action: principles for undertaking environmental research that enables knowledge exchange and evidence-based decision-making. J Environ Manage 183:864–874PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Cvitanovic C, Cunningham R, Dowd AM, Howden M, van Putten I (2017) Using social network analysis to monitor and assess the effectiveness of knowledge brokers at connecting scientists and decision-makers: an Australian case study. Environ Policy Gov. doi:10.1002/eet.1752 Google Scholar
  39. Degnbol P, Gislason H, Hanna S, Jentoft S, Raakjar Nielsen J, Sverdrup-Jensen S, Wilson DC (2006) Painting the floor with a hammer: technical fixes in fisheries management. Mar Pol 30:534–543CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Doney SC, Ruckelshaus M, Duffy JE, Barry JP, Chan F, English CA, Galindo HM, Grebmeier JM, Hollowed AB, Knowlton N, Polovina J, Rabalais NN, Sydeman WJ, Talley LD (2012) Climate change impacts on marine ecosystems. Ann Rev Mar Sci 4:11–37PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Dowd AM, Marshall N, Fleming A, Jakku E, Gaillard E, Howden M (2014) The role of networks in transforming Australian agriculture. Nat Clim Change 4:558–563CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Driessen PPJ, Glasbergen P, Verdaas C (2001) Interactive policy-making: a model of management for public works. Euro J Oper Res 128:322–337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Driessen PPJ, Dieperink C, van Laerhoven F, Runhaar HAC, Vermeulen WJV (2012) Towards a conceptual framework for the study of shifts in modes of environmental governance—experiences from the Netherlands. Environ Policy Gov 22:143–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Dunne JA, Williams RJ, Martinez ND (2002) Food-web structure and network theory: the role of connectance and size. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 99:12917–12922PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Earl S, Carden F, Smutylo T (2001) Outcome mapping: building learning and reflection into development programs. International Development Centre, OttawaGoogle Scholar
  46. Ehler CN (2003) Indicators to measure governance performance in integrated coastal management. Ocean Coast Manage 46:335–345CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Evely AC, Pinard M, Reed MS, Fazey I (2011) High levels of participation in conservation projects enhance learning. Conserv Lett 4:116–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Favero M, Gatto P, Deutsch N, Pettenella D (2016) Conflict of synergy? Understanding interaction between municipalities and village commons (regole) in polycentric governance of mountain areas in the Veneta Region, Italy. Int J Commons 10:821–853CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Fazey I, Fazey JA, Fischer J, Sherren K, Warren J, Noss RF, Dovers SR (2007) Adaptive capacity and learning to learn as leverage for social-ecological resilience. Front Ecol Environ 5:375–380CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Fazey I, Evely AC, Reed MS, Stringer LC, Kruijsen J, White PVL, Newsham A, Jin L, Cortazzi M, Phillipson J, Blackstock EN, Sheate W, Armstrong F, Blackmore C, Fazey J, Ingram J, Gregson J, Lowe P, Morton S, Trevitt C (2013) Knowledge exchange: a review and research agenda for environmental management. Environ Conserv 40:19–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Few R (2001) Containment and counter-containment: planner/community relations in conservation planning. Geogr J 167:111–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Few R (2003) Participation or containment? Insights from the planning of protected areas in Belize’. In: Pugh J, Potter RB (eds) Participatory planning in the Caribbean: lessons from practice. Ashgate, Aldershot, pp 23–44Google Scholar
  53. Fleming A, Hobday AJ, Farmery A, Van Putten EI, Pecl GT, Green BS, Lim-Camacho L (2014) Climate change risks and adaptation options across Australian seafood supply chains—a preliminary assessment. Clim Risk Manage 1:39–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Folke C, Pritchard L Jr., Berkes F, Colding J, Svedin U (2007) The problem of fit between ecosystems and institutions: 10 years later. Ecol Soc 12:30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Folke C, Chappin FS III, Olssom P (2009) Transformation in ecosystem stewardship. In: Chappin FS III, Kofinas GP, Folke C (eds) Principles of ecosystem stewardship: resilience-based natural resource management in a changing world. Springer, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Frank KA, Yasumoto FY (1998) Linking action to social structures within a system: social capital within and between subgroups. Am J Sociol 104:642–686CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Frank KT, Petrie B, Choi JS, Leggett WC (2005) Trophic cascades in a formerly cod-dominated system. Science 308:1621–1623PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Fulton EA, Smith ADM, Smith DC, Johnson P (2014) An integrated approach is needed for ecosystem based fisheries management: insights from ecosystem-level management strategy evaluation. PLoS ONE 9(1):e84242PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Galaz V, Crona B, Österblom H, Olsson P, Folke C (2012) Polycentric systems and interacting planetary boundaries—emerging governance of climate change-ocean acidification-marine biodiversity. Ecol Econ 81:21–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Gaventa J (2006) Finding the spaces for change: a power analysis. IDS Bull 37(6):23–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Gelcich S (2014) Towards polycentric governance of small-scale fisheries: insights from the new ‘Management Plans’ policy in Chile. Aquat Conserv Mar Freshw Ecosyst 24:575–581CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Gelcich S, Hughes TP, Olsson P, Folke C, Defeo O, Fernández M, Folae S, Gunderson LH, Rodriguez-Sickert C, Scheffer M, Steneck RS, Castilla JC (2010) Navigating transformation in governance of Chilean marine coastal resources. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 107:16794–16799PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Gilmour PW, Dwyer PD, Day RW (2011) Beyond individual quotas: the role of trust and cooperation in promoting stewardship of five Australian abalone fisheries. Mar Pol 35:692–702CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Grant S, Berkes F (2007) Fisher knowledge as expert system: a case from the longline fishery of Grenada, the Eastern Caribbean. Fish Res 84:162–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Griffin L (2009) Scales of knowledge: North Sea fisheries governance, the local fisherman and the European scientist. Environ Polit 18:557–575CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Haedrich RL, Hamilton LC (2000) The fall and future of Newfoundland’s Cod fishery. Soc Nat Resour 13:359–372CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Haggan N, Neis B, Baird I (2007) Fishers’ knowledge in fisheries science and management. UNESCO, Paris, p 437Google Scholar
  68. Hansen GJA, Gaeta JW, Hansen JF, Carpenter SR (2015) Learning to manage and managing to learn: sustaining freshwater recreational fisheries in a changing environment. Fisheries 40:56–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Hardin G (1968) The tragedy of the commons. Science 162:1243–1248PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Hobday AH, Cvitanovic C (2017) Preparing Australian fisheries for the critical decade—insights from the last 25 years. Mar Freshw Res. doi:10.1071/MF16393 Google Scholar
  71. Hobday AJ, Arrizabalaga H, Evans K, Nicol S, Young JW, Weng KC (2015a) Impacts of climate change on marine top predators. Deep Sea Res Part II 113:1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Hobday AJ, Bell JD, Cook TR, Gasalla MA, Weng KC (2015b) Reconciling conflicts in pelagic fisheries under climate change. Deep Sea Res II 113:291–300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Huppé GA, Creech H, Knoblauch D (2012) The frontiers of networks governance. International Institute for Sustainable Development, Winnipeg, p 37Google Scholar
  74. Hutchings JA, Myers RA (1994) What can be learned from the collapse of a renewable resource? Atlantic Cod, Gadus morhua, or Newfoundland and Labrador. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 51:2126–2146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Jackson JBC, Kirby MX, Berger WH, Bjorndal KA, Botsford LW, Bourque BJ, Bradbury RH, Cooke R, Erlandson J, Estes JA, Hughes TP, Kidwell S, Lange CB, Lenihan HS, Pandolfi JM, Peterson CH, Steneck RS, Tegner MJ, Warner RR (2001) Historical overfishing and the recent collapse of coastal ecosystems. Science 293:629–637PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Jentoft S, Chuenpagdee R (2009) Fisheries and coastal governance as a wicked problem. Mar Pol 33:553–560CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Johannes RE, Neis B (2007) The value of anecdote. In: Haggan N, Neis B, Baird I (eds) Fishers’ knowledge in fisheries science and management. UNESCO, Paris, pp 41–57Google Scholar
  78. Johannes RE, Freeman MMR, Hamilton RJ (2000) Ignores fishers’ knowledge and miss the boat. Fish Fish 1:257–271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Johnson C (2001) Community formation and fisheries conservation in Southern Thailand. Dev Change 32:951–974CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Juntti M, Russel D, Turnpenny J (2009) Evidence, politics and power in public policy for the environment. Environ Sci Pol 12:207–215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Kalikoski DC, Allison EH (2010) Learning and adaptation; the role of fisheries comanagement in building resilient social-ecological systems. In: Armitage D, Plummer R (eds) Adaptive capacity and environmental governance. Springer, London, pp 69–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Kapoor I (2001) Towards participatory environmental management. J Environ Manage 63:269–279PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Kaufmann D, Kraay A (2008) Governance indicators: where are we, where should we be going. World Bank Res Obs 23(1):1–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Knoepfel P, Kissling-Näf I (1998) Social learning in policy networks. Policy Polit 26:343–367CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Knoke D, Yang S (2008) Social network analysis, 2nd edn. SAGE, Thousand OaksCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Lange P, Driessen PPJ, Sauer A, Bornemann B, Burger P (2013) Governing towards sustainability—conceptualizing modes of governance. J Environ Pol Plan 15(3):403–425CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Lebel L, Anderies JM, Campbell B, Folke C, Hatfield-Dodds S, Hughes TP, Wilson J (2006) Governance and the capacity to manage resilience in regional social-ecological systems. Ecol Soc 11(1):19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Lemos MC, Agrawal A (2006) Environmental governance. Ann Rev Environ Res 31:297–325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Lim-Camacho L, Hobday AJ, Bustamante RH, Farmery A, Fleming A, Frusher S, Green BS, Norman-López A, Pecl GT, Plagányi EE, Schrobback P, Thebaud O, Thomas L, Van Putten I (2015) Facing the wave of change: stakeholder perspectives on climate adaptation for Australian seafood supply chains. Reg Environ Change 15:595–606CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Little LR, Punt A, Dichmont CM, Dowling NA, Smith DC, Fulton EA, Sporcic M, Gorton RJ (2015) Decision trade-offs for cost-constrained fisheries management. ICES J Mar Sci. doi:10.1093/icesjms/fsv206 Google Scholar
  91. Lockwood M, Davidson J, Hockings M, Haward M, Kriwoken L (2012) Marine biodiversity conservation governance and management: regime requirements for global environmental change. Ocean Coast Manage 69:160–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Lopes PFM, Rosa EM, Salyvonchyk S, Nora V, Begossi A (2013) Suggestions for fixing top-down coastal fisheries management through participatory approaches. Mar Pol 40:100–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Low B, Ostrom E, Simon C, Wilson J (2003) Redundancy and diversity: do they influence optimal management. In: Berkes F, Colding J, Folke C (eds) Navigating social-ecological systems: building resilience for complexity and change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 83–114Google Scholar
  94. Madin EMP, Ban NC, Doubleday ZA, Holmes TH, Pecl GT, Smith F (2012) Socio-economic and management implications of range-shifting species in marine systems. Glob Environ Change 22(1):137–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Mahon R, McConney P, Roy RN (2008) Governing fisheries as complex adaptive systems. Mar Pol 32:104–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Marin A, Gelcich S, Castilla JC, Berkes F (2012) Exploring social capital in Chile’s coastal benthic comanagement system using a network approach. Ecol Soc 17(1):13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. McIlgorm A, Hanna S, Knapp G, Le Floc’h P, Millerd F, Pan M (2010) How will climate change alter fisheries governance? Insights from seven international case studies. Mar Pol 34:170–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Melnychuk MC, Peterson E, Elliott M, Hilborn R (2016) Fisheries management impacts on target species status. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 114:178–183PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Murray G, Bavington D, Neis B (2005) Local ecological knowledge, science, participation and fisheries governance in Newfoundland and Labrador: a complex, contested and changing relationship. Participation in fisheries governance. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 269–290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Nagle JC, Ruhl JB (2002) The law of biodiversity and ecosystem management. Found Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  101. Newig J, Fritsch O (2009) Environmental governance: participatory, multi-level and effective? Environ Policy Gov 19:197–214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Newig J, Günther D, Pahl-Wostl C (2010) Synapses in the network: learning in governance in the context of environmental management. Ecol Soc 15(4):24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Nieves J, Osorio J (2013) The role of social networks in knowledge creation. Knowl Man Res Pract 11:62–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Norman-Lopez A, Plaganyi E, Skewes T, Poloczanska E, Dennis D, Gibbs M, Bayliss P (2013) Linking physiological, population and socioeconomic assessments of climate-change impacts on fisheries. Fish Res 148:18–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Ogier EM, Davidson J, Fidelman P, Haward M, Hobday AJ, Holbrook NJ, Hoshino E, Pecl GT (2016) Fisheries management approaches as platforms for climate change adaptation: comparing theory and practice in Australian fisheries. Mar Pol 71:82–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Orchard SE, Stringer LC (2016) Challenges to polycentric governance of an international development project tackling land degradation in Swaziland. Ambio 45:796–807PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Orensanz JML, Armstrong J, Armstrong D, Hilborn R (1998) Crustacean resources are vulnerable to serial depletion—the multifaceted decline of crab and shrimp fisheries in the Greater Gulf of Alaska. Rev Fish Biol Fish 8:117–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Ostrom V (1962) The political economy of water development. Am Econ Rev 52:450–458Google Scholar
  109. Ostrom E (2010) Polycentric systems for coping with collective action and global environmental change. Glob Environ Change 20:550–557CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Ostrom V, Tiebout CM, Warren R (1961) The organization of government in metropolitan areas: a theoretical enquiry. Am Polit Sci Rev 55:831–842CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Ostrom E, Park RB, Whitaker GP (1978) Patterns of metropolitan policing. Ballinger Publishing Company, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  112. Pantazidou M (2012). What next for power analysis? A review of recent experience with the powercube and related frameworks. IDS working paper 400Google Scholar
  113. Parrott L, Meyer WS (2012) Future landscape: managing within complexity. Front Ecol Environ 10:382–389CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Pauly D, Zeller D (2016) Catch reconstructions reveal that global marine fisheries catches are higher than reported and declining. Nat Commun 7:10244PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Pauly D, Watson R, Alder J (2005) Global trends in world fisheries: impacts on marine ecosystems and food security. Philos Trans R Soc B 360:5–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Pietri DM, Stevenson TC, Christie P (2015) The coral triangle initiative and regional exchanges: strengthening capacity through a regional learning network. Glob Environ Change 33:165–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Plagányi EE, Weeks SJ, Skewes TD, Gibbs MT, Poloczanska ES, Norman-López A, Blamey LK, Soares M, Robinson WML (2011) Assessing the adequacy of current fisheries management under changing climate: a southern synopsis. ICES J Mar Sci 68:1305–1317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Platteau J-P, Gaspart F (2003) The risk of resource misappropriation in community-driven development. World Dev 31:1687–1703CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Polanyi M (1951) The logic of liberty. University of Chicago Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  120. Polis GA, Strong DR (1996) Food web complexity and community dynamics. Am Nat 147(5):813–846CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Poloczanska ES, Babcock RC, Butler A, Hobday AJ, Hoegh-Guldberg O, Kunz TJ, Matear R, Milton DA, Okey TA, Richardson AJ (2007) Climate change and Australian marine life. Oceanogry Mar Biol 45:407–478Google Scholar
  122. Pomeroy RS, Carlos MB (1997) Community-based coastal resource management in the Philippines: a review and evaluation of programs and projects, 1984–1994. Mar Pol 21:445–464CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Pomeroy R, Parks J, Pollnac R, Campson T, Genio E, Marlessy C, Holle E, Pido M, Nissapa A, Boromthanarat S, Thu Hue N (2007) Fish wars: conflict and collaboration in fisheries management in Southeast Asia. Mar Policy 31:645–656CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Prell C (2012) Social network analysis: history, theory and methodology. Sage, LondonGoogle Scholar
  125. Provan KG, Kenis P (2007) Modes of network governance: structure, management, and effectiveness. J Publ Adm Res Theor 18(2):229–252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Punt AE, A’mar T, Bond NA, Butterworth DS, de Moor CL, De Oliveira JAA, Haltuch MA, Hollowed AB, Szuwalski C (2013) Fisheries management under climate and environmental uncertainty: control rules and performance simulation. ICES J Mar Sci. doi:10.1093/icesjms/fst057 Google Scholar
  127. Raja NM, Kuperan B, Pomeroy KB, Abdullah RS (1998) Transaction costs and fisheries co-management. Mar Resour Econ 13:103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Ratner BD, Oh EJV, Pomeroy RS (2012) Navigating change: second-generation challenges of small-scale fisheries co-management in the Philippines and Vietnam. J Environ Manage 107:131–139PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Ratner BD, Mam K, Halpern G (2014) Collaborating for resilience: conflict, collective action, and transformation on Cambodia’s Tonle Sap Lake. Ecol Soc 19(3):31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Raymond CM, Fazey I, Reed MS, Stringer LC, Robinson GM, Evely AC (2010) Integrating local and scientific knowledge for environmental management. J Environ Manage 91:1766–1777PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Reed M (2008) Stakeholder participation for environmental management: a literature review. Biol Conserv 141:2417–2431CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Reisner M (1986) Cadillac desert. Penguin Books USA Inc., LondonGoogle Scholar
  133. Rice JC, Garcia SM (2011) Fisheries, food security, climate change, and biodiversity: characteristics of the sector and perspectives on emerging issues. ICES J Mar Sci 68(6):1343–1353CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Rice JC, Rochet MJ (2005) A framework for selecting a suite of indicators for fisheries management. ICES J Mar Sci 62:516–527CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Rijsoort J, Jinfeng Z (2005) Participatory resource monitoring as a means for promoting social change in Yunnan, China. Biodivers Conserv 14:2543–2573CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Rohlf DJ (1991) Six biological reasons why the Endangered Species Act doesn’t work—and what to do about it. Conserv Biol 5:273–282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Rose GA (2004) Reconciling overfishing and climate change with stock dynamics of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) over 500 years. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 61(9):1553–1557CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Rosenberg AA, Bolster WJ, Alexander KE, Leavenworth WB, Cooper AB, McKenzie MG (2005) The history of ocean resources: modelling cod biomass using historical records. Front Ecol Environ 3:78–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Runhaar H, Driessen PPJ, Soer L (2009) Sustainable urban development and the challenge of policy integration: an assessment of planning tools for integrating spatial and environmental planning in the Netherlands. Environ Plan B 36:417–431CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Russ GR, Alcala AC (1999) Management histories of Sumilon and Apo Marine Reserves, Philippines, and their influence on national marine resource policy. Coral Reefs 18:307–319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Ryan D, Toews C, Sanchirico JN, Armsworth PR (2017) Implications of policy adjustment costs for fisheries management. Nat Res Model 30:74–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Sainsbury KJ, Punt AE, Smith ADM (2000) Design of operational management strategies for achieving fishery ecosystem objectives. ICES J Mar Sci 57:731–741CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Salinger J, Hobday AJ, Matear RJ, O’Kane TJ, Risbey JS, Dunstan PK, Eveson JP, Fulton EA, Feng M, Plaganyi EE, Poloczanska ES, Marshall AG, Thompson PA (2016) Decadal-scale forecasting of climate drivers for marine applications. Adv Mar Biol 74:1–68PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Sardar Z (2010) Welcome to postnormnal times. Futures 42:435–444CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Schrank WE, Arnason R, Hannesson R (eds) (2003) The cost of fisheries management. Ashgate, AldershotGoogle Scholar
  146. Siebenhüner B, Suplie J (2005) Implementing the access and benefit-sharing provision of the CBD: a case for institutional learning. Ecol Econ 53:507–522CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Silvano RAM, Begossi A (2012) Fishermen’s local ecological knowledge on Southeastern Brazilian coastal fisheries: contributions to research, conservation, and management. Neotrop Ichthyol 10:133–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Smith ADM, Fulton EA, Hobday AJ, Smith DC, Shoulder P (2007) Scientific tools to support practical implementation of ecosystem based fisheries management. ICES J Mar Sci 64:633–639CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Stephenson RL, Paul S, Pastoors MA, Kraan M, Holm P, Wiber M, Mackinson S, Dankel DJ, Brooks K, Benson A (2016) Integrating fishers’ knowledge research in science and management. ICES J Mar Sci 73:1459–1465CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Stringer LC, Dougill AJ, Fraser E, Hubacek K, Prell C, Reed MS (2006) Unpacking “participation” in the adaptive management of social-ecological systems: a critical review. Ecol Soc 11:39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Trimble M, Berkes F (2013) Participatory research towards co-management: lessons from artisanal fisheries in coastal Uruguay. J Environ Manage 128:768–778PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Van Kerkhoff L, Lebel L (2015) Coproductive capacities: rethinking science-governance relations in a diverse world. Ecol Soc 20(1):14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Walker B, Salt D (2006) Resilience thinking: sustaining ecosystems and people in a changing world. Island Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  154. Weschler LF (1968) Water resource management: The Orange county experience. California government series, no 14. University of California, Institute of Governmental AffairsGoogle Scholar
  155. Williamson OE (1999) Public and private bureaucracies: a transaction cost economics perspectives. J Law Econ Org 15(1):306–342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Wilson DC, Raakjaer J, Degnbol P (2006) Local ecological knowledge and practical fisheries management in the tropics: a policy brief. Mar Pol 30:794–801CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Worm B, Hilborn R, Baum JK, Branch TA, Collie JS, Costello C, Fogarty MJ, Fulton EA, Hutchings JA, Jennings S, Jensen OP, Lotze HK, Mace PM, McClanahan TR, Minto C, Palumbi SR, Parma AM, Ricard D, Rosenberg AA, Watson R, Zeller D (2009) Rebuilding global fisheries. Science 325:578–585PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Zann LP (1999) A new (old) approach to inshore resources management in Samoa. Ocean Coast Manage 42:569–590CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centre for Marine SocioecologyUniversity of TasmaniaHobartAustralia
  2. 2.Institute for Marine and Antarctic StudiesUniversity of TasmaniaHobartAustralia
  3. 3.Faculty of LawUniversity of TasmaniaSandy BayAustralia
  4. 4.Oceans and AtmosphereCSIROHobartAustralia

Personalised recommendations