Advertisement

Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries

, Volume 25, Issue 1, pp 65–83 | Cite as

Effects of fishing during the spawning period: implications for sustainable management

  • Harriët M. J. van Overzee
  • Adriaan D. Rijnsdorp
Reviews

Abstract

While fishery closures during the spawning season are commonplace, direct evidence for their benefit is mainly restricted to species forming large spawning aggregations. This paper analyses the conditions under which spawning closures could contribute to sustainable fisheries management by reviewing how fishing during spawning may affect the physiology, behaviour and ecology of individuals and how this may influence the dynamics and the genetics of the population. We distinguish between the effects of fishing activities in relation to mortality, disturbance of spawning activity, and impact on spawning habitat. Spawning closures may be of benefit it they: (1) reduce the fishing mortality of the large and older spawners; (2) avoid negative effects on spawning habitats; (3) reduce the risk of over-exploitation in species which form large spawning aggregations; (4) reduce the evolutionary effects on maturation and reproductive investment; and (5) reduce the risk of over-exploitation of specific spawning components. The contribution of spawning closures to sustainable fisheries will differ among species and depends on the complexity of the spawning system, the level of aggregation during spawning and the vulnerability of the spawning habitat. The importance of these closures depends on the degree of population depletion but does not cease when populations are ‘healthy’ (i.e. no sign that recruitment is impaired).

Keywords

Spawning closures Fish Invertebrates Reproduction Spawning aggregations Fisheries 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank Wim van As (Vis en Seizoen) for challenging us to study the potential effects of spawning closures. Our study was financially supported by the Ministry of Economic Affairs, Agriculture and Innovation (EL&I) through the ‘Visserij Innovatie Platform’ (G080734, G080735, G092394, G092428, G103061, G103063, G103066). The paper has improved substantially from the comments of three anonymous reviewers.

Supplementary material

11160_2014_9370_MOESM1_ESM.docx (271 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 271 kb)

References

  1. Agardy MT (1994) Advances in marine conservation—the role of marine protected areas. Trends Ecol Evol 9:267–270Google Scholar
  2. Albert OT, Harbitz A, Hoines AS (2003) Greenland halibut observed by video in front of survey trawl: behaviour, escapement, and spatial pattern. J Sea Res 50:117–127Google Scholar
  3. Anon. (2001a) Commission Regulation (EC) No. 259/2001 of 7 February 2001 Establishing measures for the recovery of the stock of cod in the North Sea (ICES subarea IV) and associated conditions for the control of activities of fishing vessels. Off J Eur Commun L65/13Google Scholar
  4. Anon. (2001b) Commission Regulation (EC) No. 456/2001 of 6 March 2001 Establishing measures for the recovery of the stock of cod to the West of Scotland (ICES Division VIa) and associated conditions for the control of activities of fishing vessels. Off J Eur Commun L65/13Google Scholar
  5. Augustyn CJ, Roel BA (1998) Fisheries biology, stock assessment, and management of the chokka squid (Loligo vulgaris reynaudii) in South African waters: an overview. CalCOFI Report 39:71–79Google Scholar
  6. Axelsen BE, Nottestad L, Ferno A, Johannessen A, Misund OA (2000) ‘Await’ in the pelagic: dynamic trade-off between reproduction and survival within a herring school splitting vertically during spawning. Mar Ecol Progress Series 205:259–269Google Scholar
  7. Baumberger RE, Brown-Peterson NJ, Reed JK, Gilmore RG (2010) Spawning Aggregation of Beardfish, Polymixia lowei, in a Deep-water Sinkhole off the Florida Keys. Copeia 41–46. doi: 10.1643/ce-09-004
  8. Beacham TD, Brattey J, Miller KM, Le KD, Withler RE (2002) Multiple stock structure of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) off Newfoundland and Labrador determined from genetic variation. ICES J Mar Sci 59:650–665. doi: 10.1006/jmsc.2002.1253 Google Scholar
  9. Beets J, Friedlander A (1998) Evaluation of a conservation strategy: a spawning aggregation closure for red hind, Epinephelus guttatus, in the US Virgin Islands. Environ Biol Fish 55:91–98Google Scholar
  10. Bekkevold D (2006) Male size composition affects male reproductive variance in Atlantic cod Gadus morhua L. spawning aggregations. J Fish Biol 69:945–950. doi: 10.1111/j.1095-8649.2006.01140.x Google Scholar
  11. Bentley MG, Olive PJW, Last K (1999) Sexual satellites, moonlight and the nuptial dances of worms: the influence of the moon on the reproduction of marine animals. Earth Moon Planets 85–86:67–84. doi: 10.1023/a:1017039110161 Google Scholar
  12. Beverton RJH, Holt SJ (1957) On the dynamics of exploited fish populations. LondonGoogle Scholar
  13. Coleman FC, Williams SL (2002) Overexploiting marine ecosystem egineers: potential consequences for biodiversity. Trends Ecol Evol 17:40–44Google Scholar
  14. Comeau M, Savoie F (2002) Maturity and reproductive cycle of the female American lobster, Homarus americanus, in the southern Gulf of St. lawrence, Canada. J Crustac Biol 22:762–774. doi:  10.1163/20021975-99990290 Google Scholar
  15. Conover DO, Munch SB (2002) Sustaining fisheries yields over evolutionary time scales. Science 297:94–96PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Corten A (2001) The role of “conservatism” in herring migrations. Rev Fish Biol Fish 11:339–361Google Scholar
  17. Costello MJ et al (2005) Role of cold-water Lophelia pertusa coral reefs as fish habitat in the NE Atlantic. In: Freiwald ARJM (ed) Cold-Water Corals and Ecosystems, pp 771–805. doi: 10.1007/3-540-27673-4_41
  18. Counihan RT, McNamara DC, Souter DC, Jebreen EJ, Preston NP, Johnson CR, Degnan BM (2001) Pattern, synchrony and predictability of spawning of the tropical abalone Haliotis asinina from Heron Reef, Australia. Mar Ecol Progress Series 213:193–202. doi: 10.3354/meps213193 Google Scholar
  19. Cushing DH (1990) Plankton production and year-class strength in fish populations: an update of the match/mismatch hypothesis. Adv Marine Biol 26:249–293Google Scholar
  20. Davoren GK, Anderson JT, Montevecchi WA (2006) Shoal behaviour and maturity relations of spawning capelin (Mallotus villosus) off Newfoundland: demersal spawning and diel vertical movement patterns. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 63:268–284. doi: 10.1139/f05-204 Google Scholar
  21. Dayton PK, Thrush SF, Agardy MT, Hofman RJ (1995) Environmental effects of marine fishing. Aquat Conserv 5:205–232Google Scholar
  22. de Graaf M, van Zwieten PAM, Machiels MAM, Lemma E, Wudneh T, Dejen E, Sibbing FA (2006) Vulnerability to a small-scale commercial fishery of Lake Tana’s (Ethiopia) endemic Labeobarbus compared with African catfish and Nile tilapia: an example of recruitment-overfishing? Fish Res 82:304–318. doi: 10.1016/j.fishres.2006.05.011 Google Scholar
  23. de Robertis A, Wilson CD, Williamson NJ, Guttormsen MA, Stienessen S (2010) Silent ships sometimes do encounter more fish. 1. Vessel comparisons during winter pollock surveys. ICES J Mar Sci 67Google Scholar
  24. Dean MJ, Hoffman WS, Armstrong MP (2012) Disruption of an atlantic cod spawning aggregation resulting from the opening of a directed gill-net fishery. North Am J Fish Manag 32:124–134. doi: 10.1080/02755947.2012.663457 Google Scholar
  25. DFO (1998) Spawning Times of Haddock and Cod on Georges BankGoogle Scholar
  26. Dinmore TA, Duplisea DE, Rackham BD, Maxwell DL, Jennings S (2003) Impact of a large-scale area closure on patterns of fishing disturbance and the consequences for benthic communities. ICES J Mar Sci 60:371–380Google Scholar
  27. Domeier ML, Colin PL (1997) Tropical reef fish spawning aggregations: defined and reviewed. Bull Mar Sci 60:698–726Google Scholar
  28. Eltink ATGW (1987) Changes in age-size distribution and sex ratio during spawning. Journal du Conseil international pour l’Exploration de la Mer 44:10–22Google Scholar
  29. Ennis GP (2011) Closed areas as a conservation strategy in the Newfoundland lobster fishery. Biodiversity 12:11–20Google Scholar
  30. Erisman BE, Buckhorn ML, Hastings PA (2007) Spawning patterns in the leopard grouper. Mycteroperca rosacea, in comparison with other aggregating groupers Marine Biology 151:1849–1861. doi: 10.1007/s00227-007-0623-2 Google Scholar
  31. Finstad JL, Nordeide JT (2004) Acoustic repertoire of spawning cod. Gadus morhua Environmental Biology of Fishes 70:427–433Google Scholar
  32. Fleming IA (1996) Reproductive strategies of Atlantic salmon: ecology and evolution. Rev Fish Biol Fisheries 6:397–416Google Scholar
  33. Fogarty MJ, O’Brien L (2009) Recruitment in marine fish populations. In: Jakobsen T, Fogarty MJ, Megrey BA, Moksness E (eds) Fish reproductive biology. Implications for assessment and management. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, pp 11–47Google Scholar
  34. Frank KT, Brickman D (2000) Allee effects and compensatory population dynamics within a stock complex. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 57:513–517Google Scholar
  35. Fudge SB, Rose GA (2009) Passive- and active-acoustic properties of a spawning Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) aggregation. ICES J Mar Sci 66:1259–1263. doi: 10.1093/icesjms/fsp097 Google Scholar
  36. Geffen AJ (2009) Advances in herring biology: from simple to complex, coping with plasticity and adaptability. ICES J Mar Sci 66:1688–1695Google Scholar
  37. Godø OR, Walsh SJ (1992) Escapement of fish during bottom trawl sampling—implications for resource assessment. Fish Res 13:281–292Google Scholar
  38. Gõni R, Latrouite D (2005) Review of the biology, ecology and fisheries of Palinurus spp. species of European waters: Palinurus elephas (Fabricius, 1787) and Palinurus mauritanicus (Gruvel, 1911). Cah Biol Mar 46:127–142Google Scholar
  39. Gõni R, Reñones O, Quiteglas A (2001) Dynamics of a protected Westeren Mediterranean population of the European spiny lobster Palinurus elephas (Frabicius, 1787) assessed by trap surveys. Mar Freshw Res 52:1577–1587Google Scholar
  40. Gordon JDM (2001) Deep-water fisheries at the Atlantic Frontier. Cont Shelf Res 21:987–1003Google Scholar
  41. Green BS (2008) Maternal effects in fish populations. Adv Mar Biol 54:1–105PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Gross MR, Sargent RC (1985) The evolution of male and female parental care in fishes. Am Zool 25:807–822Google Scholar
  43. Growns I (2004) A numerical classification of reproductive guilds of the freshwater fishes of south-eastern Australia and their application to river management. Fish Manag Ecol 11:369–377Google Scholar
  44. Grüss A, Kaplan DM, Robinson J (2014) Evaluation of the effectiveness of marine reserves for transient spawning aggregations in data-limited situations. ICES J Mar Sci J du Conseil 71:435–449. doi: 10.1093/icesjms/fst028 Google Scholar
  45. Gwinn DC, Allen MS (2010) Exploring population-level effects of fishery closures during spawning: an example using largemouth bass. Trans Am Fish Soc 139:626–634. doi: 10.1577/t08-089.1 Google Scholar
  46. Halliday RG (1988) Use of seasonal spawning area closures in the management of haddock fisheries in the northwest Atlantic. NAFO Sci Counc Stud 12:27–36Google Scholar
  47. Hamilton RJ, Potuku T, Montambault JR (2011) Community-based conservation results in the recovery of reef fish spawning aggregations in the Coral Triangle. Biol Conserv 144:1850–1858. doi: 10.1016/j.biocon.2011.03.024 Google Scholar
  48. Hauser L, Carvalho GR (2008) Paradigm shifts in marine fisheries genetics: ugly hypotheses slain by beautiful facts. Fish Fish 9:333–362Google Scholar
  49. Hawkins AD, Amorim MCP (2000) Spawning sounds of the male haddock, Melanogrammus aeglefinus. Environ Biol Fish 59:29–41Google Scholar
  50. Hay DE (1986) Effects of delayed spawning on viability of eggs and larvae of Pacific herring. Trans Am Fish Soc 115:155–161Google Scholar
  51. Heino M, Godo OR (2002) Fisheries-induced selection pressures in the context of sustainable fisheries. Bull Mar Sci 70:639–656Google Scholar
  52. Hibberd T, Peckl GT (2007) Effects of commercial fishing on the population structure of spawning southern calamary (Sepioteuthis australis). Rev Fish Biol Fish 17:207–221Google Scholar
  53. Himmelman JH, Hamel J-R (1993) Diet, behaviour and reproduction of the whelk Buccinum undatum in the northern Gulf of St. Lawerende, eastern Canada. Mar Biol 116:423–430Google Scholar
  54. Horwood JW, Nichols JH, Milligan S (1998) Evaluation of closed areas for fish stock conservation. J Appl Ecol 35:893–903Google Scholar
  55. Houde ED (2009) Recruitment variability. In: Jakobsen T, Fogarty MJ, Megrey BA, Moksness E (eds) Fish reproductive biology, Implications for assessment and management. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, pp 91–171Google Scholar
  56. Hovel KA, Lipcius RN (2002) Effects of seagrass habitat fragmentation on juvenile blue crab survival and abundance. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 271:75–98Google Scholar
  57. Hutchinson WF, Carvalho GR, Rogers SI (2001) Marked genetic structuring in localised spawning populations of cod Gadus morhua in the North Sea and adjoining waters, as revealed by microsatellites. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 223:251–260Google Scholar
  58. Iles TC (1994) A Review of Stock Recruitment Relationships with Reference to Flatfish Populations Netherlands. J Sea Res 32:399–420Google Scholar
  59. Iwata Y, Ito K, Sakurai Y (2010) Is commercial harvesting of spawning aggregations sustainable? The reproductive status of the squid Loligo bleekeri. Fish Res 102:286–290Google Scholar
  60. Jackson JBC et al (2001) Historical overfishing and the recent collapse of coastal ecosystems. Science 293:629–638PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Jaworski A, Solmundsson J, Ragnarsson SA (2006) The effect of area closures on the demersal fish community off the east coast of Iceland. ICES J Mar Sci 63:897–911Google Scholar
  62. Jennings S (2005) Indicators to support an ecosystem approach to fisheries. Fish Fish 6:212–232Google Scholar
  63. Jennings S, Kaiser MJ (1998) The effects of fishing on marine ecosystems. Adv Mar Biol 34:201–352Google Scholar
  64. Johnston TA, Kaufman SD, Moles MD, Wiegand MD, Leggett WC (2008) Effects of delayed fertilization on embryo viability in walleye Sander vitreus (Mitchill): the role of maternal effects. J Fish Biol 72:2634–2644Google Scholar
  65. Jørgensen R, Handegard NO, Gjosaeter H, Slotte A (2004) Possible vessel avoidance behaviour of capelin in a feeding area and on a spawning ground. Fish Res 69:251–261. doi: 10.1016/j.fishres.2004.04.012 Google Scholar
  66. Jørgensen C et al (2007) Ecology—managing evolving fish stocks. Science 318:1247–1248PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Jørgensen C, Ernande B, Fiksen O (2009) Size-selective fishing gear and life history evolution in the Northeast Arctic cod. Evol Appl 2:356–370. doi: 10.1111/j.1752-4571.2009.00075.x PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Kadison E, Nemeth RS, Blondeau JE (2009) Assessment of an unprotected red hind (Epinephelus guttatus) spawning aggregation on Saba bank in the Netherlands Antilles. Bull Mar Sci 85:101–118Google Scholar
  69. Kennedy J, Geffen AJ, Nash RDM (2007) Maternal influences on egg and larval characteristics of plaice (Pleuronectes platessa L.). J Sea Res 58:65–77Google Scholar
  70. Kjesbu OS (1989) The spawning acitivity of cod, Gadus morhua L. J Fish Biol 34:195–206Google Scholar
  71. Kjesbu OA (2009) Applied fish reproductive biology: contribution of individual reproductive potential to recruitment and fisheries management. In: Jakobsen T, Megrey BA, Moksness E (eds) Fish reproductive biology and its implications for assessment and management. Blackwell Science Ltd, Oxford, pp 293–332Google Scholar
  72. Kjesbu OA, Solemdal P, Bratland P, Fonn M (1996) Variation in annual egg production in individual captive Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). Can J Fish Aquat Sci 53:610–620Google Scholar
  73. Koenig CC, Coleman FC, Grimes CB, Fitzhugh GR, Scanlon KM, Gledhill CT, Grace M (2000) Protection of fish spawning habitat for the conservation of warm-temperate reef-fish fisheries of shelf-edge reefs of Florida. Bull Mar Sci 66:593–616Google Scholar
  74. Koster FW et al (2005) Baltic cod recruitment–the impact of climate variability on key processes Ices. J Mar Sci 62:1408–1425. doi: 10.1016/j.icesjms.2005.05.004 Google Scholar
  75. Kuparinen A, Merila J (2007) Detecting and managing fisheries-induced evolution. Trends Ecol Evol 22:652–659PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Ladich F (2007) Females whisper briefly during sex: context- and sex-specific differences in sounds made by croaking gouramis. Anim Behav 73:379–387. doi: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2006.04.014 Google Scholar
  77. Lambert TC (1987) Duration and intensity of spawning in herring Clupea harengus as related to the age structure of the mature population. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 39:209–220Google Scholar
  78. Lambert TC (1990) The effect of population structure on recruitment in herring. Journal du Conseil international pour l’Exploration de la Mer 47:249–255Google Scholar
  79. Lappalainen J, Dörner H, Wysujack K (2003) Reproduction biology of pikeperch (Sander lucioperca (L.))—a review. Ecol Freshw Fish 12:95–106Google Scholar
  80. Large DA et al (2010) Spatial and temporal distribution of spawning aggregations of blue ling (Molva dypterygia) west and northwest of the British Isles. ICES J Mar Sci 67:494–501Google Scholar
  81. Laugen AT et al (2012) Evolutionary impact assessment: accounting for evolutionary consequences of fishing in an ecosystem approach to fisheries management. Fish Fish. doi: 10.1111/faf.12007 Google Scholar
  82. Law R (2000) Fishing, selection, and phenotypic evolution. ICES J Mar Sci 57:659–668Google Scholar
  83. Levin PS, Grimes CB (2006) Reef fish ecology and grouper conservation and management. In: Sale PF (ed) Coral reef fishes. Dynamics and diversity in a complex ecosystem. Academic Press, London, pp 377–390Google Scholar
  84. Lindstrom K, Lugli M (2000) A quantitative analysis of the courtship acoustic behaviour and sound patterning in male sand goby, Pomatoschistus minutus. Environ Biol Fishes 58:411–424Google Scholar
  85. Loher T (2011) Analysis of match-mismatch between commercial fishing periods and spawning ecology of Pacific halibut (Hippoglossus stenolepis), based on winter surveys and behavioural data from electronic archival tags. ICES J Mar Sci 68:2240–2251. doi: 10.1093/icesjms/fsr152 Google Scholar
  86. Loher T, Blood CL (2009) Seasonal dispersion of Pacific halibut (Hippoglossus stenolepsis) summering off British Columbia and the US Pacific Northwest evaluated via satellite archival tagging. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 66:1409–1422Google Scholar
  87. Mantzouni I, MacKenzie BR (2010) Productivity responses of a widespread marine piscivore, Gadus morhua, to oceanic thermal extremes and trends. Proc Roy Soc B Biol Sci 277:1867–1874. doi: 10.1098/rspb.2009.1906 Google Scholar
  88. Marteinsdottir G, Thorarinsson K (1998) Improving the stock-recruitment relationship in Icelandic cod (Gadus morhua) by including age diversity of spawners. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 55:1372–1377Google Scholar
  89. Matos-Caraballo D, Posada JM, Luckhurst BE (2006) Fishery-dependent evaluation of a spawning aggregation of tiger grouper (Mycteroperca tigris) at Vieques Island, Puerto Rico. Bull Mar Sci 79:1–16Google Scholar
  90. McEvoy LA (1984) Ovulatory rhythms and over-ripening of eggs in cultivated turbot, Scophthalmus maximus L. J Fish Biol 24:437–448Google Scholar
  91. McQuinn IH (1997) Metapopulations and the Atlantic herring. Rev Fish Biol Fisheries 7:297–329Google Scholar
  92. Mollah MFA, Tan ESP (1983) Viability of catfish (Clarias macrocephalus, Gunther) eggs fertilized at varying post-ovulation times. J Fish Biol 22:563–566Google Scholar
  93. Møller AP, Legendre S (2001) Allee effect, sexual selection and demographic stochasticity. Oikos 92:27–34Google Scholar
  94. Molloy J (1989) The closure of herring spawning grounds in the Celtic Sea and Div VIIJ Fishery Leaflet 145Google Scholar
  95. Molloy J (2006) The Herring Fisheries of Ireland 1900–2005. Marine Institute, Galway, IrelandGoogle Scholar
  96. Moltschaniwskyj N, Pecl G, Lyle J (2002) An assessment of the use of short-term closures to protect spawning southern calamary aggregations from fishing pressure in Tasmania, Australia. Bull Mar Sci 71:501–514Google Scholar
  97. Morato T, Cheung WWL, Pitcher TJ (2006) Vulnerability of seamount fish to fishing: fuzzy analysis of life-history attributes. J Fish Biol 68:209–221Google Scholar
  98. Morgan MJ, Trippel EA (1996) Skewed sex ratios in spawning shoals of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). ICES J Mar Sci 53:820–826Google Scholar
  99. Morgan MJ, DeBlois EM, Rose GA (1997) An observation on the reaction of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) in a spawning shoal to bottom trawling. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 54(Suppl. 1):217–223Google Scholar
  100. Morgan MJ, Wilson CE, Crim LW (1999) The effect of stress on reproduction in Atlantic cod. J Fish Biol 54:477–488Google Scholar
  101. Murawski SA, Brown R, Lai HL, Rago PJ, Hendrickson L (2000) Large-scale closed areas as a fishery-management tool in temperate marine systems: the Georges Bank experience. Bull Mar Sci 66:775–798Google Scholar
  102. Myers RA, Barrowman NJ (1996) Is fish recruitment related to spawner abundance? Fish Bull 94:707–724Google Scholar
  103. Myers RA, Barrowman NJ, Hutchings JA, Rosenberg AA (1995) Population dynamics of exploited fish stocks at low population levels. Science 269:1106–1108PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Myrberg AA (1997) Sound production by a coral reef fish (Pomacentrus partitus): evidence for a vocal, territorial ‘‘keep-out’’ signal. Bull Mar Sci 60:1017–1025Google Scholar
  105. Nemeth RS (2005) Population characteristics of a recovering US Virgin Islands red hind spawning aggregation following protection. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 286:81–97PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Otterå H, Agnalt A-L, Thorsen A, Kjesbu OS, Dahle G, Jørstad K (2012) Is spawning time of marine fish imprinted in the genes? A two-generation experiment on local Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.) populations from different geographical regions. ICES J Mar Sci 69:1722–1728Google Scholar
  107. Pajaro M, Macchi GJ, Martos P (2005) Reproductive pattern of the Patagonian stock of Argentine hake (Merluccius hubbsi). Fish Res 72:97–108Google Scholar
  108. Pampoulie C et al (2006) The genetic structure of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) around Iceland: insight from microsatellites, the Pan I locus, and tagging experiments. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 63:2660–2674. doi: 10.1139/f06-150 Google Scholar
  109. Pankhurst NW (1988) Spawning dynamics of orange roughy, Hoplostethus atlanticus, in mid-slope waters of New-Zealand. Environ Biol Fishes 21:101–116Google Scholar
  110. Pastoors MA, Rijnsdorp AD, Van Beek FA (2000) Effects of a partially closed area in the North Sea (“plaice box”) on stock development of plaice. ICES J Mar Sci 57:1014–1022Google Scholar
  111. Pauly D et al (2002) Towards sustainability in world fisheries. Nature 418:689–695. doi: 10.1038/nature01017 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Peterson NP, Quinn TP (1996) Persistence of egg pocket architecture in redds of chum salmon, Oncorhynchus keta. Environ Biol Fishes 46:243–253Google Scholar
  113. Petitgas P, Secor DH, McQuinn I, Huse G, Lo N (2010) Stock collapses and their recovery: mechanisms that establish and maintain life-cycle closure in space and time Ices. J Mar Sci 67:1841–1848Google Scholar
  114. Piet GJ, van Hal R, Greenstreet SPR (2009) Modelling the direct impact of bottom trawling on the North Sea fish community to derive estimates of fishing mortality for non-target fish species. ICES J Mar Sci 66:1985–1998. doi: 10.1093/icesjms/fsp162 Google Scholar
  115. Raventos N, Macpherson E (2005) Effect of pelagic larval growth and size-at-hatching on post-settlement survivorship in two temperate labrid fish of the genus Symphodus. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 285:205–211Google Scholar
  116. Raventos N, Planes S (2008) Maternal size effects on early life traits of the temperate fish Symphodus roissali. Aquatic Biol 4:1–6Google Scholar
  117. Reiss H, Hoarau G, Dickey-Collas M, Wolff WJ (2009) Genetic population structure of marine fish: mismatch between biological and fisheries management units. Fish Fish 10:361–395. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-2979.2008.00324.x Google Scholar
  118. Reznick DN, Bryga H, Endler JA (1993) Experimentally induced life-history evolution in a natural population. Nature 346:357–359Google Scholar
  119. Rice J (2008) Can we manage ecosystems in a sustainable way? J Sea Res 60:8–20. doi: 10.1016/j.seares.2008.02.002 Google Scholar
  120. Ricker WE (1954) Stock and recruitment. J Fish Res Board Can 11:559–623Google Scholar
  121. Rideout RM, Burton MPM, Rose GA (2000) Observations on mass atresia and skipped spawning in northern Atlantic cod, from Smith Sound, Newfoundland. J Fish Biol 57:1429–1440Google Scholar
  122. Ridgway MS, Shuter BJ, Post EE (1991) The relative influence of body size and territorial behaviour on nesting asynchrony in male smallmouth bass, Micropterus dolomieui (Pisces: Centrarchidae). J Anim Ecol 60:665–681Google Scholar
  123. Riehl R, Patzner RA (1998) Minireview: the modes of egg attachment in teleost fishes. Ital J Zool 65:415–420Google Scholar
  124. Rijnsdorp AD (1989) Maturation of male and female North Sea plaice (Pleuronectes platessa L.). Journal du Conseil international pour l’Exploration de la Mer 46:35–51Google Scholar
  125. Rijnsdorp AD (1993a) Fisheries as a large-scale experiment on life-history evolution: disentangling phenotypic and genetic effects in changes in maturation and reproduction of North Sea plaice, Pleuronectes platessa L. Oecologia 96:391–401Google Scholar
  126. Rijnsdorp AD (1993b) Selection differentials in male and female North Sea plaice and changes in maturation and fecundity. In: Stokes TK, McGlade JM, Law R (eds) The exploitation of evolving resources. Springer, Berlin, pp 19–36Google Scholar
  127. Rijnsdorp AD, Piet GJ, Poos JJ (2001) Effort allocation of the Dutch beam trawl fleet in response to a temporarily closed area in the North Sea. ICES CM 2001/N:01Google Scholar
  128. Rijnsdorp AD, van Damme CJG, Witthames PR (2010) Implications of fisheries-induced changes in stock structure and reproductive potential for stock recovery of a sex-dimorphic species, North Sea plaice. Ices J Mar Sci 67:1931–1938. doi: 10.1093/icesjms/fsq049 Google Scholar
  129. Rijnsdorp AD, van Overzee HMJ, Poos JJ (2012) Ecological and economic trade-offs in the management of mixed fisheries: a case study of spawning closures in flatfish fisheries. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 447:179–194Google Scholar
  130. Robichaud D, Rose GA (2003) Sex differences in cod residency on a spawning ground. Fish Res 60:33–43Google Scholar
  131. Roel BA, Cochrane KL, Butterworth DS (1998) Investigation on the effect of different levels of effort and of the closed season in the jig fishery for chokka squid Loligo vulgaris reynaudii. S Afr J Mar Sci 19:501–512Google Scholar
  132. Rose GA (1993) Cod spawning on a migration highway in the North-west Atlantic. Nature 366:458–461Google Scholar
  133. Rowe S, Hutchings JA (2003) Mating systems and the conservation of commercially exploited marine fish. Trends Ecol Evol 18:567–572. doi: 10.1016/j.tree.2003.09.004 Google Scholar
  134. Rowe S, Hutchings JA (2006) Sound production by Atlantic Cod during spawning. Trans Am Fish Soc 135:529–538. doi: 10.1577/t04-061.1 Google Scholar
  135. Rowe S, Hutchings JA, Bekkevold D, Rakitin A (2004) Depensation, probability of fertilization, and the mating system of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.). ICES J Mar Sci 61:1144–1150. doi: 10.1016/j.icesjms.2004.07.007 Google Scholar
  136. Russ GR, Alcala AC (1996) Do marine reserves export adult fish biomass? Evidence from Apo Island, central Philippines. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 132:1–9Google Scholar
  137. Russell FS (1976) The eggs and planktonic stages of British marine fishes. Academic Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  138. Russell MW, Luckhurst BE, Lindeman KC (2012) Management of spawning aggregations. In: Reef fish spawning aggregations: biology, research and management. Springer, Berlin, pp 371-404Google Scholar
  139. Ruzzante DE, Taggart CT, Cook D (1999) A review of the evidence for genetic structure of cod (Gadus morhua) populations in the NW Atlantic and population affinities of larval cod off Newfoundland and the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Fish Res 43:79–97Google Scholar
  140. Sadovy Y (1994) Grouper Stocks of the Western Central Atlantic: The Need for Management and Management Needs. Annual Gulf and Caribbean Fisheries Institute Proceedings 43:43–64Google Scholar
  141. Sadovy Y, Domeier ML (2005) Are aggregation-fisheries sustainable? Reef fisheries as a case study. Coral Reefs 24:254–262Google Scholar
  142. Sadovy de Mitcheson Y, Colin PL (eds) (2012) Reef fish spawning aggregations: biology, research and management, vol 35. Fish Fish Ser, Springer, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  143. Sadovy de Mitcheson Y, Erisman B (2012) Fishery and biological implications of fishing spawning aggregations, and the social and economic importance of aggregating fishes. In: de Mitcheson YS, Colin PL (eds) Reef fish spawning aggregations: Biology, research and management. Springer, Berlin, pp 225–284Google Scholar
  144. Sadovy de Mitcheson Y, Cornish A, Domeier M, Colin PL, Russell M, Lindeman KC (2008) A global baseline for spawning aggregations of reef fishes. Conserv Biol 22:1233–1244. doi: 10.1111/j.1523-1739.2008.01020.x PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Sadovy de Mitchenson Y et al (2012) Fishing groupers towards extinction: a global assessment of threats and extinction risks in a billion dollar fishery. Fish Fish. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-2979.2011.00455.x
  146. Sadovy de Mitcheson Y, Craig MT, Bertoncini AA, Carpenter KE, Cheung WWL, Choat JH, Cornish AS, Fennessy ST, Ferreira BP, Heemstra PC, Liu M, Myers RF, Pollard DA, Rhodes KL, Roch LA, Russell BC, Samoily MA, Sanciangco J (2013) Fishing groupers towards extinction: a global assessment of threats and extinction risks in a billion dollar fishery. Fish Fish 14:119–136. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-2979.2011.00455.x Google Scholar
  147. Sarda F, Company JB, Castellon A (2003) Intraspecific aggregation structure of a shoal of a Western Mediterranean (Catalan coast) deep-sea shrimp, Aristeus antennatus (Risso, 1816), during the reproductive period. J Shellfish Res 22:569–579Google Scholar
  148. Sauer WHH (1995) The impact of fishing on chokka squid Loligo vulgaris reynaudii concentrations on inshore spawning grounds in the South-Eastern Cape, South Africa. South Afr J Mar Sci 16:185–193Google Scholar
  149. Sauer WHH, Smale MJ, Lipinski MR (1992) The location of spawning grounds, spawning and schooling behaviour of the squid Loligo vulgaris reynaudii (Cephalopoda: (Myopsida) off the Eastern Cape Coast, South Africa. Mar Biol 114:97–107Google Scholar
  150. Shapiro DY, Marconato A, Yoshikawa T (1994) Sperm economy in a coral-reef fish, Thalassemia bifasciatum. Ecology 75:1334–1344Google Scholar
  151. Sinclair M (1988) Marine populations: an essay on population regulation and speciation. University Washington Press, SeattleGoogle Scholar
  152. Skaret G, Nottestad L, Ferno A, Johannessen A, Axelsen BE (2003) Spawning of herring: day or night, today or tomorrow? Aquat Living Resour 16:299–306. doi: 10.1016/s0990-7440(03)00006-8 Google Scholar
  153. Skud BE (1985) The history and evaluation of closure regulations in the Pacific Halibut fishery. In: FAO, 1985. Papers presented at the Expert Consultation on the regulation of fishing effort (fishing mortality). A preparatory meeting for the FAO World Conference on fishieries management and development Rome, 17–26 January 1983, pp 449–456Google Scholar
  154. Solmundsson J, Karlsson H, Palsson J (2003) Sexual differences in spawning behaviour and catchability of plaice (Pleuronectes platessa) west of Iceland. Fish Res 61:57–71Google Scholar
  155. Springate JRC, Bromage NR, Elliott JAK, Hudson DL (1984) The timing of ovulation and stripping and their effects on the rates of fertilization and survival to eying, hatch and swim-up in the rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri R.). Aquaculture 43:313–322Google Scholar
  156. Stephens PA, Sutherland WJ, Freckleton RP (1999) What is the Allee effect? Oikos 87:185–190Google Scholar
  157. Stevens BG (2003) Timing of aggregation and larval release by Tanner crabs, Chionoecetes bairdi, in relation to tidal current patterns. Fish Res 65:201–216. doi: 10.1016/j.fishres.2003.09.015 Google Scholar
  158. Takemura A, Rahman MS, Nakamura S, Park YJ, Takano K (2004) Lunar cycles and reproductive activity in reef fishes with particular attention to rabbitfishes. Fish Fish 5:317–328Google Scholar
  159. Tan XC, Li XH, Chang JB, Tao JP (2009) Acoustic Observation of the Spawning Aggregation of Megalobrama hoffmanni in the Pearl River. J Freshw Ecol 24:293–299Google Scholar
  160. Tobin A, Currey L, Simpfendorfer C (2013) Informing the vulnerability of species to spawning aggregation fishing using commercial catch data. Fish Res 143:47–56Google Scholar
  161. Trippel EA, Kraus G, Köster FW (2005) Maternal and paternal influences on early life history traits and processes of Baltic cod Gadus morhua. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 303:259–267Google Scholar
  162. Ueng JP, Huang BQ, Mok HK (2007) Sexual differences in the spawning sounds of the Japanese croaker, Argyrosomus japonicus (Sciaenidae). Zool Stud 46:103–110Google Scholar
  163. van Wijk SJ et al (2013) Experimental harvesting of fish populations drieves genetically based shifts in body size and maturation. Front Ecol Environ 11Google Scholar
  164. Worm B et al (2009) Rebuilding global fisheries. Science 325:578–585PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. Wright PJ, Trippel EA (2009) Fishery-induced demographic changes in the timing of spawning: consequences for reproductive success. Fish Fish 10:283–304. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-2979.2008.00322.x Google Scholar
  166. Zimmerman F, Heino M (2013) Is size-dependent pricing prevalent in fisheries? The case of Norwegian demersal and pelagic fisheries. Ices J Mar Sci 70:1389–1395Google Scholar
  167. Zwolinski J, Mason E, Oliveira PB, Stratoudakis Y (2006) Fine-scale distribution of sardine (Sardina pilchardus) eggs and adults during a spawning event. J Sea Res 56:294–304Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Harriët M. J. van Overzee
    • 1
  • Adriaan D. Rijnsdorp
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.IMARESWageningen URIjmuidenThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Aquaculture and Fisheries GroupWageningen UniversityWageningenThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations