Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries

, Volume 24, Issue 2, pp 519–559 | Cite as

Effects of climate change on Canada’s Pacific marine ecosystems: a summary of scientific knowledge

  • Thomas A. OkeyEmail author
  • Hussein M. Alidina
  • Veronica Lo
  • Sabine Jessen
Research Paper


The marine life of Canada’s Pacific marine ecosystems, adjacent to the province of British Columbia, may be relatively responsive to rapid oceanographic and environmental change associated with global climate change due to uniquely evolved plasticities and resiliencies as well as particular sensitivities and vulnerabilities, given this dynamic and highly textured natural setting. These marine ecosystems feature complex interfaces of coastal geomorphology, climate, and oceanography, including a dynamic oceanographic and ecological transition zone formed by the divergence of the North Pacific Current into the Alaskan coastal current and the California Current, and by currents transporting warm tropical waters from the south. Despite long-term warming in the region, sea surface temperatures in Canada’s Pacific have been anomalously cool since 2007 with La Niña-type conditions prevailing as we enter a cool phase of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, possibly masking future warming. When warmer El Niño conditions prevail, many southern species invade, strongly impacting local species and reorganizing biological communities. Acidification and deoxygenation are anomalously high in the region due to the weakening ventilation of subsurface waters resulting from increased stratification. A broad spectrum of biological responses to these changes are expected. Non-climate anthropogenic stressors affect the capacity of biota to adapt to climate changes. It will be challenging to forecast the responses of particular species, and to map climate vulnerabilities accurately enough to help prioritize and guide adaptation planning. It will be more challenging to develop forecasts that account for indirect effects within biological communities and the intricate and apparently non-deterministic behaviours of highly complex and variable marine ecosystems, such as those of Canada’s Pacific. We recommend and outline national and regional climate assessments in Canada and adaptation planning and implementation including integrated coastal management and marine spatial planning and management.


Climate change impacts Acidification Deoxygenation Climate adaptation Cumulative impacts Global marine hotspots 



We acknowledge Alvaro Montenegro for his initial contributions to this work as a co-author on Okey et al. (2012). We acknowledge and thank the many institutions and individuals including Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Environment Canada (Canadian Wildlife Services), Natural Resources Canada (Geological Survey of Canada), Parks Canada, the B.C. Ministry of Environment, Royal Roads University, Simon Fraser University, the University of British Columbia, and the University of Victoria, Philip Hill, Ben Kangasniemi, Dave Preikshot, Vaughn Barrie, Doug Biffard, Robin Brown, Frank Whitney, Mark Zacharias, Ken Morgan, Brian Bawtinheimer, Chris Harley, Marc Trudel, Kim Hyatt, Ian Perry, Bill Crawford, Robin Sydneysmith, Richard Carson, Audrey Dallimore, Colin Campbell, Isabel Côte, Caihong Fu, John Holmes, Cliff Robinson, Charlie Short, Kelly Francis, Sean Darling, Brian Hunt, and Desiree Tommasi. Special thanks to Robin Brown, Frank Whitney, Chris Harley, Doug Biffard, John Davis, Bill Crawford, Ian Perry, Barry Smit, Ric Brodeur, and Louise Blight for their valuable feedback, and to formal reviews by Ian Perry and Frank Whitney which improved this manuscript. SJ and Michele Paterson facilitated the initiation of the project that led to this work, and HMA coordinated later phases. We thank and acknowledge the Pew Environment Group, Pew Charitable Trusts for supporting the contribution of TAO through the Pew Fellows Program in Marine Conservation, and the Pacific Institute for Climate Solutions for supporting SJ. This work emerged from a project executed by WWF-Canada and CPAWS-BC with funding from the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation.


  1. Abdul-Aziz OI, Mantua NJ, Myers KW (2011) Potential climate change impacts on thermal habitats of Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) in the North Pacific Ocean and adjacent seas. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 68(9):1660–1680. doi: 10.1139/f2011-079 Google Scholar
  2. Abeysirigunawardena DS, Walker IJ (2008) Sea level responses to climatic variability and change in Northern British Columbia. Atmos Ocean 46(3):277–296. doi: 10.3137/ao.460301 Google Scholar
  3. Agostini VN, Hendrix AN, Hollowed AB, Wilson CD, Pierce SD, Francis RC (2008) Climate-ocean variability and Pacific hake: a geostatistical modeling approach. J Mar Syst 71(3–4):237–248. doi: 10.1016/j.jmarsys.2007.01.010 Google Scholar
  4. Ainsworth CH, Pitcher TJ (2005a) Estimating illegal, unreported and unregulated catch in British Columbia’s marine fisheries. Fish Res 75(1–3):40–55. doi: 10.1016/j.fishres.2005.05.003 Google Scholar
  5. Ainsworth CH, Pitcher TJ (2005b) Evaluating marine ecosystem restoration goals for northern British Columbia. Alsk Sea Grant Rep 05–02:419–466Google Scholar
  6. Ainsworth CH, Pitcher TJ (2005c) Using local ecological knowledge in ecosystem models. Alsk Sea Grant Rep 05–02:289–304Google Scholar
  7. Ainsworth CH, Pitcher TJ (2006) Modifying Kempton’s species diversity index for use with ecosystem simulation models. Ecol Indic 6(3):623–630Google Scholar
  8. Ainsworth C, Heymans JJ, Pitcher TJ, Vasconcellos M (2002) Ecosystem models of northern British Columbia for the time periods 2000, 1950, 1900 and 1750. Univ B C Fish Cent Res Rep 10(4):i–v, 1–41Google Scholar
  9. Ainsworth CH, Pitcher TJ, Heymans JJ, Vasconcellos M (2008) Reconstructing historical marine ecosystems using food web models: Northern British Columbia from pre-European contact to present. Ecol Model 216(3–4):354–368. doi: 10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2008.05.005 Google Scholar
  10. Ainsworth CH, Samhouri JF, Busch DS, Cheung WWL, Dunne J, Okey TA (2011) Potential impacts of climate change on Northeast Pacific marine foodwebs and fisheries. ICES J Mar Sci 68(6):1217–1229. doi: 10.1093/icesjms/fsr043 Google Scholar
  11. Alheit J, Drinkwater KF, Perry RI (2010) Introduction to the workshop on impact of climate variability on marine ecosystems: a comparative approach Preface. J Mar Syst 79(3–4):227–229. doi: 10.1016/j.jmarsys.2009.02.006 Google Scholar
  12. Allison EH, Perry AL, Badjeck M-C, Adger WN, Brown K, Conway D, Halls AS, Pilling GM, Reynolds JD, Andrew NL, Dulvy NK (2009) Vulnerability of national economies to the impacts of climate change on fisheries. Fish Fish 10(2):173–196Google Scholar
  13. Anderson PJ, Piatt JF (1999) Community reorganization in the Gulf of Alaska following ocean climate regime shift. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 189:117–123Google Scholar
  14. Archambault P, Snelgrove PVR, Fisher JAD, Gagnon JM, Garbary DJ, Harvey M, Kenchington EL, Lesage V, Levesque M, Lovejoy C, Mackas DL, McKindsey CW, Nelson JR, Pepin P, Piche L, Poulin M (2010) From sea to sea: Canada’s three oceans of biodiversity. PLoS One 5(8). doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0012182
  15. Atkinson A, Siegel V, Pakhomov E, Rothery P (2004) Long-term decline in krill stock and increase in salps within the Southern Ocean. Nature 432(7013):100–103. doi: 10.1038/nature02950 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Ban NC, Alidina HM, Ardron JA (2010) Cumulative impact mapping: advances, relevance and limitations to marine management and conservation, using Canada’s Pacific waters as a case study. Mar Policy 34(5):876–886. doi: 10.1016/j.marpol.2010.01.010 Google Scholar
  17. Barrie JV, Conway KW (2002) Rapid sea-level change and coastal evolution on the Pacific margin of Canada. Sediment Geol 150(1–2):171–183. doi: 10.1016/s0037-0738(01)00274-3 Google Scholar
  18. Batten SD, Mackas DL (2009) Shortened duration of the annual Neocalanus plumchrus biomass peak in the Northeast Pacific. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 393:189–198. doi: 10.3354/meps08044 Google Scholar
  19. Batten S, Chen X, Flint EN, Freeland HJ, Holmes J, Howell E, Ichii T, Kaeriyama M, Landry M, Lunsford C, Mackas DL, Mate B, Matsuda K, McKinnell SM, Miller L, Morgan K, Peña A, Polovina JJ, Robert M, Seki MP, Sydeman WJ, Thompson SA, Whitney FA, Woodworth P, Yamaguchi A (2010) Status and trends of the North Pacific oceanic region, 2003–2008. In: McKinnell SM, Dagg MJ (eds) Marine ecosystems of the North Pacific Ocean, 2003–2008. PICES Spec Publ 4:56–105Google Scholar
  20. Battin J, Wiley MW, Ruckelshaus MH, Palmer RN, Korb E, Bartz KK, Imaki H (2007) Projected impacts of climate change on salmon habitat restoration. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104(16):6720–6725PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. BC (2002) British Columbia marine ecological classification: marine ecosections and ecounits version 2.0. Prepared by the ministry of sustainable resource management decision support services branch for the coastal task force resources information standards committee, Province of British ColumbiaGoogle Scholar
  22. BCME (2007) Environmental trends in British Columbia: 2007. State of environment reporting. B.C. Ministry of Environment, Victoria, BC.
  23. BCMWALP (2002) Indicators of climate change for British Columbia, 2002. Water, air and climate change branch, BC ministry of water, land and air protection, Victoria, BCGoogle Scholar
  24. Beacham TD, Hay DE, Le KD (2005) Population structure and stock identification of eulachon (Thaleichthys pacificus), an anadromous smelt, in the Pacific Northwest. Mar Biotechnol 7(4):363–372. doi: 10.1007/s10126-004-4075-0 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Beamish RJ (ed) (1995) Climate change and northern fish populations. Canadian special publication of fisheries and aquatic sciences, vol 121. National Research Council of Canada, OttawaGoogle Scholar
  26. Beamish RJ, Bouillon DR (1993) Pacific Salmon production trends in relation to climate. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 50(5):1002–1016Google Scholar
  27. Beamish RJ, Neville CEM, Cass AJ (1997) Production of Fraser River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) in relation to decadal-scale changes in the climate and the ocean. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 54(3):543–554Google Scholar
  28. Beamish RJ, McFarlane GA, Thomson RE (1999a) Recent declines in the recreational catch of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) in the Strait of Georgia are related to climate. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 56(3):506–515Google Scholar
  29. Beamish RJ, Noakes DJ, McFarlane GA, Klyashtorin L, Ivanov VV, Kurashov V (1999b) The regime concept and natural trends in the production of Pacific salmon. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 56(3):516–526Google Scholar
  30. Beamish RJ, King JR, McFarlane GA (2009) Canada. In: Beamish RJ (ed) Impacts of climate and climate change on the key species in the fisheries in the North Pacific. PICES scientific report no. 35. PICES working group on climate change, shifts in fish populations, and fisheries management. North Pacific Marine Science Organization (PICES), Secretariat, Sidney BC, pp 14–55Google Scholar
  31. Benson AJ, McFarlane GA, Allen SE, Dower JF (2002) Changes in Pacific hake (Merluccius productus) migration patterns and juvenile growth related to the 1989 regime shift. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 59(12):1969–1979. doi: 10.1139/f02-156 Google Scholar
  32. Bertram D (2001) Seabirds reflect changes in ocean climate. In: Proceedings of the PICES/CoML/IPRC workshop on impact of climate variability on observation and prediction of ecosystem and biodiversity changes in the North Pacific, report 18. North Pacific Marine Science OrganizationGoogle Scholar
  33. Bertram DF, Mackas DL, McKinnell SM (2001) The seasonal cycle revisited: interannual variation and ecosystem consequences. Prog Oceanogr 49(1–4):283–307. doi: 10.1016/s0079-6611(01)00027-1 Google Scholar
  34. Bertram DF, Harfenist A, Smith BD (2005) Ocean climate and El Nino impacts on survival of Cassin’s Auklets from upwelling and downwelling domains of British Columbia. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 62(12):2841–2853. doi: 10.1139/f05-190 Google Scholar
  35. Bluhm BA, Gradinger R (2008) Regional variability in food availability for arctic marine mammals. Ecol Appl 18(2):S77–S96. doi: 10.1890/06-0562.1 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Bograd SJ, Sydeman WJ, Barlow J, Booth A, Brodeur RD, Calambokidis J, Chavez F, Crawford WR, Di Lorenzo E, Durazo R, Emmett R, Field J, Gaxiola-Castro G, Gilly W, Goericke R, Hildebrand J, Irvine JE, Kahru M, Koslow JA, Lavaniegos B, Lowry M, Mackas DL, Manzano-Sarabia M, McKinnell SM, Mitchell BG, Munger L, Perry RI, Peterson WT, Ralston S, Schweigert J, Suntsov A, Tanasichuk R, Thomas AC, Whitney F (2010) Status and trends of the California Current region, 2003–2008. In: McKinnell SM, Dagg MJ (eds) Marine ecosystems of the North Pacific Ocean, 2003–2008. PICES Spec Publ 4:106–141Google Scholar
  37. Boldt J, Cleary J, Schweigert J, Daniel K, Fort C, Tanasichuk R, Thompson M (2013) Herring. In: Irvine J, Crawford W (eds) State of physical, biological, and selected fishery resources of Pacific Canadian marine ecosystems in 2012. DFO Can Sci. Advis Secr Res Doc 2013/032. Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat, Department of Fisheries Oceans, Ottawa, ON, Canada, pp 69–74Google Scholar
  38. Booth DT, Astill K (2001) Incubation temperature, energy expenditure and hatchling size in the green turtle (Chelonia mydas), a species with temperature-sensitive sex determination. Aust J Zool 49(4):389–396. doi: 10.1071/zo01006 Google Scholar
  39. Borstad G, Crawford W, Hipfner JM, Thomson R, Hyatt K (2011) Environmental control of the breeding success of rhinoceros auklets at Triangle Island, British Columbia. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 424:285–302. doi: 10.3354/meps08950 Google Scholar
  40. Brander K (2010) Impacts of climate change on fisheries. J Mar Syst 79(3–4):389–402. doi: 10.1016/j.jmarsys.2008.12.015 Google Scholar
  41. Brodeur RD, Ware DM (1992) Long-term variability in zooplankton biomass in the subarctic Pacific Ocean. Fish Oceanogr 1(1):32–39Google Scholar
  42. Brodeur RD, Pearcy WG, Ralston S (2003) Abundance and distribution patterns of nekton and micro nekton in the Northern California Current transition zone. J Oceanogr 59(4):515–535. doi: 10.1023/a:1025548801541 Google Scholar
  43. Brodeur RD, Fisher JP, Emmett RL, Morgan CA, Casillas E (2005) Species composition and community structure of pelagic nekton off Oregon and Washington under variable oceanographic conditions. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 298:41–57. doi: 10.3354/meps298041 Google Scholar
  44. Brodeur RD, Ralston S, Emmett RL, Trudel M, Auth TD, Phillips AJ (2006) Anomalous pelagic nekton abundance, distribution, apparent recruitment in the northern California Current in 2004 and 2005. Geophys Res Lett 33:L22S08Google Scholar
  45. Byrne RH, Mecking S, Feely RA, Liu X (2010) Direct observations of basin-wide acidification of the North Pacific Ocean. Geophys Res Lett 37(2):L02601Google Scholar
  46. Byrnes JE, Reed DC, Cardinale BJ, Cavanaugh KC, Holbrook SJ, Schmitt RJ (2011) Climate-driven increases in storm frequency simplify kelp forest food webs. Glob Change Biol 17(8):2513–2524. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2011.02409.x Google Scholar
  47. Caldeira K, Wickett ME (2003) Oceanography: anthropogenic carbon and ocean pH. Nature 425(6956):365PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Caldeira K, Wickett ME (2005) Ocean model predictions of chemistry changes from carbon dioxide emissions to the atmosphere and ocean. J Geophys Res Oceans 110(C9). doi: 10.1029/2004jc002671
  49. Cederholm CJ, Kunze MD, Murota T, Sibatani A (1999) Pacific salmon carcasses: essential contributions of nutrients and energy for aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Fisheries 24(10):6–15Google Scholar
  50. Chan F, Barth JA, Lubchenco J, Kirincich A, Weeks H, Peterson WT, Menge BA (2008) Emergence of anoxia in the California current large marine ecosystem. Science 319(5865):920. doi: 10.1126/science.1149016 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Chavez FP, Ryan J, Lluch-Cota SE, Niquen M (2003) From anchovies to sardines and back: multidecadal change in the Pacific Ocean. Science 299(5604):217–221PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Cherniawsky JY, Foreman MGG, Crawford WR, Beckley BD (2004) Altimeter observations of sea-level variability off the west coast of North America. Int J Remote Sens 25(7–8):1303–1306. doi: 10.1080/01431160310001592210 Google Scholar
  53. Cheung WWL, Lam VWY, Sarmiento JL, Kearney K, Watson R, Pauly D (2009) Projecting global marine biodiversity impacts under climate change scenarios. Fish Fish 10(3):235–251. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-2979.2008.00315.x Google Scholar
  54. Cheung WWL, Lam VWY, Sarmiento JL, Kearney K, Watson R, Zeller D, Pauly D (2010) Large-scale redistribution of maximum fisheries catch potential in the global ocean under climate change. Glob Change Biol 16(1):24–35. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2009.01995.x Google Scholar
  55. Cheung WWL, Dunne J, Sarmiento JL, Pauly D (2011) Integrating ecophysiology and plankton dynamics into projected maximum fisheries catch potential under climate change in the Northeast Atlantic. ICES J Mar Sci 68(6):1008–1018. doi: 10.1093/icesjms/fsr012 Google Scholar
  56. Cheung WL, Okey TA, Brodeur RD, Pauly D (in press) Projecting future changes in distributions of pelagic fish species of Northeast Pacific shelf seasGoogle Scholar
  57. Ciannelli L, Bailey KM, Chan KS, Belgrano A, Stenseth NC (2005) Climate change causing phase transitions of walleye pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) recruitment dynamics. Proc R Soc B Biol Sci 272(1573):1735–1743Google Scholar
  58. Cinner JE, Daw T, McClanahan TR (2009) Socioeconomic factors that affect artisanal fishers’ readiness to exit a declining fishery. Conserv Biol 23(1):124–130. doi: 10.1111/j.1523-1739.2008.01041.x PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Cisneros-Montemayor AM (2010) Ecosystem modelling and Ecopath with Ecosim. Trinational Sardine Forum, Victoria, Canada, 16–18 November 2010Google Scholar
  60. Clark WG, Hare SR (2002) Effects of climate and stock size on recruitment and growth of Pacific halibut. N Am J Fish Manag 22(3):852–862. doi: 10.1577/1548-8675(2002)022<0852:eocass>;2 Google Scholar
  61. Clark FN, Marr JC (1955) Part II: population dynamics of the Pacific sardine. Calif Coop Oceanic Fish Invest Prog Rep 4:11–48Google Scholar
  62. Coelho F, Santos AL, Coimbra J, Almeida A, Cunha A, Cleary DFR, Calado R, Gomes NCM (2013) Interactive effects of global climate change and pollution on marine microbes: the way ahead. Ecol Evol 3(6):1808–1818. doi: 10.1002/ece3.565 PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Connell JH, Sousa WP (1983) On the evidence needed to judge ecological stability or persistence. Am Nat 121(6):789–824Google Scholar
  64. Conway K, Johannessen DI (2007) Appendix A: geology. In: Lucas BG, Verrin S, Brown R (eds) Ecosystem overview: Pacific North Coast Integrated Management Area (PNCIMA). Can Tech Rep Fish Aquat Sci 2667Google Scholar
  65. Cosgrove JA (2005) The first specimens of Humboldt squid in British Columbia. PICES Press 13:30–31 Google Scholar
  66. Crawford B, McKinnell S (2013) Continuing cool in the Northeast Pacific Ocean. PICES Press 21(1):32–33Google Scholar
  67. Crawford WR, Pena MA (2013) Declining oxygen on the British Columbia Continental Shelf. Atmos Ocean 51(1):88–103. doi: 10.1080/07055900.2012.753028 Google Scholar
  68. Criddle KR, Herrmann M, Greenberg JA, Feller EM (1998) Climate fluctuation and revenue maximization in the eastern Bering Sea fishery for walleye pollock. North Am J Fish Manag 18(1):1–10Google Scholar
  69. Crocker DE, Costa DP, Le Boeuf BJ, Webb PM, Houser DS (2006) Impact of El Nino on the foraging behavior of female northern elephant seals. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 309:1–10. doi: 10.3354/meps309001 Google Scholar
  70. Crozier LG, Zabel RW, Hamlett AF (2008) Predicting differential effects of climate change at the population level with life-cycle models of spring Chinook salmon. Glob Change Biol 14(2):236–249Google Scholar
  71. Cummins P, Haigh R (2010) Ecosystem status and trends report for north coast and Hecate Strait ecozone, British Columbia. DFO Can Sci Advis Secr Res Doc 2010/045, iv + 61 pGoogle Scholar
  72. Dallimore A, Jmieff DG (2010) Canadian west coast fjords and inlets of the NE Pacific Ocean as depositional archives. In: Howe JA, Austin WEN, Forwick M, Paetzel M (eds) Fjord systems and archives. Geol Soc Lond Spec Publ 344:145–164Google Scholar
  73. Dallimore A, Thomson RE, Bertram MA (2005) Modem to late Holocene deposition in an anoxic fjord on the west coast of Canada: implications for regional oceanography, climate and paleoseismic history. Mar Geol 219(1):47–69. doi: 10.1016/j.margeo.2005.05.003 Google Scholar
  74. Darling ES, McClanahan TR, Cote IM (2013) Life histories predict coral community disassembly under multiple stressors. Glob Change Biol 19(6):1930–1940. doi: 10.1111/gcb.12191 Google Scholar
  75. DFO (2006a) Pacific region integrated fisheries management plan: opal squid—January 1, 2006 to December 31, 2006. Fisheries and Oceans Canada, 29 p.
  76. DFO (2006b) State of the Pacific Ocean 2005. DFO Sci Ocean Status Rep 2006/001Google Scholar
  77. DFO (2008a) Recovery strategy for the northern and southern resident killer whales (Orcinus orca) in Canada. Species at risk act recovery strategy series. Fisheries and Oceans Canada, OttawaGoogle Scholar
  78. DFO (2008b) State of the Pacific Ocean 2007. DFO Can Sci Advis Rep 2008/028Google Scholar
  79. DFO (2009) Development of a framework and principles for the biogeographic classification of Canadian marine areas. DFO Can Sci Adv Secr Sci Adv Rep 2009/056Google Scholar
  80. DFO (2010) 2010 Canadian marine ecosystem status and trends report. DFO Can Sci Advis Sec Sci Advis Rep 2010/030 (revised)Google Scholar
  81. DFO (2013) State of the Pacific Ocean 2012. DFO Can Sci Advis Sec Sci Advis Rep 2013/028Google Scholar
  82. Doak DF, Estes JA, Halpern BS, Jacob U, Lindberg DR, Lovvorn J, Monson DH, Tinker MT, Williams TM, Wootton JT, Carroll I, Emmerson M, Micheli F, Novak M (2008) Understanding and predicting ecological dynamics: are major surprises inevitable? Ecology 89(4):952–961PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Doney SC, Fabry VJ, Feely RA, Kleypas JA (2009) Ocean acidification: the other CO2 problem. Ann Rev Mar Sci 1:169–192PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Doney SC, Ruckelshaus M, Duffy JE, Barry JP, Chan F, English CA, Galindo HM, Grebmeier JM, Hollowed AB, Knowlton N, Polovina J, Rabalais NN, Sydeman WJ, Talley LD (2012) Climate change impacts on marine ecosystems. In: Carlson CA, Giovannoni SJ (eds) Annu Rev Mar Sci 4:11–37. doi: 10.1146/annurev-marine-041911-111611
  85. Duffy JE, Stachowicz JJ (2006) Why biodiversity is important to oceanography: potential roles of genetic, species, and trophic diversity in pelagic ecosystem processes. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 311:179–189Google Scholar
  86. Dybas CL (2005) Dead zones spreading in world oceans. Bioscience 55(7):552–557Google Scholar
  87. Easterling DR, Meehl GA, Parmesan C, Changnon SA, Karl TR, Mearns LO (2000) Climate extremes: observations, modeling, and impacts. Science 289(5487):2068–2074PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Ehlers A, Worm B, Reusch TBH (2008) Importance of genetic diversity in eelgrass Zostera marina for its resilience to global warming. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 355:1–7. doi: 10.3354/meps07369 Google Scholar
  89. Epelbaum A, Herborg LM, Therriault TW, Pearce CM (2009) Temperature and salinity effects on growth, survival, reproduction, and potential distribution of two non-indigenous botryllid ascidians in British Columbia. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 369(1):43–52. doi: 10.1016/j.jembe.2008.10.028 Google Scholar
  90. Espinosa-Romero MJ, Gregr EJ, Walters C, Christensen V, Chan KMA (2011) Representing mediating effects and species reintroductions in Ecopath with Ecosim. Ecol Model 222(9):1569–1579. doi: 10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2011.02.008 Google Scholar
  91. Feely RA, Sabine CL, Lee K, Berelson W, Kleypas J, Fabry VJ, Millero FJ (2004) Impact of anthropogenic CO2 on the CaCO3 system in the oceans. Science 305(5682):362–366PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Feely RA, Sabine CL, Hernandez-Ayon JM, Ianson D, Hales B (2008) Evidence for upwelling of corrosive “acidified” water onto the continental shelf. Science 320:1490–1492PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Field JC, Baltz K, Phillips AJ, Walker WA (2007) Range expansion and trophic interactions of the jumbo squid, Dosidicus gigas, in the California Current. Calif Coop Ocean Fish Invest Rep 48:131–146Google Scholar
  94. Flostrand L, Boldt J, Schweigert J, Hodes V (2013) Sardine. In: Irvine J, Crawford W (eds) State of physical, biological, and selected fishery resources of Pacific Canadian marine ecosystems in 2012. DFO Can Sci Advis Secr Res Doc 2013/032. Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat, Department of Fisheries Oceans, Ottawa, ON, Canada, pp 75–80Google Scholar
  95. Ford SE (1996) Range extension by the oyster parasite Perkinsus marinus into the northeastern United States: response to climate change? J Shellfish Res 15(1):45–56Google Scholar
  96. Ford JKB (2005) First records of long-beaked common Dolphins, Delphinus capensis, Canadian waters. Can Field Nat 119(1):110–113Google Scholar
  97. Ford JKB (2006) An assessment of critical habitats of resident killer whales in waters off the Pacific coast of Canada. Can Sci Advis Secr Res Doc 2006/072Google Scholar
  98. Ford JKB, Ellis GM, Barrett-Lennard LG, Morton AB, Palm RS, Balcomb KC (1998) Dietary specialization in two sympatric populations of killer whales (Orcinus orca) in coastal British Columbia and adjacent waters. Can J Zool 76(8):1456–1471Google Scholar
  99. Ford JKB, Ellis GM, Olesiuk PF (2005) Linking prey and population dynamics: did food limitation cause recent declines of ‘resident’ killer whales (Orcinus orca) in British Columbia. Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Can Sci Advis Secr 2005/42Google Scholar
  100. Foreman MGG, Callendar W, MacFadyen A, Hickey BM, Thomson RE, Di Lorenzo E (2008) Modeling the generation of the Juan de Fuca Eddy. J Geophys Res Oceans 113(C3). doi: 10.1029/2006jc004082
  101. Foreman M, Stucchi D, Garver K, Tuele D, Isaac J, Grime T, Guo M, Morrison J (2012) A circulation model for the Discovery Islands, British Columbia. Atmos Ocean 50(3):301–316Google Scholar
  102. Francis RC, Hare SR, Hollowed AB, Wooster WS (1998) Effects of interdecadal climate variability on the oceanic ecosystems of the NE Pacific. Fish Oceanogr 7(1):1–21Google Scholar
  103. Frederiksen M, Edwards M, Richardson AJ, Halliday NC, Wanless S (2006) From plankton to top predators: bottom-up control of a marine food web across four trophic levels. J Anim Ecol 75(6):1259–1268PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Freeland HJ (2013) Evidence of change in the winter mixed layer in the Northeast Pacific Ocean: a problem revisited. Atmos Ocean 51(1):126–133. doi: 10.1080/07055900.2012.754330 Google Scholar
  105. Freeland H, Denman K, Wong CS, Whitney F, Jacques R (1997) Evidence of change in the winter mixed layer in the Northeast Pacific Ocean. Deep Sea Res Part I 44(12):2117–2129Google Scholar
  106. Fu C, Beamish R (2008) Northern California Current (British Columbia) Pacific cod (Gadus macrocephalus) production. In: Hollowed AB, Beamish RJ, Okey TA, Schirripa MJ (eds) Reports of PICES/NPRB workshops on forecasting climate impacts on future production of commercially exploited fish and shellfish. PICES scientific report no. 34, North Pacific Marine Science Organization (PICES), Sydney, BC, Canada, pp 37–39Google Scholar
  107. Fulton JD (1985) Summary of unusual sightings of marine species off British Columbia during the 1982-82 El Niño. In: Wooster WS, Fluharty DL (eds) El Niño north: Niño effects in the eastern subarctic Pacific Ocean. Washington Sea Grant, Seattle, pp 248–252Google Scholar
  108. Gaston AT, Gilchrist HG, Mallory ML, Smith PA (2009) Changes in seasonal events, peak food availability, and consequent breeding adjustment in a marine bird: a case of progressive mismatching. Condor 111(1):111–119. doi: 10.1525/cond.2009.080077 Google Scholar
  109. Gemmrich J, Thomas B, Bouchard R (2011) Observational changes and trends in northeast Pacific wave records. Geophys Res Lett 38(22):L22601. doi: 10.1029/2011gl049518 Google Scholar
  110. Gilmartin WG, Forcada J (2002) Monk Seals. In: Perrin WF, Würsig B, Thewissen JGM (eds) Encyclopedia of marine mammals. Academic Press, San Diego, CA, pp 756–759Google Scholar
  111. Glen F, Mrosovsky N (2004) Antigua revisited: the impact of climate change on sand and nest temperatures at a hawksbill turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata) nesting beach. Glob Change Biol 10(12):2036–2045. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2004.00865.x Google Scholar
  112. Goes JI, Gomes HD, Limsakul A, Balch WM, Saino T (2001) El Nino related interannual variations in biological production in the North Pacific as evidenced by satellite and ship data. Prog Oceanogr 49(1–4):211–225. doi: 10.1016/s0079-6611(01)00023-4 Google Scholar
  113. Grantham BA, Chan F, Nielsen KJ, Fox DS, Barth JA, Huyer A, Lubchenco J, Menge BA (2004) Upwelling-driven nearshore hypoxia signals ecosystem and oceanographic changes in the northeast Pacific. Nature 429(6993):749–754. doi: 10.1038/nature02605 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Griffis R, Howard J (eds) (2013) Oceans and marine resources in a changing climate: a technical input to the 2013 national climate assessment. Island Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  115. Guénette S, Christensen V, Hoover C, Lam ME, Preikshot D, Pauly D (2007) A synthesis of research activities a the Fisheries Centre on ecosystem-based fisheries modelling and assessment with emphasis on the northern and central coast of B.C. Univ B C Fish Cent Res Rep 15(1):i–iv, 1–32Google Scholar
  116. Guinotte JM, Fabry VJ (2008) Ocean acidification and its potential effects on marine ecosystems. In: Ostfeld RS, Schlesinger WH (eds) Year in ecology and conservation biology. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1334:320–342. doi: 10.1196/annals.1439.013
  117. Gunderson LH, Holling CS (eds) (2002) Panarchy: understanding transformations in human and natural systems. Island Press, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  118. Haggarty DR, King JR, Mathias KL (2004) Bottom trawl survey of young-of-the-year lingcod (Ophiodon elongatus) in the Strait of Georgia by the R/V Neocaligus, July 28-August 9, 2003. Can Manuscr Rep Fish Aquat Sci 2673:IV–V, 1–39Google Scholar
  119. Hallegraeff GM (2010) Ocean climate change, phytoplankton community responses, and harmful algal blooms: a formidable predictive challenge. J Phycol 46(2):220–235. doi: 10.1111/j.1529-8817.2010.00815.x Google Scholar
  120. Harding JA, Ammann AJ, MacFarlane RB (2011) Regional and seasonal patterns of epipelagic fish assemblages from the central California Current. Fish Bull 109(3):261–281Google Scholar
  121. Hare SR, Mantua NJ (2000) Empirical evidence for North Pacific regime shifts in 1977 and 1989. Prog Oceanogr 47(2–4):103–145. doi: 10.1016/s0079-6611(00)00033-1 Google Scholar
  122. Hare SR, Mantua NJ, Francis RC (1999) Inverse production regimes: Alaska and West Coast Pacific salmon. Fisheries 24(1):6–14. doi: 10.1577/1548-8446(1999)024<0006:ipr>;2 Google Scholar
  123. Hare CE, Leblanc K, DiTullio GR, Kudela RM, Zhang Y, Lee PA, Riseman S, Hutchins DA (2007) Consequences of increased temperature and CO2 for phytoplankton community structure in the Bering Sea. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 352:9–16. doi: 10.3354/meps07182 Google Scholar
  124. Hargreaves NB, Hungar RM (1995) Robertson creek chinook assessment and forecast for 1994 and 1995. Part B: early marine mortality. PSARC report S95-03Google Scholar
  125. Harley CDG (2011) Climate change, keystone predation, and biodiversity loss. Science 334(6059):1124–1127. doi: 10.1126/science.1210199 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Harley CDG, Hughes AR, Hultgren KM, Miner BG, Sorte CJB, Thornber CS, Rodriguez LF, Tomanek L, Williams SL (2006) The impacts of climate change in coastal marine systems. Ecol Lett 9(2):228–241. doi: 10.1111/j.1461-0248.2005.00871.x PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Harley CDG, Anderson KM, Demes KW, Jorve JP, Kordas RL, Coyle TA, Graham MH (2012) Effects of climate change on global seaweed communities. J Phycol 48(5):1064–1078. doi: 10.1111/j.1529-8817.2012.01224.x Google Scholar
  128. Harvell CD, Mitchell CE, Ward JR, Altizer S, Dobson AP, Ostfeld RS, Samuel MD (2002) Ecology—climate warming and disease risks for terrestrial and marine biota. Science 296(5576):2158–2162. doi: 10.1126/science.1063699 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Hauri C, Gruber N, Plattner G-K, Alin S, Feely RA, Hales B, Wheeler PA (2009) Ocean acidification in the California current system. Oceanography 22(4):61–71Google Scholar
  130. Hay MB, Calvert SE, Pienitz R, Dallimore A, Thomson RE, Baumgartner TR (2009) Geochemical and diatom signatures of bottom water renewal events in Effingham Inlet, British Columbia (Canada). Mar Geol 262(1–4):50–61. doi: 10.1016/j.margeo.2009.03.004 Google Scholar
  131. Healey MC, Hennessey T (1998) The paradox of fairness: the impact of escalating complexity on fishery management. Mar Policy 22(2):109–118Google Scholar
  132. Hedd A, Bertram DF, Ryder JL, Jones IL (2006) Effects of interdecadal climate variability on marine trophic interactions: rhinoceros auklets and their fish prey. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 309:263–278. doi: 10.3354/meps309263 Google Scholar
  133. Hilborn R (1992) Hatcheries and the future of salmon in the northwest. Fisheries 17(1):5–8Google Scholar
  134. Hipfner JM (2008) Matches and mismatches: ocean climate, prey phenology and breeding success in a zooplanktivorous seabird. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 368:295–304. doi: 10.3354/meps07603 Google Scholar
  135. Hobday AJ (2011) Sliding baselines and shuffling species: implications of climate change for marine conservation. Mar Ecol Evol Perspect 32(3):392–403. doi: 10.1111/j.1439-0485.2011.00459.x Google Scholar
  136. Hobday AJ, Pecl GT (2013) Identification of global marine hotspots: sentinels for change and vanguards for adaptation. Rev Fish Biol Fish. doi: 10.1007/s11160-013-9326-6
  137. Hobday AJ, Okey TA, Poloczanska ES, Kunz TJ, Richardson AJ (eds) (2006) Impacts of climate change on Australian marine life. A report prepared by CSIRO marine and atmospheric research for the Department of the Environment and Heritage, Australian Greenhouse Office, Canberra, AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  138. Hobday AJ, Hartog JR, Spillman CM, Alves O (2011) Seasonal forecasting of tuna habitat for dynamic spatial management. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 68(5):898–911. doi: 10.1139/f2011-031 Google Scholar
  139. Holling CS (1973) Resilience and stability of ecological systems. Ann Rev Ecol Syst 4:1–23Google Scholar
  140. Hollowed AB, Bond NA, Wilderbuer TK, Stockhausen WT, A’Mar ZT, Beamish RJ, Overland JE, Schirripa MJ (2009) A framework for modelling fish and shellfish responses to future climate change. ICES J Mar Sci 66(7):1584–1594. doi: 10.1093/icesjms/fsp057 Google Scholar
  141. Hollowed AB, Barange M, Ito S, Kim S, Loeng H, Peck MA (2011) Effects of climate change on fish and fisheries: forecasting impacts, assessing ecosystem responses, and evaluating management strategies Preface. ICES J Mar Sci 68(6):984–985. doi: 10.1093/icesjms/fsr085 Google Scholar
  142. Hollowed AB, Barange M, Beamish R, Brander K, Cochrane K, Drinkwater K, Foreman M, Ito S, Hare J, Holt J, Kim S, King J, Loeng H, MacKenzie B, Muter F, Okey T, Peck MA, Radchenko V, Rice J, Schirripa M, Yatsu A, Yamanaka Y (2013) Projected impacts of climate change on marine fish and fisheries. ICES J Mar Sci Adv. doi: 10.1093/icesjms/fst1081
  143. Hourston AS, Haegele CW (1980) Herring on Canada’s Pacific coast. Can Spec Publ Fish Aquat Sci 48Google Scholar
  144. Hughes TP, Baird AH, Bellwood DR, Card M, Connolly SR, Folke C, Grosberg R, Hoegh-Guldberg O, Jackson JBC, Kleypas J, Lough JM, Marshall P, Nystrom M, Palumbi SR, Pandolfi JM, Rosen B, Roughgarden J (2003) Climate change, human impacts, and the resilience of coral reefs. Science 301(5635):929–933PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Hughes S, Yau A, Max L, Petrovic N, Davenport F, Marshall M, McClanahan TR, Allison EH, Cinner JE (2012) A framework to assess national level vulnerability from the perspective of food security: the case of coral reef fisheries. Environ Sci Policy 23:95–108. doi: 10.1016/j.envsci.2012.07.012 Google Scholar
  146. Hunt GL, Stabeno P, Walters G, Sinclair E, Brodeur RD, Napp JM, Bond NA (2002) Climate change and control of the southeastern Bering Sea pelagic ecosystem. Deep Sea Res Part II Top Stud Oceanogr 49(26):5821–5853Google Scholar
  147. Hutchings JA, Cote IM, Dodson JJ, Fleming IA, Jennings S, Mantua NJ, Peterman RM, Riddell BE, Weaver AJ (2012) Climate change, fisheries, and aquaculture: trends and consequences for Canadian marine biodiversity. Environ Rev 20(4):220–311. doi: 10.1139/a2012-011 Google Scholar
  148. Hutchinson GE (1957) Concluding remarks. Cold Spring Harbor Symp Quant Biol 22:415–427Google Scholar
  149. Ianson D (2008) Ocean acidification off the West Coast. In: State of the Pacific Ocean 2007. DFO Can Sci Advis Rep 2008/028, pp 37–38.
  150. Ianson D, Flostrand L (2010) Ecosystem status and trends report: coastal waters off the west coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia, vol iv. Fisheries and Oceans Canada, DFO Can Sci Advis SecrGoogle Scholar
  151. Ianson D, Allen SE, Harris SL, Orians KJ, Varela DE, Wong CS (2003) The inorganic carbon system in the coastal upwelling region west of Vancouver Island, Canada. Deep Sea Res Part I Oceanogr Res Pap 50(8):1023–1042. doi: 10.1016/s0967-0367(03)00114-6 Google Scholar
  152. IPCC (2007) Climate change 2007: the fourth IPCC assessment report. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  153. Irvine JE, Crawford WR (2011) State of the ocean report for the Pacific North Coast Integrated Management Area (PNCIMA), Can Manuscr Rep Fish Aquat Sci 2971, xii + 561 pGoogle Scholar
  154. Irvine J, Crawford W (eds) (2012) State of physical, biological, and selected fishery resources of Pacific Canadian marine ecosystems in 2011. DFO Can Sci Advis Secr Res Doc 2012/072. Department of Fisheries Oceans, Ottawa, ON, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  155. Irvine J, Crawford W (eds) (2013) State of physical, biological, and selected fishery resources of Pacific Canadian marine ecosystems in 2012. DFO Can Sci Advis Secr Res Doc 2013/032. Department of Fisheries Oceans, Ottawa, ON, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  156. Jacobson LD, Maccall AD (1995) Stock-recruitment models for Pacific sardine (Sardinops sagax). Can J Fish Aquat Sci 52(3):566–577Google Scholar
  157. Jamieson GS (2001) Review of the status of the Northern Abalone, Haliotis kamtschatkana, Canada. Can Field Nat 115(4):555–563Google Scholar
  158. Jennings S, Greenstreet SPR, Reynolds JD (1999) Structural change in an exploited fish community: a consequence of differential fishing effects on species with contrasting life histories. J Anim Ecol 68(3):617–627Google Scholar
  159. Jessen S, Patton S (2008) Protecting marine biodiversity in Canada: adaptation options in the face of climate change. Biodiversity 9 (3–4):47–58Google Scholar
  160. Johannessen SC, MacDonald RW (2009) Effects of local and global change on an inland sea: the Strait of Georgia, British Columbia, Canada. Clim Res 40:1–21Google Scholar
  161. Johannessen SC, McCarter B (2010) Ecosystem Status and Trends Report for the Strait of Georgia ecozone. DFO Can Sci Advis Secr Res Doc 2010/010, vi + 45Google Scholar
  162. Jones R, Rigg C, Lee L (2010) Haida marine planning: first nations as a partner in marine conservation. Ecol Soc 15(1):12Google Scholar
  163. Jordán F, Okey TA, Bauer B, Libralato S (2008) Identifying important species: linking structure and function in ecological networks. Ecol Model 216(1):75–80. doi: 10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2008.04.009 Google Scholar
  164. Kaplan IC, Leonard J (2012) From krill to convenience stores: forecasting the economic and ecological effects of fisheries management on the US west coast. Mar Policy 36(5):947–954. doi: 10.1016/j.marpol.2012.02.005 Google Scholar
  165. Kaplan IC, Horne PJ, Levin PS (2012) Screening California Current fishery management scenarios using the Atlantis end-to-end ecosystem model. Prog Oceanogr 102:5–18. doi: 10.1016/j.pocean.2012.03.009 Google Scholar
  166. Karl TR, Meehl GA, Miller CD, Hassol SJ, Waple AM, Murray WL (eds) (2008) Weather and Climate Extremes in a Changing Climate Regions of Focus: North America, Hawaii, Caribbean, and U.S. Pacific Islands. U.S. Climate Change Science Program, Synthesis and Assessment Product 3.3, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  167. Katz RW, Brown BG (1992) Extreme events in a changing climate—variability is more important than averages. Clim Change 21(3):289–302. doi: 10.1007/bf00139728 Google Scholar
  168. Kawasaki K, Omori M (1986) Fluctuations in the three major sardine stocks in the Pacific and the global temperature. In: Wyatt T, Larranenta G (eds) Long term changes in marine fish populations. A symposium held in Vigo, Spain, 18–21 November 1986, pp 37–53Google Scholar
  169. Keeling RF, Kortzinger A, Gruber N (2010) Ocean deoxygenation in a warming world. Ann Rev Mar Sci 2:199–229. doi: 10.1146/annurev.marine.010908.163855 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. Kelley AL, de Rivera CE, Buckley BA (2011) Intraspecific variation in thermotolerance and morphology of the invasive European green crab, Carcinus maenas, on the west coast of North America. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 409(1–2):70–78. doi: 10.1016/j.jembe.2011.08.005 Google Scholar
  171. Kharin VV, Zwiers FW, Zhang XB, Hegerl GC (2007) Changes in temperature and precipitation extremes in the IPCC ensemble of global coupled model simulations. J Clim 20(8):1419–1444. doi: 10.1175/jcli4066.1 Google Scholar
  172. King JR, McFarlane GA, Beamish RJ (2000) Decadal scale patterns in the relative year class success of sablefish, Anoplopoma fimbria. Fish Oceanogr 9(1):62–70Google Scholar
  173. King JR, Agostini VN, Harvey CJ, McFarlane GA, Foreman MGG, Overland JE, Di Lorenzo E, Bond NA, Aydin KY (2011) Climate forcing and the California Current ecosystem. ICES J Mar Sci 68(6):1199–1216. doi: 10.1093/icesjms/fsr009 Google Scholar
  174. Kleypas JA, Feely RA, Fabry VJ, Langdon C, Sabine CL, Robbins LL (2005) Impacts of ocean acidification on coral reefs and other marine calcifiers: a guide for future research, pp 18–20Google Scholar
  175. Koch M, Bowes G, Ross C, Zhang XH (2013) Climate change and ocean acidification effects on seagrasses and marine macroalgae. Glob Change Biol 19(1):103–132. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2012.02791.x Google Scholar
  176. Koslow JA, Goericke R, Lara-Lopez A, Watson W (2011) Impact of declining intermediate-water oxygen on deepwater fishes in the California Current. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 436:207–218. doi: 10.3354/meps09270 Google Scholar
  177. Krkosek M, Ford JS, Morton A, Lele S, Myers RA, Lewis MA (2007) Declining wild salmon populations in relation to parasites from farm salmon. Science 318(5857):1772–1775PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. Kudela RM, Cochlan WP, Peterson TD, Trick CG (2006) Impacts on phytoplankton biomass and productivity in the Pacific Northwest during the warm ocean conditions of 2005. Geophys Res Lett 33(22). doi: 10.1029/2006gl026772
  179. Lackey RT, Lach DH, Duncan SL (2006) Wild salmon in western North America: the historical and policy context. In: Lackey RT, Lach DH, Duncan SL (eds) Salmon 2100: the future of wild Pacific Salmon. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, ML, pp 13–55Google Scholar
  180. Lahaye V, Bustamante P, Law RJ, Learmonth JA, Santos MB, Boon JP, Rogan E, Dabin W, Addink MJ, Lopez A, Zuur AF, Pierce GJ, Caurant F (2007) Biological and ecological factors related to trace element levels in harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) from European waters. Mar Environ Res 64(3):247–266. doi: 10.1016/j.marenvres.2007.01.005 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. Lamb A, Hanby B (2005) Marine life of the Pacific Northwest: a photographic encyclopaedia of invertebrates, seaweeds and selected fishes. Harbour Publishing, Madiera Park, BCGoogle Scholar
  182. Larsen CF, Motyka RJ, Arendt AA, Echelmeyer KA, Geissler PE (2007) Glacier changes in southeast Alaska and northwest British Columbia and contribution to sea level rise. J Geophys Res Earth Surf 112(F1). doi: 10.1029/2006jf000586
  183. Lavaniegos BE, Ohman MD (2003) Long-term changes in pelagic tunicates of the California Current. Deep Sea Res Part II Top Stud Oceanogr 50(14–16):2473–2498. doi: 10.1016/s0967-0645(03)00132-2 Google Scholar
  184. Lavaniegos BE, Ohman MD (2007) Coherence of long-term variations of zooplankton in two sectors of the California Current System. Prog Oceanogr 75(1):42–69. doi: 10.1016/j.pocean.2007.07.002 Google Scholar
  185. Le Boeuf BJ, Crocker DE (2005) Ocean climate and seal condition. BMC Biol 3. doi: 10.1186/1741-7007-3-9
  186. Learmonth JA, MacLeod CD, Santos MB, Pierce GJ, Crick HQP, Robinson RA (2006) Potential effects of climate change on marine mammals. In: Gibson RN, Atkinson RJA, Gordon JDM (eds) Oceanography and marine biology—an annual review. Oceanogr Mar Biol 44:431–464Google Scholar
  187. Lee T, McPhaden MJ (2010) Increasing intensity of El Nino in the central-equatorial Pacific. Geophys Res Lett 37. doi: 10.1029/2010gl044007
  188. Levings CD, Cordell JR, Ong S, Piercey G (2004) The origin and identity of invertebrate organisms being transported to Canada's Pacific coast by ballast water. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 61(1):1–11. doi: 10.1139/f03-135 Google Scholar
  189. Li L, Ainsworth C, Pitcher T (2010) Presence of harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) may increase exploitable fish biomass in the Strait of Georgia. Prog Oceanogr 87(1–4):235–241. doi: 10.1016/j.pocean.2010.09.006 Google Scholar
  190. Li L, Mackas D, Hunt B, Schweigert J, Pakhomov E, Perry RI, Galbraith M, Pitcher TJ (2013) Zooplankton communities in the Strait of Georgia, British Columbia, track large-scale climate forcing over the Pacific Ocean. Prog Oceanogr 111:90–102Google Scholar
  191. Lin BB, Morefield PE (2011) The vulnerability cube: a multi-dimensional framework for assessing relative vulnerability. Environ Manag 48(3):631–643. doi: 10.1007/s00267-011-9690-8 Google Scholar
  192. Lo V, Chan KMA, Levings CD (2010) Effects of climate change on aquatic invasive species in British Columbia. In: Crawford WR, Irvine JR (eds) DFO Can Sci Advis Sec Res Doc 2010/053, viii + 137 p, pp 77–81Google Scholar
  193. Lo V, Okey TA, Wallace K (2011) Fauna and Flora. In: Okey TA, Loucks LA (eds) Social-ecological assessment for the marine and coastal areas of the West Coast of Vancouver Island. The Tsawalk Partnership, West Coast Aquatic, Port Alberni, BC, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  194. Lucas BG, Jamieson GS (2007) Chapter 2: Habitat use and functional areas in the Pacific North Coast Integrated Management Area In: Lucas BG, Verrin S, Brown R (eds) Ecosystem overview: Pacific North Coast Integrated Management Area (PNCIMA). Can Tech Rep Fish Aquat Sci 2667, xiii + 104 pGoogle Scholar
  195. Lucas BG, Verrin S, Brown R (eds) (2007) Ecosystem overview: Pacific North Coast Integrated Management Area (PNCIMA). Can Tech Rep Fish Aquat Sci 2667, xiii + 104 pGoogle Scholar
  196. Ludwig D, Walker B, Holling CS (1997) Sustainability, stability, and resilience. Conserv Ecol 1(1):7 Google Scholar
  197. Lusseau D, Williams R, Wilson B, Grellier K, Barton TR, Hammond PS, Thompson PM (2004) Parallel influence of climate on the behaviour of Pacific killer whales and Atlantic bottlenose dolphins. Ecol Lett 7(11):1068–1076. doi: 10.1111/j.1461-0248.2004.00669.x Google Scholar
  198. MacArthur RH, Levins R (1967) The limiting similarity, convergence, and divergence of coexisting species. Am Nat 101:377–385Google Scholar
  199. MacCall AD (1979) Population estimates for the waning years of the Pacific sardine fishery. CalCOFI reports 20Google Scholar
  200. MacFadyen A, Hickey BM, Foreman MGG (2005) Transport of surface waters from the Juan de Fuca eddy region to the Washington coast. Cont Shelf Res 25(16):2008–2021. doi: 10.1016/j.csr.2005.07.005 Google Scholar
  201. MacFadyen A, Hickey BM, Cochlan WP (2008) Influences of the Juan de Fuca Eddy on circulation, nutrients, and phytoplankton production in the northern California Current System. J Geophys Res Oceans 113(C8). doi: 10.1029/2007jc004412
  202. Mackas DL, Galbraith M (2002) Zooplankton community composition along the inner portion of Line P during the 1997–1998 El Nino event. Prog Oceanogr 54(1–4):423–437. doi: 10.1016/s0079-6611(02)00062-9 Google Scholar
  203. Mackas DL, Tsuda A (1999) Mesozooplankton in the eastern and western subarctic Pacific: community structure, seasonal life histories, and interannual variability. Prog Oceanogr 43(2–4):335–363. doi: 10.1016/s0079-6611(99)00012-9 Google Scholar
  204. Mackas DL, Goldblatt R, Lewis AG (1998) Interdecadal variation in developmental timing of Neocalanus plumchrus populations at Ocean Station P in the subarctic North Pacific. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 55(8):1878–1893. doi: 10.1139/cjfas-55-8-1878 Google Scholar
  205. Mackas DL, Peterson WT, Ohman MD, Lavaniegos BE (2006) Zooplankton anomalies in the California Current system before and during the warm ocean conditions of 2005. Geophys Res Lett 33(22). doi: 10.1029/2006gl027930
  206. Mackas DL, Batten S, Trudel M (2007) Effects on zooplankton of a warmer ocean: recent evidence from the Northeast Pacific. Prog Oceanogr 75(2):223–252. doi: 10.1016/j.pocean.2007.08.010 Google Scholar
  207. MacLeod CD, Bannon SM, Pierce GJ, Schweder C, Learmonth JA, Herman JS, Reid RJ (2005) Climate change and the cetacean community of north-west Scotland. Biol Conserv 124(4):477–483. doi: 10.1016/j.biocon.2005.02.004 Google Scholar
  208. Mantua NJ, Hare SR, Zhang Y, Wallace JM, Francis RC (1997) A Pacific interdecadal climate oscillation with impacts on salmon production. Bull Am Meteorol Soc 78(6):1069–1079Google Scholar
  209. Markon CJ, Trainor SF, Chapin FS (eds) (2012) The United States national climate assessment—Alaska technical regional report. U.S. Geol Surv Circ 1379, 148 pGoogle Scholar
  210. Martins EG, Hinch SG, Cooke SJ, Patterson DA (2012) Climate effects on growth, phenology, and survival of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka): a synthesis of the current state of knowledge and future research directions. Rev Fish Biol Fish 22(4):887–914. doi: 10.1007/s11160-012-9271-9 Google Scholar
  211. Mazzotti S, Lambert A, Van der Kooij M, Mainville A (2009) Impact of anthropogenic subsidence on relative sea-level rise in the Fraser River delta. Geology 37(9):771–774. doi: 10.1130/g25640a.1 Google Scholar
  212. McCay BJ, Brandt S, Creed CF (2011) Human dimensions of climate change and fisheries in a coupled system: the Atlantic surfclam case. ICES J Mar Sci 68(6):1354–1367. doi: 10.1093/icesjms/fsr044 Google Scholar
  213. McClanahan TR, Cinner JE, Maina J, Graham NAJ, Daw TM, Stead SM, Wamukota A, Brown K, Ateweberhan M, Venus V, Polunin NVC (2008) Conservation action in a changing climate. Conserv Lett 1:53–59Google Scholar
  214. McClatchie S, Goericke R, Cosgrove R, Auad G, Vetter R (2010) Oxygen in the Southern California Bight: multidecadal trends and implications for demersal fisheries. Geophys Res Lett 37:L19602. doi: 10.1029/2010gl044497 Google Scholar
  215. McFarlane GA, King JR, Beamish RJ (2000) Have there been recent changes in climate? Ask the fish. Prog Oceanogr 47(2–4):147–169Google Scholar
  216. McFarlane GA, Schweigert J, MacDougall L, Hrabok C (2005) Distribution and biology of Pacific sardines (Sardinops sagax) off British Columbia, Canada. Calif Coop Ocean Fish Invest Rep 46:144–160Google Scholar
  217. McKinnell S (2008) Fraser River sockeye salmon productivity and climate: a re-analysis that avoids an undesirable property of Ricker’s curve. Prog Oceanogr 77(2–3):146–154. doi: 10.1016/j.pocean.2008.03.014 Google Scholar
  218. McKinnell SM, Dagg MJ (eds) (2010) Marine Ecosystems of the North Pacific Ocean, 2003–2008. PICES Spec Publ 4:393 pGoogle Scholar
  219. McMahon CR, Hays GC (2006) Thermal niche, large-scale movements and implications of climate change for a critically endangered marine vertebrate. Glob Change Biol 12(7):1330–1338. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2006.01174.x Google Scholar
  220. Melin SR, Orr AJ, Harris JD, Laake JL, DeLong RL (2012) California sea lions: an indicator for integrated ecosystem assessment of the California current system. Calif Coop Ocean Fish Invest Rep 53:140–152Google Scholar
  221. Merryfield WJ (2006) Changes to ENSO under CO2 doubling in a multimodel ensemble. J Clim 19(16):4009–4027. doi: 10.1175/jcli3834.1 Google Scholar
  222. Miller AW, Reynolds AC, Sobrino C, Riedel GF (2009) Shellfish face uncertain future in high CO2 world: influence of acidification on oyster larvae calcification and growth in estuaries. PLoS ONE 4(5):e5661PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  223. Miller K, Charles A, Barange M, Brander K, Gallucci VF, Gasalla MA, Khan A, Munro G, Murtugudde R, Ommer RE, Perry RI (2010) Climate change, uncertainty, and resilient fisheries: institutional responses through integrative science. Prog Oceanogr 87(1–4):338–346. doi: 10.1016/j.pocean.2010.09.014 Google Scholar
  224. Moore JD, Robbins TT, Friedman CS (2000) Withering syndrome in farmed red abalone Haliotis rufescens: thermal induction and association with a gastrointestinal Rickettsiales-like prokaryote. J Aquat Anim Health 12(1):26–34Google Scholar
  225. Morrison J, Quick MC, Foreman MGG (2002) Climate change in the Fraser River watershed: flow and temperature projections. J Hydrol 263(1–4):230–244. doi: 10.1016/s0022-1694(02)00065-3 Google Scholar
  226. Moser SC, Williams SJ, Boesch DF (2012) Wicked challenges at land’s end: managing coastal vulnerability under climate change. In: Gadgil A, Liverman DM (eds) Annu Rev Environ Resour 37:51. doi: 10.1146/annurev-environ-021611-135158
  227. Mrosovsky N, Baptistotte C, Godfrey MH (1999) Validation of incubation duration as an index of the sex ratio of hatchling sea turtles. Can J Zool 77(5):831–835. doi: 10.1139/cjz-77-5-831 Google Scholar
  228. Mudie PJ, Rochon A, Levac E (2002) Palynological records of red tide-producing species in Canada: past trends and implications for the future. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 180(1–3):159–186. doi: 10.1016/s0031-0182(01)00427-8 Google Scholar
  229. Mueter FJ, Litzow MA (2008) Sea ice retreat alters the biogeography of the Bering Sea continental shelf. Ecol Appl 18(2):309–320. doi: 10.1890/07-0564.1 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  230. Mueter FJ, Peterman RM, Pyper BJ (2002) Opposite effects of ocean temperature on survival rates of 120 stocks of Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) in northern and southern areas. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 59(3):456–463. doi: 10.1139/f02-020 Google Scholar
  231. Mueter FJ, Broms C, Drinkwater KF, Friedland KD, Hare JA, Hunt GL, Melle W, Taylor M (2009) Ecosystem responses to recent oceanographic variability in high-latitude Northern Hemisphere ecosystems. Prog Oceanogr 81(1–4):93–110. doi: 10.1016/j.pocean.2009.04.018 Google Scholar
  232. Mundy PR, Allen DM, Boldt JL, Bond NA, Dressel S, Farley EV Jr, Hanselman DH, Heifetz J, Hopcroft RR, Janout MA, Ladd C, Lam RC, Livingston PA, Lunsford CR, Mathis JT, Mueter FJ, Rooper CN, Sarkar N, Shotwell SAK, Sturdevant MV, Thomas AC, Weingartner TJ, Woodby D (2010) Status and trends of the Alaska Current Region, 2003–2008. In: McKinnell SM, Dagg MJ (eds) Marine ecosystems of the North Pacific Ocean, 2003–2008. PICES Spec Publ 4:142–195Google Scholar
  233. Murawski SA (1993) Climate-change and marine fish distributions - forecasting from historical analogy. Trans Am Fish Soc 122(5):647–658. doi: 10.1577/1548-8659(1993)122<0647:ccamfd>;2 Google Scholar
  234. Napp JM, Hunt GL Jr (2001) Anomalous conditions in the south-eastern Bering Sea 1997: linkages among climate, weather, ocean, and biology. Fish Oceanogr 10(1):61–68Google Scholar
  235. Nehlsen W, Williams JE, Lichatowich JA (1991) Pacific salmon at the crossroads: stocks at risk from California, Oregon, Idaho, and Washington. Fisheries 16(2):4–21Google Scholar
  236. Noakes DJ, Beamish RJ, Kent ML (2000) On the decline of Pacific salmon and speculative links to salmon farming in British Columbia. Aquaculture 183:363–386Google Scholar
  237. NRC (1996) Upstream: salmon and society in the Pacific Northwest. National Research Council, National Academy Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  238. NRC (2002) Abrupt climate change: Inevitable surprises. National Research Council (U.S.), Committee on Abrupt Climate Change, National Academy Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  239. Okey TA (2003) Macrobenthic colonist guilds and renegades in Monterey Canyon (USA) drift algae: partitioning multidimensions. Ecol Monogr 73(3):415–440Google Scholar
  240. Okey TA (2004a) A search for keystones in Prince William Sound, Alaska using a mass-continuity trophic model. In: Shifted community states in four marine ecosystems: some potential mechanisms. PhD, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, pp 60–83Google Scholar
  241. Okey TA (2004b) Shifted community states in four marine ecosystems: some potential mechanisms. Zoology. PhD Thesis, University of British Columbia, VancouverGoogle Scholar
  242. Okey TA, Dallimore A (2011) Climate and oceanography. In: Okey TA, Loucks LA (eds) Social-ecological assessment for the marine and coastal areas of the West Coast of Vancouver Island. The Tsawalk partnership, West Coast Aquatic, Port Alberni, BC, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  243. Okey TA, Loucks LA (eds) (2011) Social-ecological assessment for the marine and coastal areas of the West Coast of Vancouver Island. The Tsawalk partnership, West Coast Aquatic, Port Alberni, BC, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  244. Okey TA, Engstrom N, Babcock R (2006) Impacts of climate change on kelp. In: Hobday AJ, Okey TA, Poloczanska ES, Kunz TJ, Richardson AJ (eds) Impacts of climate change on Australian marine life: part C. Literature review. Report to the Australian Greenhouse Office, Canberra, Australia, pp 44–52Google Scholar
  245. Okey TA, Wright BA, Brubaker MY (2007) Salmon shark connections: North Pacific climate change, indirect fisheries effects, or just variability? Fish Fish 8(4):359–366Google Scholar
  246. Okey TA, Hollowed AB, Schirripa MJ (2008) PICES fishery science committee and physical oceanography and climate committee workshop in Gijón. PICES Press 16(2):16–18Google Scholar
  247. Okey TA, Alidina HM, Lo V, Montenegro A, Jessen S (2012) Climate change impacts and vulnerabilities in Canada’s Pacific marine ecosystems. CPAWS BC and WWF-Canada, Vancouver 156 ppGoogle Scholar
  248. Orr JC, Fabry VJ, Aumont L, Bopp L, Doney SC, Feely RA, Gnanadesikan A, Gruber N, Ishida A, Joos F, Key RM, Lindsay K, Maier-Reimer E, Matear R, Monfray P, Mouchet A, Najjar RG, Plattner G-K, Rodgers KB, Sabine CL, Sarmiento JL, Schlitzer R, Slater RD, Totterdell IJ, Weirig M-F, Yamanaka Y, Yool A (2005) Anthropogenic ocean acidification over the twenty-first century and its impact on calcifying organisms. Nature 437:681–686PubMedGoogle Scholar
  249. Orsi JA, Harding JA, Pool SS, Brodeur RD, Haldorson LJ, Murphy JM, Moss JH, Farley EV, Sweeting RM, Morris JFT, Trudel M, Beamish R, Emmett RL, Ferguson EA (2007) Epipelagic fish assemblages associated with juvenile Pacific salmon in neritic waters of the California Current and the Alaska Current. Am Fish Soc Symp 57:105–155Google Scholar
  250. Overland JE, Wang M (2007) Future climate of the North Pacific Ocean. Eos Trans Am Geophys Union 88(16). doi: 10.1029/2007EO160003
  251. Paine RT (1969) A note on trophic complexity and community stability. Am Nat 103:91–93Google Scholar
  252. Paine RT (1995) A conversation on refining the concept of keystone species. Conserv Biol 9(4):962–964. doi: 10.1046/j.1523-1739.1995.09040962.x Google Scholar
  253. Palm RS (2006) Year-end report. Strawberry Isle Marine Research Society, TofinoGoogle Scholar
  254. Parrish JK, Bond N, Nevins H, Mantua N, Loeffel R, Peterson WT, Harvey JT (2007) Beached birds and physical forcing in the California Current System. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 352:275–288. doi: 10.3354/meps07077 Google Scholar
  255. Pauly D, Pitcher TJ, Preikshot D (eds) (1998) Back to the future: reconstructing the strait of Georgia ecosystem. Fish Cent Res Rep, vol 6(5), University of British Columbia Fisheries Centre, Vancouver, p 99Google Scholar
  256. Pauly D, Palomares ML, Froese R, Sa-a P, Vakily M, Preikshot D, Wallace S (2001) Fishing down Canadian aquatic food webs. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 58(1):51–62Google Scholar
  257. Pecl GT, Jackson GD (2008) The potential impacts of climate change on inshore squid: biology, ecology and fisheries. Rev Fish Biol Fish 18(4):373–385. doi: 10.1007/s11160-007-9077-3 Google Scholar
  258. Peery MZ, Becker BH, Beissinger SR (2007) Age ratios as estimators of productivity: testing assumptions on a threatened seabird, the Marbled Murrelet (Brachyramphus marmoratus). Auk 124(1):224–240. doi:10.1642/0004-8038(2007)124[224:ARAEOP]2.0.CO;2Google Scholar
  259. Pellegrin N, Boutillier J, Lauzier R, Verrin S, Johannessen D (2007) Appendix F: Invertebrates. In: Lucas BG, Verrin S, Brown R (eds) Ecosystem overview: Pacific North Coast Integrated Management Area (PNCIMA). Can Tech Rep Fish Aquat Sci. 2667, iii + 37 pGoogle Scholar
  260. Perry AL, Low PJ, Ellis JR, Reynolds JD (2005) Climate change and distribution shifts in marine fishes. Science 308(5730):1912–1915. doi: 10.1126/science.1111322 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  261. Perry RI, Crawford B, Sinclair A (2007) Chapter 1: ecosystem description. In: Lucas BG, Verrin S, Brown R (eds) Ecosystem overview: Pacific North Coast Integrated Management Area (PNCIMA). Can Tech Rep Fish Aquat Sci 2667, xiii + 104 p, pp 3–45Google Scholar
  262. Perry RI, Cury P, Brander K, Jennings S, Mollmann C, Planque B (2010) Sensitivity of marine systems to climate and fishing: concepts, issues and management responses. J Mar Syst 79(3–4):427–435. doi: 10.1016/j.jmarsys.2008.12.017 Google Scholar
  263. Phillips AJ, Ralston S, Brodeur RD, Auth TD, Emmett RL, Johnson C, Wespestad VG (2007) Recent pre-recruit Pacific hake (Merluccius productus) occurrences in the northern California Current suggest a northward expansion of their spawning area. Calif Coop Ocean Fish Invest Rep 48:215–229Google Scholar
  264. Pike RG, Spittlehouse DL, Bennett KE, Egginton VN, Tschaplinski PJ, Murdock TQ, Werner AT (2008) Climate change and watershed hydrology: part I—recent and projected changes in British Columbia. Streamline Watershed Manag Bull 11(2):1–8Google Scholar
  265. Pitcher TJ (2005) Back-to-the-future: a fresh policy initiative for fisheries and a restoration ecology for ocean ecosystems. Philos Trans R Soc B Biol Sci 360(1453):107–121. doi: 10.1098/rstb2004.1575 Google Scholar
  266. Poloczanska ES (2006) Impacts of climate change on seagrasses. In: Hobday AJ, Okey TA, Poloczanska ES, Kunz TJ, Richardson AJ (eds) Impacts of climate change on Australian marine life: part C. Literature review. Report to the Australian Greenhouse Office, Canberra, Australia, pp 27–35Google Scholar
  267. Poloczanska ES, Babcock RC, Butler A, Hobday A, Hoegh-Guldberg O, Kunz TJ, Matear R, Milton DA, Okey TA, Richardson AJ (2007) Climate change and Australian marine life. Oceanogr Mar Biol 45:407–478Google Scholar
  268. Poloczanska ES, Limpus CJ, Hays GC (2009) Vulnerability of marine turtles to climate change. In: Sims DW (ed) Adv Mar Biol 56:151–211. doi: 10.1016/s0065-2881(09)56002-6
  269. Poloczanska ES, Brown CJ, Sydeman WJ, Kiessling W, Schoeman DS, Moore PJ, Brander K, Bruno JF, Buckley LB, Burrows MT, Duarte CM, Halpern BS, Holding J, Kappel CV, O’Connor MI, Pandolfi JM, Parmesan C, Schwing F, Thompson SA, Richardson AJ (2013) Global imprint of climate change on marine life. Nat Clim Change. doi: 10.1038/NCLIMATE1958
  270. Portner HO, Langenbuch M, Michaelidis B (2005) Synergistic effects of temperature extremes, hypoxia, and increases in CO2 on marine animals: from Earth history to global change. J Geophys Res Oceans 110(C9). doi: 10.1029/2004jc002561
  271. Preikshot DB (2007) The influence of geographic scale, climate and trophic dynamics upon north Pacific oceanic ecosystem models. PhD, University of British Columbia, VancouverGoogle Scholar
  272. Preikshot D, Beamish RJ, Neville CM (2013) A dynamic model describing ecosystem-level changes in the Strait of Georgia from 1960 to 2010. Prog Oceanogr 115:28–40Google Scholar
  273. Rabalais NN, Diaz RJ, Levin LA, Turner RE, Gilbert D, Zhang J (2010) Dynamics and distribution of natural and human-caused hypoxia. Biogeosciences 7(2):585–619Google Scholar
  274. Reed TE, Schindler DE, Hague MJ, Patterson DA, Meir E, Waples RS, Hinch SG (2011) Time to evolve? Potential evolutionary responses of Fraser River sockeye salmon to climate change and effects on persistence. PLoS One 6(6). doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0020380
  275. Reid PC, Beaugrand G (2012) Global synchrony of an accelerating rise in sea surface temperature. J Mar Biol Assoc UK 92(7):1435–1450. doi: 10.1017/s0025315412000549 Google Scholar
  276. Richardson AJ (2008) In hot water: zooplankton and climate change. ICES J Mar Sci 65(3):279–295. doi: 10.1093/icesjms/fsn028 Google Scholar
  277. Robinson CLK, Ware DM (1999) Simulated and observed response of the southwest Vancouver Island pelagic ecosystem to oceanic conditions in the 1990 s. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 56(12):2433–2443Google Scholar
  278. Robinson A, Crick HQ, Learmonth JA, Maclean IM, Thomas CD, Bairlein F, Forchhammer MC, Francis CM, Gill JA, Godley BJ (2009) Travelling through a warming world: climate change and migratory species. Endanger Species Res 7:87–99Google Scholar
  279. Rodenhuis D, Bennett KE, Werner AT, Murdock TQ, Bronaugh D (2007) Climate overview 2007. Pacific climate impacts consortium. University of Victoria, Victoria, BCGoogle Scholar
  280. Roemmich D, McGowan J (1995) Climatic warming and the decline of zooplankton in the California Current. Science 267(5202):1324–1326PubMedGoogle Scholar
  281. Rogers-Bennett L (2007a) The ecology of Strongylocentrotus franciscanus and Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. Dev Aquac Fish Sci 37:393–425Google Scholar
  282. Rogers-Bennett L (2007b) Is climate change contributing to range reductions and localized extinctions in northern (Haliotis kamtschatkana) and flat (Haliotis walallensis) abalones? Bull Mar Sci 81(2):283–296Google Scholar
  283. Rose KA, Allen JI, Artioli Y, Barange M, Blackford J, Carlotti F, Cropp R, Daewel U, Edwards K, Flynn K, Hill SL, HilleRisLambers R, Huse G, Mackinson S, Megrey B, Moll A, Rivkin R, Salihoglu B, Schrum C, Shannon L, Shin YJ, Smith SL, Smith C, Solidoro C, St John M, Zhou M (2010) End-to-end models for the analysis of marine ecosystems: challenges, issues, and next steps. Mar Coast Fish 2(1):115–130. doi: 10.1577/c09-059.1 Google Scholar
  284. Royer TC (1998) Coastal Ocean processes in the northern North Pacific. In: Brink KH, Robinson AR (eds) The Sea, vol 11. Wiley, New York, pp 395–414Google Scholar
  285. Ruggiero P, Komar PD, Allan JC (2010) Increasing wave heights and extreme value projections: tshe wave climate of the US Pacific Northwest. Coast Eng 57(5):539–552. doi: 10.1016/j.coastaleng.2009.12.005 Google Scholar
  286. Ruzicka JJ, Brodeur RD, Emmett RL, Steele JH, Zamon JE, Morgan CA, Thomas AC, Wainwright TC (2012) Interannual variability in the Northern California Current food web structure: changes in energy flow pathways and the role of forage fish, euphausiids, and jellyfish. Prog Oceanogr 102:19–41. doi: 10.1016/j.pocean.2012.02.002 Google Scholar
  287. Sabine CL, Feely RA, Gruber N, Key RM, Lee K, Bullister JL, Wanninkhof R, Wong CS, Wallace DWR, Tilbrook B, Millero FJ, Peng T-H, Kozyr A, Ono T, Rios AF (2004) The oceanic sink for anthropogenic CO2. Science 305(5682):367–371. doi: 10.1126/science.1097403 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  288. Saksida SM (2006) Infectious haematopoietic necrosis epidemic (2001 to 2003) in farmed Atlantic salmon Salmo salar in British Columbia. Dis Aquat Org 72:213–223PubMedGoogle Scholar
  289. Salmon DK (1997) Oceanography of the Eastern North Pacific. In: Schoonmaker PK, Von Hagen B, Wolf EC (eds) The rain forests of home: profile of a North American bioregion. Island Press, Washington, DC, pp 7–23Google Scholar
  290. Sanford E (1999) Regulation of keystone predation by small changes in ocean temperature. Science 283(5410):2095–2097. doi: 10.1126/science.283.5410.2095 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  291. Sarmiento JL, Hughes TMC, Stouffer RJ, Manabe S (1998) Simulated response of the ocean carbon cycle to anthropogenic climate warming. Nature 393(6682):245–249Google Scholar
  292. Scheffer M, Carpenter S, Foley JA, Folke C, Walker B (2001) Catastrophic shifts in ecosystems. Nature 413(6856):591–596PubMedGoogle Scholar
  293. Schell DM (2000) Declining carrying capacity in the Bering Sea: isotopic evidence from whale baleen. Limnol Oceanogr 45(2):459–462Google Scholar
  294. Schiel DR, Steinbeck JR, Foster MS (2004) Ten years of induced ocean warming causes comprehensive changes in marine benthic communities. Ecology 85(7):1833–1839Google Scholar
  295. Schirripa MJ (2008) Changes in sablefish (Anoplopoma fimbria) recruitment in relation to oceanographic conditions. In: Hollowed AB, Beamish RJ, Okey TA, Schirripa MJ (eds) Reports of PICES/NPRB workshops on forecasting climate impacts on future production of commercially exploited fish and shellfish. PICES scientific report no. 34, North Pacific Marine Science Organization (PICES), Sydney, BC, Canada, pp 35–36Google Scholar
  296. Schnute JT, Haigh R, Krishka BA, Starr P (2001) Pacific Ocean Perch Assessment for the West Coast of Canada in 2001. Can Sci Advis Secr Res Doc 2002/138, 96 ppGoogle Scholar
  297. Schoonmaker PK, Von Hagen B, Wolf EC (1997) The rain forests of home: profile of a North American bioregion. Island Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  298. Schweigert J (2007) Small pelagic fishes. In: State of the Pacific Ocean 2006. DFO Can Sci Advis Secr Rep 2007/019, pp 50–55Google Scholar
  299. Schweigert JF, Boldt JL, Flostrand L, Cleary JS (2010) A review of factors limiting recovery of Pacific herring stocks in Canada. ICES J Mar Sci 67(9):1903–1913. doi: 10.1093/icesjms/fsq134 Google Scholar
  300. Schweigert J, Wood C, Hay D, McAllister M, Boldt J, McCarter B, Therriault TW, Brekke H (2012) Recovery potential assessment of eulachon (Thaleichthys pacificus) in Canada. DFO Can Sci Advis Secr Res Doc 2012/098, vii + 121 pGoogle Scholar
  301. Schweigert J, McCarter B, Wood C, Hay D, Boldt J, Therriault T, Brekke H (2013) Eulachon. In: Irvine J, Crawford W (eds) State of physical, biological, and selected fishery resources of Pacific Canadian marine ecosystems in 2012. DFO Can. Sci. Advis. Sec. Res. Doc. 2013/032. Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat, Department of Fisheries Oceans, Ottawa, ON, Canada, pp 66–68Google Scholar
  302. Shaw J, Taylor RB, Forbes DL, Ruz M-H, Solomon S (1998) Sensitivity of the coasts of Canada to sea-level rise. Geol Surv Can Bull 505:79Google Scholar
  303. Simmonds MP, Isaac SJ (2007) The impacts of climate change on marine mammals: early signs of significant problems. Oryx 41(1):19–26. doi: 10.1017/s0030605307001524 Google Scholar
  304. Sinclair AF, Crawford WR (2005) Incorporating an environmental stock-recruitment relationship in the assessment of Pacific cod (Gadus macrocephalus). Fish Oceanogr 14(2):138–150. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2419.2005.00326.x Google Scholar
  305. Slaney TL, Hyatt KD, Northcote TG, Fielden RJ (1996) Status of anadromous salmon and trout in British Columbia and Yukon. Fisheries 21(10):20–35. doi: 10.1577/1548-8446(1996)021<0020:soasat>;2 Google Scholar
  306. Snyder MA, Sloan LC, Diffenbaugh NS, Bell JL (2003) Future climate change and upwelling in the California Current. Geophys Res Lett 30(15). doi: 10.1029/2003gl017647
  307. Solomon S, Qin D, Manning M, Chen Z, Marquis M, Averyt KB, Tignor M, Miller HL (eds) (2007) Contribution of working group I to the fourth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA.
  308. Spencer PD (2008) Density-independent and density-dependent factors affecting temporal changes in spatial distributions of eastern Bering Sea flatfish. Fish Oceanogr 17(5):396–410. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2419.2008.00486.x Google Scholar
  309. Springer AM, Byrd GV, Iverson SJ (2007) Hot oceanography: planktivorous seabirds reveal ecosystem responses to warming of the Bering Sea. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 352:289–297. doi: 10.3354/meps07080 Google Scholar
  310. Stabeno PJ, Hermann AJ, Bond NA, Bograd SJ (1995) Modeling the impact of climate variability on the advection of larval walleye pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) in the Gulf of Alaska. Can Spec Publ Fish Aquat Sci 121:719–727Google Scholar
  311. Stahl K, Moore RD, McKendry IG (2006) The role of synoptic-scale circulation in the linkage between large-scale ocean-atmosphere indices and winter surface climate in British Columbia, Canada. Int J Climatol 26(4):541–560. doi: 10.1002/joc.1268 Google Scholar
  312. Steele JH (2012) Prediction, scenarios and insight: the uses of an end-to-end model. Prog Oceanogr 102:67–73. doi: 10.1016/j.pocean.2012.03.005 Google Scholar
  313. Steele JH, Hofmann EE, Gifford DJ (2012) End-to-end models: management applications preface. Prog Oceanogr 102:1–4. doi: 10.1016/j.pocean.2012.03.003 Google Scholar
  314. Steneck RS, Graham MH, Bourque BJ, Corbett D, Erlandson JM, Estes JA, Tegner MJ (2002) Kelp forest ecosystems: biodiversity, stability, resilience and future. Environ Conserv 29(4):436–459Google Scholar
  315. Stock CA, Alexander MA, Bond NA, Brander KM, Cheung WWL, Curchitser EN, Delworth TL, Dunne JP, Griffies SM, Haltuch MA, Hare JA, Hollowed AB, Lehodey P, Levin SA, Link JS, Rose KA, Rykaczewski RR, Sarmiento JL, Stouffer RJ, Schwing FB, Vecchi GA, Werner FE (2011) On the use of IPCC-class models to assess the impact of climate on living marine resources. Prog Oceanogr 88(1–4):1–27. doi: 10.1016/j.pocean.2010.09.001 Google Scholar
  316. Sumaila UR, Walters C (2005) Intergenerational discounting: a new intuitive approach. Ecol Econ 52(2):135–142. doi: 10.1016/j.ecolecon.2003.11.012 Google Scholar
  317. Sunday JM, Bates AE, Dulvy NK (2012) Thermal tolerance and the global redistribution of animals. Nat Clim Change 2(9):686–690. doi: 10.1038/nclimate1539 Google Scholar
  318. Teal LR, de Leeuw JJ, van der Veer HW, Rijnsdorp AD (2008) Effects of climate change on growth of 0-group sole and plaice. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 358:219–230. doi: 10.3354/meps07367 Google Scholar
  319. Thomson RE (1981) Oceanography of the British Columbia Coast. Can Spec Publ Fish Aquat Sci 56:291Google Scholar
  320. Thomson RE, Crawford WR (1997) Processes affecting sea level change along the coasts of British Columbia and the Yukon. Paper presented at the responding to global climate change in British Columbia and the Yukon. Volume I of the Canada country study: climate impacts and adaptation, proceedings of the workshop held on February 27–28, 1997 at Simon Fraser University. Environment Canada and BC Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks, 19 p.
  321. Thomson RE, Krassovski MV (2010) Poleward reach of the California Undercurrent extension. J Geophys Res Oceans 115. doi: 10.1029/2010jc006280
  322. Thomson KA, Ingraham WJ, Healey MC, Leblond PH, Groot C, Healey CG (1994) Computer simulations of the influence of ocean currents on Fraser River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) return times. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 51(2):441–449Google Scholar
  323. Thomson RE, Bornhold BD, Mazzotti S (2008) An examination of the factors affecting relative and absolute sea level in British Columbia. Canadian technical report of hydrography and ocean sciences, vol 260. Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Sidney, BCGoogle Scholar
  324. Tillmann P, Siemann D (2011) Climate change effects and adaptation approaches in marine and coastal ecosystems of the North Pacific landscape conservation cooperative region: a compilation of scientific literature, phase 1 draft final report. National Wildlife Federation for the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Region 1 Science Applications Program, 257 ppGoogle Scholar
  325. Tomascik T, Holmes H (2003) Distribution and abundance of haliotis kamtschatkana in relation to habitat, competitors and predators in the Broken Group Islands, Pacific RIM National Park reserve of Canada. J Shellfish Res 22(3):831–838Google Scholar
  326. Trenberth KE, Caron JM, Stepaniak DP, Worley S (2002) Evolution of El Nino-Southern Oscillation and global atmospheric surface temperatures. J Geophys Res Atmos 107(D7–8). doi: 10.1029/2000jd000298
  327. Trudel M, Gillespie G, Cosgrove J, Wing B (2006) Warm water species in British Columbia and Alaska. In: State of the Pacific Ocean 2005. DFO science ocean status report 2006/001, p 53.
  328. Ulbrich U, Pinto JG, Kupfer H, Leckebusch GC, Spangehl T, Reyers M (2008) Changing northern hemisphere storm tracks in an ensemble of IPCC climate change simulations. J Clim 21(8):1669–1679. doi: 10.1175/2007jcli1992.1 Google Scholar
  329. UNEP (2007) Global outlook for ice and snow. United Nations Environment Programme, Arendal. UNEP/GRID, ArendalGoogle Scholar
  330. van Blaricom GR, Ruediger JL, Friedman CS, Woodard DD, Hedrick RP (1993) Discovery of withering syndrome among black abalone Haliotis cracherodii Leach, 1814, populations at San Nicolas Island, California. J Shellfish Res 12(2):185–188Google Scholar
  331. van Vliet MTH, Franssen WHP, Yearsley JR, Ludwig F, Haddeland I, Lettenmaier DP, Kabat P (2013) Global river discharge and water temperature under climate change. Glob Environ Change Hum Policy Dimens 23(2):450–464. doi: 10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2012.11.002 Google Scholar
  332. Venrick EL, McGowan JA, Cayan DR, Hayward TL (1987) Climate and chlorophyll a: long-term trends in the Central North Pacific Ocean. Science 238(4823):70–72PubMedGoogle Scholar
  333. Vinagre C, Costa MJ, Cabral HN (2007) Impact of climate and hydrodynamics on sole larval immigration towards the Tagus estuary, Portugal. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 75(4):516–524. doi: 10.1016/j.ecss.2007.05.035 Google Scholar
  334. Walker IJ, Sydneysmith R (2007) Chapter 8: British Columbia In: Lemmen D, FJW, Lacroix J, Bush E (ed) From impacts to adaptation: Canada in a changing climate. Natural Resources Canada, pp 329–386Google Scholar
  335. Wallace SS (1999) Evaluating the effects of three forms of marine reserve on northern abalone populations in British Columbia, Canada. Conserv Biol 13(4):882–887. doi: 10.1046/j.1523-1739.1999.98117.x Google Scholar
  336. Waples RS (1999) Dispelling some myths about hatcheries. Fisheries 24(2):12–21Google Scholar
  337. Ware DM (1991) Climate, predators and prey: behaviour of a linked oscillating system. In: Kawasaki T, Tanada S, Toba Y, Taniguch A (eds) Long-term variability of pelagic fish populations and their environment. Pergamon Press, Tokyo, pp 47–60Google Scholar
  338. Ware DM, Hargreaves NB (1993) Occurrence of Pacific (chub) mackerel off the B.C. coast in 1993. PICES Press 2(1):12–13Google Scholar
  339. Ware DM, Thomson RE (1991) Link between long-term variability in upwelling and fish production in the northeast Pacific Ocean. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 48(12):2296–2306. doi: 10.1139/f91-270 Google Scholar
  340. Ware DM, Thomson RE (2000) Interannual to multidecadal timescale climate variations in the northeast Pacific. J Clim 13(18):3209–3220. doi: 10.1175/1520-0442(2000)013<3209:itmtcv>;2 Google Scholar
  341. Ware DM, Thomson RE (2005) Bottom-up ecosystem trophic dynamics determine fish production in the northeast Pacific. Science 308(5726):1280–1284. doi: 10.1126/science.1109049 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  342. Watters GM, Olson RJ, Field JC, Essington TE (2008) Range expansion of the Humboldt squid was not caused by tuna fishing. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 105(3):E5 (author reply E6). doi: 10.1073/pnas.0710369105
  343. Weishampel JF, Bagley DA, Ehrhart LM (2004) Earlier nesting by loggerhead sea turtles following sea surface warming. Glob Change Biol 10(8):1424–1427. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2004.00817.x Google Scholar
  344. Wespestad VG, Fritz LW, Ingraham WJ, Megrey BA (2000) On relationships between cannibalism, climate variability, physical transport, and recruitment success of Bering Sea walleye pollock (Theragra chalcogramma). ICES J Mar Sci 57(2):272–278Google Scholar
  345. Whitney FA (2011) Nutrient variability in the mixed layer of the subarctic Pacific Ocean, 1987–2010. J Oceanogr 67(4):481–492. doi: 10.1007/s10872-011-0051-2 Google Scholar
  346. Whitney FA, Bograd SJ, Ono T (2013) Nutrient enrichment of the subarctic Pacific Ocean pycnocline. Geophys Res Lett 40:2200–2205. doi: 10.1002/grl.50439 Google Scholar
  347. Whitney FA, Wong CS, Boyd PW (1998) Interannual variability in nitrate supply to surface waters of the Northeast Pacific Ocean. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 170:15–23. doi: 10.3354/meps170015 Google Scholar
  348. Whitney FA, Crawford WR, Harrison P (2005) Physical processes that enhance nutrient transport and primary productivity in the coastal and open ocean of the subarctic NE Pacific. Deep Sea Res Part II Top Stud Oceanogr 52(5–6):681–706. doi: 10.1016/j.dsr2.2004.12.023 Google Scholar
  349. Whitney FA, Freeland HJ, Robert M (2007) Persistently declining oxygen levels in the interior waters of the eastern subarctic Pacific. Prog Oceanogr 75(2):179–199. doi: 10.1016/j.pocean.2007.08.007 Google Scholar
  350. Widdicombe S, Spicer JI (2008) Predicting the impact of ocean acidification on benthic biodiversity: what can animal physiology tell us? J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 366(1–2):187–197Google Scholar
  351. Wilderbuer TK, Hollowed AB, Ingraham WJ, Spencer PD, Conners ME, Bond NA, Walters GE (2002) Flatfish recruitment response to decadal climatic variability and ocean conditions in the eastern Bering Sea. Prog Oceanogr 55(1–2):235–247Google Scholar
  352. Williams R, Okey TA, Wallace SS, Gallucci VF (2010) Shark aggregation in coastal waters of British Columbia. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 414:249–256. doi: 10.3354/meps08718 Google Scholar
  353. Wilson EO (1992) The diversity of life. Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MAGoogle Scholar
  354. Wilson EO (2002) The future of life, 1st edn. Alfred A. Knopf, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  355. Wing BL (2006) Unusual observations of fish and invertebrates from the Gulf of Alaska, 2004–2005. PICES Press 14(2):26–28Google Scholar
  356. Wong CS, Whitney FA, Matear RJ, Iseki K (1998) Enhancement of new production in the northeast subarctic Pacific Ocean during negative North Pacific index events. Limnol Oceanogr 43(7):1418–1426Google Scholar
  357. Wootton JT, Pfister CA, Forester JD (2008) Dynamic patterns and ecological impacts of declining ocean pH in a high-resolution multi-year dataset. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 105(48):18848–18853PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  358. Wright CA, Dallimore A, Thomson RE, Patterson RT, Ware DM (2005) Late Holocene paleofish populations in Effingham Inlet, British Columbia, Canada. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 224(4):367–384. doi: 10.1016/j.palaeo.2005.03.041 Google Scholar
  359. Wu H, Kimball JS, Elsner MM, Mantua N, Adler RF, Stanford J (2012) Projected climate change impacts on the hydrology and temperature of Pacific Northwest rivers. Water Resour Res 48. doi: 10.1029/2012wr012082
  360. Yntema CL, Mrosovsky N (1982) Critical periods and pivotal temperatures for sexual-differentiation in loggerhead sea turtles. Can J Zool 60(5):1012–1016. doi: 10.1139/z82-141 Google Scholar
  361. Yunker MB, Cretney J (1995) Chlorinated dioxin trends between 1987 and 1993 for samples of crab hepatopancreas from pulp and paper mill and harbour sites in British Columbia. Canadian technical report of fisheries and aquatic sciences. 2082. Fisheries and Oceans Canada, 138 pGoogle Scholar
  362. Zabel RW, Scheuerell MD, McClure MM, Williams JG (2006) The interplay between climate variability and density dependence in the population viability of Chinook salmon. Conserv Biol 20(1):190–200PubMedGoogle Scholar
  363. Zacherl D, Gaines SD, Lonhart SI (2003) The limits to biogeographical distributions: insights from the northward range extension of the marine snail, Kelletia kelletii (Forbes, 1852). J Biogeogr 30(6):913–924. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2699.2003.00899.x Google Scholar
  364. Zhang Z, Campbell A, Lessard J (2007) Modeling northern abalone, Haliotis kamtschatkana, population stock and recruitment in British Columbia. J Shellfish Res 26(4):1099–1107. doi:10.2983/0730-8000(2007)26[1099:MNAHKP]2.0.CO;2Google Scholar
  365. Zheng J, Kruise GH (2006) Recruitment variation of eastern Bering Sea crabs: climate forcing or top-down effects? Prog Oceanogr 68:184–204Google Scholar
  366. Zwolinski JP, Demer DA, Byers KA, Cutter GR, Renfree JS, Sessions TS, Macewicz BJ (2012) Distributions and abundances of Pacific sardine (Sardinops sagax) and other pelagic fishes in the California Current Ecosystem during spring 2006, 2008, and 2010, estimated from acoustic-trawl surveys. Fish Bull 110(1):110–122Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Thomas A. Okey
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Hussein M. Alidina
    • 3
  • Veronica Lo
    • 4
    • 5
  • Sabine Jessen
    • 4
    • 6
  1. 1.School of Environmental StudiesUniversity of VictoriaVictoriaCanada
  2. 2.Ocean Integrity ResearchVictoriaCanada
  3. 3.WWF-CanadaVancouverCanada
  4. 4.Canadian Parks and Wilderness SocietyVancouverCanada
  5. 5.University of Bologna, Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research, and Ghent UniversityRavennaItaly
  6. 6.Department of GeographySimon Fraser UniversityBurnabyCanada

Personalised recommendations