Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Integrated approach to determining stock structure: implications for fisheries management of sardine, Sardinops sagax, in Australian waters

Abstract

The stock structure of small pelagic fishes is difficult to determine due to their patchy distribution and complex movement patterns. We integrate genetic, morphological, otolith, growth, reproductive and fishery data collected over 60 years using a Stock Differentiation Index (SDI). The absence of strong separation (SDI > 0.66) of most adjacent sub-groups supports the hypothesis that sardine (Sardinops sagax) in Australian waters is a meta-population, but with effective isolation of at least four stocks: south western coast (off Western Australia); Great Australian Bight and Spencer Gulf; Bass Strait and Port Phillip Bay (off Victoria and Tasmania); and eastern Australia. There is also evidence for sub-division of the stocks off Western Australia and the east coast. We examine age-related and inter-annual patterns of stock structure off South Australia and the east coast through integrated analysis of otolith chemistry and shape data. For the east coast, there were significant differences between northern and southern sub-groups for all three age cohorts examined. Fish were correctly classified to sampling region with a high degree of success (>80%), supporting the sub-division of the east coast stock suggested by the SDI. For South Australia, there were significant differences among two sub-groups for most cohorts examined across two sampling years. However, spatial discriminatory power was poor, with allocation success ranging from 48 to 64%. Results suggest that movements between the two South Australian sub-groups may vary among years, which is consistent with inconclusive SDI (0.5). Integrating historical data using a SDI is suitable for identifying fishery management units. Integrated analysis of otoliths from archival collections is useful for examining temporal variability in stock structure, which is also important for fisheries management. Our findings are relevant to fisheries where sustainability risks are increased by management arrangements based on assumptions that stock structure is absent or stable.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2

References

  1. Abaunza P (2008) Horse mackerel: identification of stocks. Fish Res 89:101–103. doi:10.1016/j.fishres.2007.09.013

  2. Abaunza P, Murta AG, Campbell N, Cimmaruta R, Comesaña AS, Dahle G, Gallo E, Garćıa Santamaŕıa MT, Gordo LS, Iversen SA, MacKenzie K, Magoulas A, Mattiucci S, Molloy J, Nascetti G, Pinto AL, Quinta R, Ramos P, Ruggi A, Sanjuan A, Santamaŕıa MT, Santos AT, Stransky C, Zimmermann C (2008a) Considerations on sampling strategies for an holistic approach to stock identification: the example of the HOMSIR project. Fish Res 89:104–113. doi:10.1016/j.fishres.2007.09.020

  3. Abaunza P, Murta AG, Campbell N, Cimmaruta R, Comesaña AS, Dahle G, Santamaría MTG, Gordo LS, Iversen SA, MacKenzie K, Magoulas A, Mattiucci S, Molloy J, Nascetti G, Pinto AL, Quinta R, Ramos P, Sanjuan A, Santos AT, Stransky C, Zimmermann C (2008b) Stock identity of horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus) in the Northeast Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea: integrating the results from different stock identification approaches. Fish Res 89:196–209. doi:10.1016/j.fishres.2007.09.022

  4. Baird ME, Everett JD, Suthers IM (2011) Analysis of southeast Australian zooplankton observations of 1938–42 using synoptic oceanographic conditions. Deep Sea Res Part 2 Top Stud Oceanogr 58:699–711

  5. Baldwin RE, Banks MA, Jacobson KC (2012) Integrating fish and parasite data as a holistic solution for identifying the elusive stock structure of Pacific sardines (Sardinops sagax). Rev Fish Biol Fisher 22:137–156

  6. Begg GA, Waldman JR (1999) An holistic approach to fish stock identification. Fish Res 43:35–44. doi:10.1016/S0165-7836(99)00065-X

  7. Begg GA, Friedland KD, Pearce JB (1999) Stock identification and its role in stock assessment and fisheries management: an overview. Fish Res 43:1–8. doi:10.1016/S0165-7836(99)00062-4

  8. Blackburn JM (1950) Studies on age, growth, and life history of the pilchard, Sardinops neopilchardus (Steindachner), in southern and western Australia. Aust J Mar Freshw Res 1:221–258

  9. Blackburn M (1951) Races and populations of the Australian pilchard, Sardinops neopilchardus (Steindachner). Aust J Mar Freshw Res 2:179–192

  10. Blackburn M (1960) Synopsis on the biology of the Australian and New Zealand sardine, Sardinops neopilchardus (Steindachner). In: Rosa H, Murphy G (eds) Proceedings of the world scientific meeting on the biology of sardines and related species, vol 2., Species synopsesFAO, Rome, pp 245–262

  11. Bruce BD, Short DA (1990) Observations on the distribution of larval fish in relation to a frontal zone at the mouth of Spencer Gulf, South Australia. Bur Rural Resour 15:124–137

  12. Bulman C, Condie S, Findlay J, Ward B, Young J (2008) Management zones from small pelagic fish species stock structure in southern Australian waters. Fisheries Research and Development Corporation and Australian Fisheries Management Authority, Commercial-in-Confidence

  13. Caddy JF, Seijo JC (2005) This is more difficult than we thought! The responsibility of scientists, managers and stakeholders to mitigate the unsustainability of marine fisheries. Philos Tran R Soc B 360:59–75. doi:10.1098/rstb.2004.1567

  14. Cadrin SX, Friedland KD (1999) The utility of image processing techniques for morphometric analysis and stock identification. Fish Res 43:129–139. doi:10.1016/S0165-7836(99)00070-3

  15. Cadrin SX, Friedland KD, Waldman JR (2005) Stock identification methods. Applications in fishery science. Elsevier, Amsterdam

  16. Campana SE, Casselman JM (1993) Stock discrimination using otolith shape analysis. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 50:1062–1083

  17. Caputi N, Fletcher WJ, Pearce A, Chubb CF (1996) Effect of the Leeuwin current on the recruitment of fish and invertebrates along the Western Australian coast. Mar Freshw Res 47:147–155

  18. Catalano SR, Whittington ID, Donnellan SC, Gillanders BM (2014) Parasites as biological tags to assess host population structure: guidelines, recent genetic advances and comments on a holistic approach. Int J Parasitol Parasites Wildl 3:220–226

  19. Chavez FP, Ryan J, Lluch-Cota SE, Niquen M (2003) From anchovies to sardines and back: multidecadal change in the Pacific Ocean. Science 299:217–221

  20. Clarke KR, Warwick RM (2001) An approach to statistical analysis and interpretation. Changes in marine communities. PRIMER Ltd, Plymouth, p 176

  21. Cochrane KL (1999) Review of the Western Australian pilchard fishery. Food and Agricultural Organisation of the United Nations, Fisheries Management Paper No. 129

  22. Cochrane KL, Butterworth DS, Oliveira JAAD, Roel BA (1998) Management procedures in a fishery based on highly variable stocks and with conflicting objectives: experiences in the South African pelagic fishery. Rev Fish Biol Fish 8:177–214. doi:10.1023/A:1008894011847

  23. Cury P, Bakun A, Crawford RJM, Jarre A, Quiñones RA, Shannon LJ, Verheye HM (2000) Small pelagics in upwelling systems: patterns of interaction and structural changes in “wasp-waist” ecosystems. ICES J Mar Sci 57:603–618. doi:10.1006/jmsc.2000.0712

  24. Dakin WJ (1937) The occurrence of the Australian pilchard, Sardinops neopilchardus (Steind.) and its spawning season in New South Wales waters, together with brief notes on other New South Wales clupeids. Proc Linn Soc NSW 62:209–216

  25. Demer DA, Zwolinski JP (2014) Corroboration and refinement of a method for differentiating landings from two stocks of Pacific sardine (Sardinops sagax) in the California Current. ICES J Mar Sci 71:328–335

  26. DeVries DA, Grimes CB, Prager MH (2002) Using otolith shape analysis to distinguish eastern Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic Ocean stocks of king mackerel. Fish Res 57:51–62. doi:10.1016/S0165-7836(01)00332-0

  27. Dixon PI, Worland LJ, Chan BHY (1993) Stock identification and discrimination of pilchards in Australian waters, using genetic criteria. Final Report, Fisheries Research and Development Corporation. Project No. 1989/25

  28. Dredge MCL (1969) Aspects of the biology of the Australian pilchard, Sardinops neopilchardus (Steindachner) relating to commercial exploitation of stocks in South Australia. Dissertation, The University of Adelaide

  29. Edmonds JS, Fletcher WJ (1997) Stock discrimination of pilchards Sardinops sagax by stable isotope ratio analysis of otolith carbonate. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 152:241–247

  30. Edmonds JS, Caputi N, Moran MJ, Fletcher WJ, Morita M (1995) Population discrimination by variation in concentrations of minor and trace elements in sagittae of two Western Australian teleosts. In: Secor DH, Dean JH, Campana SE (eds) Recent developments in fish otolith research. University of South Carolina Press, Columbia, pp 655–670

  31. Fletcher WJ (1990) A synopsis of the biology and the exploitation of the Australian pilchard, Sardinops neopilchardus (Steindachner). Part 1: biology. Fisheries Research Report Western Australia Number 88

  32. Fletcher WJ (1991) A synopsis of the biology and the exploitation of the Australian pilchard, Sardinops neopilchardus (Steindachner). Part 2: history of stock assessment and exploitation. Fisheries Research Report Western Australia Number 91

  33. Fletcher WJ (1995) Application of the otolith weight–age relationship for the pilchard, Sardinops sagax neopilchardus. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 52:657–664

  34. Fletcher WJ, Blight SJ (1996) Validity of using translucent zones of otoliths to age the pilchard Sardinops sagax neopilchardus from Albany, Western Australia. Mar Freshw Res 47:617–624

  35. Fletcher WJ, Sumner NR (1999) Spatial distribution of sardine (Sardinops sagax) eggs and larvae: an application of geostatistics and resampling to survey data. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 56:907–914

  36. Fletcher WJ, Tregonning RJ (1992) Distribution and timing of spawning by the Australian pilchard (Sardinops sagax neopilchardus) off Albany, Western Australia. Aust J Mar Freshw Res 43:1437–1439

  37. Fletcher WJ, Tregonning RJ, Sant GJ (1994) Interseasonal variation in the transport of pilchard eggs and larvae off southern Western Australia. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 111:209–224

  38. Fletcher WJ, Lo NCH, Hayes EA, Tregonning RJ, Blight SJ (1996) Use of the daily egg production method to estimate the stock size of Western Australian sardines (Sardinops sagax). Mar Freshw Res 47:819–825

  39. Fletcher WJ, Jones B, Pearce AF, Hosja W (1997) Environmental and biological aspects of the mass mortality of pilchards (Autumn 1995) in Western Australia. Fisheries Research Report Western Australia Number 106, pp 1–112

  40. Fowler J, Donohue K, Lenanton R, Moran M, Gaughan D (1997) Management of the south coast purse seine fishery. Fisheries Western Australia Fisheries Management Paper No. 99

  41. Fréon P, Cury P, Shannon L, Roy C (2005) Sustainable exploitation of small pelagic fish stocks challenged by environmental and ecosystem changes: a review. Bull Mar Sci 76:385–462

  42. García-Morales R, Shirasago-German B, Félix-Uraga R, Pérez-Lezama E (2012) Conceptual models of Pacific sardine distribution in the California current system. CDO 5:23–47

  43. Gaughan DJ, Fletcher WJ (1997) Effects of the Leeuwin current on the distribution of carnivorous macrozooplankton in the shelf waters off southern Western Australia. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 45:89–97

  44. Gaughan DJ, Neira FJ, Beckley LE, Potter IC (1990) Composition, seasonality and distribution of the ichthyoplankton in the lower Swan Estuary, south-western Australia. Aust J Mar Freshw Res 41:529–543

  45. Gaughan DJ, Baudains GA, Mitchell RWD, Leary TI (2001a) Pilchard (Sardinops sagax) nursery areas and recruitment process assessment between different regions in southern Western Australia. Fisheries Research Report Western Australia Number 131, pp 1–44

  46. Gaughan DJ, Fletcher WJ, White KV (2001b) Growth rate of larval Sardinops sagax from ecosystems with different levels of productivity. Mar Biol 139:831–837

  47. Gaughan DJ, White KV, Fletcher WJ (2001c) The links between functionally distinct adult assemblages of Sardinops sagax: larval advection across management boundaries. ICES J Mar Sci 58:597–606

  48. Gaughan DJ, Fletcher WJ, McKinlay JP (2002) Functionally distinct adult assemblages within a single breeding stock of the sardine, Sardinops sagax: management units within a management unit. Fish Res 59:217–231

  49. Gaughan D, Craine M, Stephenson P, Leary T, Lewis P (2008) Regrowth of pilchard (Sardinops sagax) stocks off southern WA following the mass mortality event of 1998/99. Fisheries Research Report Western Australia No. 176

  50. Grant WS, Leslie RW (1996) Late Pleistocene dispersal of Indian-Pacific sardine populations in an ancient lineage of the genus Sardinops. Mar Biol 126:133–142

  51. Gray CA, Miskiewicz AG (2000) Larval fish assemblages in south-east Australian coastal waters: seasonal and spatial structure. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 50:549–570

  52. Griffin WL, Powell WJ, Pearson NJ, O’Reilly SY (2008) GLITTER: data reduction software for laser ablation ICP-MS. Laser Abl ICP-MS Earth Sci 40:204–207

  53. Hall K (2001) The potential use of otoliths for pilchard stock discrimination. Dissertation, Deakin University

  54. Hammer C, Zimmermann C (2005) The role of stock identification in formulating fishery management advice. In: Cadrin SX, Friedland KD, Waldman JR (eds) Stock identification methods. Applications in fishery science. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 631–658

  55. Hobday DK (1988) Phillip Island penguin prey population study. Fisheries Division of the Department for Conservation, Forests & Lands. Review Series No. 89

  56. Hoedt FE, Dimmlich WF (1995) Egg and larval abundance and spawning localities of the anchovy (Engraulis australis) and pilchard (Sardinops neopilchardus) near Phillip Island, Victoria. Mar Freshw Res 46:735–743

  57. Hoedt FE, Cullen M, Dann P (1995) The biology and ecology of three species of clupeoid fishes eaten by little penguins in the waters adjacent to Phillip Island. Phillip Island Penguin Reserve Report

  58. Hyatt AD, Hine PM, Jones JB, Whittington RJ, Kearns C, Wise TG, Crane MS, Williams LM (1997) Epizootic mortality in the pilchard Sardinops sagax neopilchardus in Australia and New Zealand in 1995. II. Identification of a herpesvirus within the gill epithelium. Dis Aquat Organ 28:17–29

  59. Iwata H, Ukai Y (2002) Shape: a computer program package for quantitative evaluation of biological shapes based on Elliptic Fourier descriptors. J Hered 93:384–385. doi:10.1093/jhered/93.5.384

  60. Jenkins GP (1986) Composition, seasonality and distribution of ichthyoplankton in Port Phillip Bay, Victoria. Aust J Mar Freshw Res 37:507–520

  61. Jones JB, Hyatt AD, Hine PM, Whittington RJ, Griffin DA, Bax NJ (1997) Australasian pilchard mortalities. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 13:383–392

  62. Joseph BDL (1981) Pilchard fishery at Jervis Bay—biology, fishery and population dynamics. Dissertation, University of New South Wales

  63. Kalish JM (1989) Otolith microchemistry: validation of the effects of physiology, age and environment on otolith composition. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 132:151–178

  64. Kinloch M, Neira FJ, Ward TM, Hoedt F, Jackson G (1998) Reproductive biology of pilchards in southern and eastern Australia. In: Ward TM, Kinloch M, Jones GK, Neira FJ (eds) A collaborative investigation of the usage and stock assessment of baitfish on southern and eastern Australian waters, with special reference to pilchards (Sardinops sagax). Final Report, Fisheries Research and Development Corporation. Project No. 1994/029, pp 227–253

  65. Lleonart J, Maynou F (2003) Fish stock assessments in the Mediterranean: state of the art. Sci Mar 67:37–49

  66. Lluch-Belda D, Lluch-Cota DB, Hernandez-Vazquez S, Salinas-Zavala CA, Schwartlose RA (1991) Sardine and anchovy spawning as related to temperature and upwelling in the California current system. California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations Reports 32, pp 105–111

  67. Louw GG, van der Lingen CD, Gibbons MJ (1998) Differential feeding by sardine Sardinops sagax and anchovy Engraulis capensis recruits in mixed shoals. S Afr J Mar Sci 19:227–232

  68. McGurk MD (1986) Natural mortality of marine pelagic fish eggs and larvae: role of spatial patchiness. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 34:227–242

  69. Middleton JF, Cirano M (2002) A northern boundary current along Australia’s southern shelves: the Flinders Current. J Geophys Res Oceans 107:3129. doi:10.1029/2000JC000701

  70. Miller DC, Moloney CL, van der Lingen CD, Lett C, Mullon C, Field JG (2006) Modelling the effects of physical–biological interactions and spatial variability in spawning and nursery areas on transport and retention of sardine Sardinops sagax eggs and larvae in the southern Benguela ecosystem. J Maine Syst 61:212–229

  71. Morison S, Hall K (1998) Age and growth of pilchards in south-eastern Australia. In: Ward TM, Kinloch M, Jones GK, Neira FJ (eds) A collaborative investigation of the usage and stock assessment of baitfish on southern and eastern Australian waters, with special reference to pilchards (Sardinops sagax). Final Report, Fisheries Research and Development Corporation. Project No. 1994/029, pp 175-226

  72. Muhling BA, Beckley LE, Gaughan DJ, Jones CM, Miskiewicz AG, Hesp SA (2008) Spawning, larval abundance and growth rate of Sardinops sagax off southwestern Australia: influence of an anomalous eastern boundary current. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 364:157–167

  73. Mullaney TJ, Suthers IM (2013) Entrainment and retention of the coastal larval fish assemblage by a short-lived, submesoscale, frontal eddy of the East Australian Current. Limnol Oceanogr 58:1546–1556

  74. Mullaney TJ, Gillanders BM, Heagney EC, Suthers IM (2014) Entrainment and advection of larval sardine, Sardinops sagax, by the East Australian Current and retention in the western Tasman Front. Fish Oceanogr 23:554–567

  75. Munro AR, Gillanders BM, Elsdon TS, Crook DA, Sanger AC (2008) Enriched stable isotope marking of juvenile golden perch (Macquaria ambigua) otoliths. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 65:276–285

  76. Murray AG, Gaughan DJ (2003) Using an age-structured model to simulate the recovery of the Australian pilchard (Sardinops sagax) population following epidemic mass mortality. Fish Res 60:415–426

  77. Murray AG, O’Callaghan M, Jones B (2001) Simple models of massive epidemics of herpesvirus in Australian (and New Zealand) pilchards. Environ Int 27:243–248

  78. Murray AG, O’Callaghan M, Jones B (2003) A model of spatially evolving herpesvirus epidemics causing mass mortality in Australian pilchard Sardinops sagax. Dis Aquat Organ 54:1–14

  79. Neira FJ, Jenkins GP, Longmore A, Black KP (1998) Spawning and larval recruitment processes of commercially important species in coastal waters off Victoria 1997–1998. Final Report, Fisheries Research and Development Corporation. Project No. 96/116

  80. Neira FJ, Sporcic MI, Longmore AR (1999) Biology and fishery of pilchard, Sardinops sagax (Clupeidae), within a large south-eastern Australian bay. Mar Freshw Res 50:43–55. doi:10.1071/MF98067

  81. Ohshimo S, Tanaka H, Hiyama Y (2009) Long-term stock assessment and growth changes of the Japanese sardine (Sardinops melanostictus) in the Sea of Japan and East China Sea from 1953 to 2006. Fish Oceanogr 18:346–358

  82. Okazaki T, Kobayashi T, Uozumi Y (1996) Genetic relationships of pilchards (genus: Sardinops) with anti-tropical distributions. Mar Biol 126:585–590

  83. Ovenden J (2014) Review of genetic connectivity in six species in the Small Pelagic Fishery, Prepared for the Department of the Environment (on behalf of the expert panel) 30 May, 2014

  84. Parrish RH, Serra R, Grant WS (1989) The monotypic sardines, Sardina and Sardinops: their taxonomy, distribution, stock structure, and zoogeography. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 46:20219–22036

  85. Primary Industries and Regions South Australia (2014) Management plan for the South Australian Commercial Marine Scalefish Fishery, part B—management arrangements for the taking of sardines, Paper Number 68: Fisheries and Aquaculture. Primary Industries and Regions South Australia, Adelaide, p 88

  86. Pikitch E, Boersma PD, Boyd IL, Conover DO, Cury P, Essington T, Heppell SS, Houde ED, Mangel M, Pauly D, Plagányi É, Sainsbury K, Steneck RS (2012) Little fish, big impact: managing a crucial link in ocean food webs. Lenfest Ocean Program, Washington, DC, 108 pp

  87. Rogers PJ, Ward TM (2005) Australian sardine (pilchard) Sardinops sagax: fishery assessment report. Report to PIRSA Fisheries. SARDI Aquatic Sciences Publication No. RD03/0198-3 (Report Series No. 139)

  88. Rogers PJ, Ward TM (2007) Application of a ‘case building approach’ to investigate the age distributions and growth dynamics of Australian sardine (Sardinops sagax) off South Australia. Mar Freshw Res 58:461–474

  89. Roux JP, van der Lingen CD, Gibbons MJ, Moroff NE, Shannon LJ, Smith AD, Cury PM (2013) Jellyfication of marine ecosystems as a likely consequence of overfishing small pelagic fishes: lessons from the Benguela. B Mar Sci 89:249–284

  90. Schwartzlose RA, Alheit J, Bakun A, Baumgartner TR, Cloete R, Crawford RJM, Fletcher WJ, Green-Ruiz Y, Hagen E, Kawasaki T, Lluch-Belda D (1999) Worldwide large-scale fluctuations of sardine and anchovy populations. S Afr J Mar Sci 21:289–347

  91. Stevens JD, Hausfeld HF, Davenport SR (1984) Observations on the biology, distribution and abundance of Trachurus declivis, Sardinops neopilchardus and Scomber australasicus in the Great Australian Bight. CSIRO Marine Laboratories

  92. Stewart J (2008) A decision support system for setting legal minimum lengths of fish. Fish Manag Ecol 15:291–301. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2400.2008.00614.x

  93. Stewart J, Ballinger G, Ferrell D (2010) Review of the biology and fishery for Australian sardines (Sardinops sagax) in New South Wales—2010. Industry and Investment NSW—Fisheries Research Report Series No. 26

  94. Strong NJ, Ward TM (2009) Growth rates of larval sardine, Sardinops sagax, in upwelling areas of the eastern Great Australian Bight. Trans R Soc South Aust 133:307–317

  95. Swain DP, Foote CJ (1999) Stocks and chameleons: the use of phenotypic variation in stock identificaton. Fish Res 43:113–128

  96. Syahailatua A (1992) The Australian pilchard (Sardinops neopilchardus); morphometric, meristic, growth and reproductive studies. Dissertation, University of New South Wales

  97. Tacon AGJ, Metian M (2009) Fishing for feed or fishing for food: increasing global competition for small pelagic forage fish. Ambio 38:294–302. doi:10.1579/08-A-574.1

  98. Takasuka A, Oozeki Y, Aoki I (2007) Optimal growth temperature hypothesis: why do anchovy flourish and sardine collapse or vice versa under the same ocean regime? Can J Fish Aquat Sci 64:768–776. doi:10.1139/f07-052

  99. Tanner SE, Reis-Santos P, Cabral HN (2015) Otolith chemistry in stock delineation: a brief overview, current challenges and future prospects. Fish Res 173:206–213

  100. Tilburg CE, Hurlburt HE, O’Brien JJ, Shriver JF (2001) The dynamics of the East Australian Current system: the Tasman Front, the East Auckland Current, and the East Cape Current. J Phys Oceanogr 31:2917–2943

  101. Uehara S, Syahailatua A, Suthers IM (2005) Recent growth rate of larval pilchards Sardinops sagax in relation to their stable isotope concentration, in an upwelling zone of the East Australian Current. Mar Freshw Res 56:549–560

  102. van der Lingen CD, Weston LF, Ssempa NN, Reed CC (2015) Incorporating parasite data in population structure studies of South African sardine Sardinops sagax. Parasitology 142:156–167

  103. Waldman JR (1999) The importance of comparative studies in stock analysis. Fish Res 43:237–246

  104. Ward TM, Staunton-Smith J (2002) Comparison of the spawning patterns and fisheries biology of the sardine, Sardinops sagax, in temperate South Australia and sub-tropical southern Queensland. Fish Res 56:37–49

  105. Ward TM, Kinloch M, Jones GK, Neira FJ (1998) A collaborative investigation of the usage and stock assessment of baitfish in southern and eastern Australian waters, with special reference to pilchards (Sardinops sagax). Final Report, Fisheries Research and Development Corporation. Project No. 1994/024

  106. Ward TM, Hoedt F, McLeay L, Dimmlich WF, Kinloch M, Jackson G, McGarvey R, Rogers PJ, Jones K (2001) Effects of the 1995 and 1998 mass mortality events on the spawning biomass of sardine, Sardinops sagax, in South Australian waters. ICES J Mar Sci 58:865–875

  107. Ward TM, Staunton-Smith JS, Hoyleb IAH (2003) Spawning patterns of four species of predominantly temperate pelagic fishes in the sub-tropical waters of southern Queensland. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 56:1125–1140

  108. Ward TM, Rogers PJ, Stephenson P, Schmarr DW, Strong N, McLeay LJ (2005) Implementation of an age structured stock assessment model for sardine (Sardinops sagax) in South Australia. Final Report, Fisheries Research and Development Corporation Project No. 2000/125

  109. Ward TM, Mcleay LJ, Dimmlich WF, Rogers PJ, Mcclatchie S, Matthews R, Kämpf J, Van Ruth PD (2006) Pelagic ecology of a northern boundary current system: effects of upwelling on the production and distribution of sardine (Sardinops sagax), anchovy (Engraulis australis) and southern bluefin tuna (Thunnus maccoyii) in the Great Australian Bight. Fish Oceanogr 15:191–207

  110. Ward TM, Ivey AR, McLeay LJ (2007) Spawning biomass of sardine, Sardinops sagax, in waters off South Australia in February–March 2007. Report to PIRSA Fisheries. SARDI Aquatic Sciences Publication No. F2007/000566-2 (Report Series No. 245)

  111. Ward TM, Ferguson G, Rogers PJ (2008) The South Australian sardine (Sardinops sagax) fishery. Report to PIRSA Fisheries. SARDI Aquatic Sciences Publication No. F2001/000765-2 (Report Series No. 262)

  112. Ward TM, Ivey AR, McLeay LJ, Burch P (2009) Spawning biomass of sardine, Sardinops sagax, in waters off South Australia in 2009. Report to PIRSA Fisheries. SARDI Aquatic Sciences Publication No. F2007/000566-3 (Report Series No. 401)

  113. Ward TM, Burch P, Ivey AR (2010) The South Australian sardine (Sardinops sagax) fishery: Stock assessment report 2010. Report to PIRSA Fisheries. SARDI Aquatic Sciences Publication No. F2007/000765-3 (Report Series No. 496)

  114. Ward TM, Ivey AR, Earl J (2014a) Commonwealth small pelagic fishery: fishery assessment report 2011–2013. Report to the Australian Fisheries Management Authority. South Australian Research and Development Institute (Aquatic Sciences), Adelaide. SARDI Publication No. F2010/000270- 5. SARDI Research Report Series No. 779. 104 pp

  115. Ward TM, Molony B, Stewart J, Andrews J, Moore A (2014b) Australian Sardine Sardinops sagax. In: Flood M, Stobutzki I, Andrews J, Ashby C, Begg G, Fletcher R, Gardner C, Georgeson L, Hansen S, Hartmann K, Hone P, Horvat P, Maloney L, McDonald B, Moore A, Roelofs A, Sainsbury K, Saunders T, Smith T, Stewardson C, Stewart J, Wise B (eds) 2014, Status of key Australian fish stocks reports 2014. Fisheries Research and Development Corporation, Canberra

  116. Ward TM, Burnell O, Ivey A, Carroll J, Keane J, Lyle J, Sexton S (2015a) Summer spawning patterns and preliminary daily egg production method survey of Jack Mackerel and Australian Sardine off the East Coast. South Australian Research and Development Institute (Aquatic Sciences), Adelaide, 64 pp

  117. Ward TM, Whitten AR, Ivey AR (2015b) South Australian Sardine (Sardinops sagax) Fishery: Stock Assessment Report 2015. Report to PIRSA Fisheries and Aquaculture. South Australian Research and Development Institute (Aquatic Sciences), Adelaide, 103 pp

  118. Ward TM, Burnell OW, Ivey A, Sexton SC, Carroll J, Keane J, Lyle JM (2016) Spawning biomass of jack mackerel (Trachurus declivis) off eastern Australia: Critical knowledge for managing a controversial fishery. Fish Res 179:10–22

  119. Welch DJ, Buckworth RC, Ovenden JR, Newman SJ, Broderick D, Lester RJG, Ballagh AC, Stapley JM, Charters RA, Gribble NA (2009) Determination of management units for grey mackerel fisheries in northern Australia. Final Report, Fisheries Research and Development Corporation. Project No. 2005/010. Fishing & Fisheries Research Centre Technical Report No. 4

  120. Welch DJ, Newman SJ, Buckworth RC, Ovenden JR, Broderick D, Lester RJ, Gribble NA, Ballagh AC, Charters RA, Stapley J, Street R (2015) Integrating different approaches in the definition of biological stocks: a northern Australian multi-jurisdictional fisheries example using grey mackerel, Scomberomorus semifasciatus. Mar Policy 55:73–80

  121. Whittington RJ, Crockford M, Jordan D, Jones B (2008) Herpesvirus that caused epizootic mortality in 1995 and 1998 in pilchard, Sardinops sagax neopilchardus (Steindachner), in Australia is now endemic. J Fish Dis 31:97–105

  122. Yardin MR, Dixon PI, Coyle T, Syahailatua A, Avramidis M (1998) Stock discrimination of Sardinops sagax in south eastern Australia. In: Ward TM, Kinloch M, Jones GK, Neira FJ (eds) A collaborative investigation of the usage and stock assessment of baitfish in southern and eastern Australia with special reference to pilchards (Sardinops sagax). Final Report, Fisheries Research and Development Corporation. Project No. 1994/024, pp 85–174

Download references

Acknowledgements

This research was funded by the Australian Government Fisheries Research and Development Corporation (Project No. 2009/021). The South Australian Research and Development Institute provided significant in-kind support. The authors thank the crews of the numerous fishing vessels and fisheries observers for their assistance in collecting samples. Thanks to Benjamin Wade at Adelaide Microscopy for support with the ICP-MS. Greg Ferguson is thanked for guidance on otolith shape analysis. Bronwyn Gillanders was supported by an Australian Research Council Future Fellowship (FT100100767).

Author information

Correspondence to Tim M. Ward.

Electronic supplementary material

Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.

Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 16 kb)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Izzo, C., Ward, T.M., Ivey, A.R. et al. Integrated approach to determining stock structure: implications for fisheries management of sardine, Sardinops sagax, in Australian waters. Rev Fish Biol Fisheries 27, 267–284 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11160-017-9468-z

Download citation

Keywords

  • Fisheries management
  • Small pelagic fishes
  • Stock structure
  • Otolith chemistry
  • Otolith shape analysis