Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries

, Volume 15, Issue 1–2, pp 75–88 | Cite as

Antioxidant Defenses in Fish: Biotic and Abiotic Factors

  • Rosa M. Martínez-Álvarez
  • Amalia E. Morales
  • Ana SanzEmail author


Oxygen in its molecular state O2, is essential for many metabolic processes that are vital to aerobic life. Aerobic organisms cannot exist without oxygen, which nevertheless is inherently dangerous to their lives. Like all aerobic organisms, fish are also susceptible to the effects of reactive oxygen and have inherent and effective antioxidant defenses that are well described in the literature. This review investigates the influence of different biotic and abiotic factors (age, phylogenetic position, feeding behavior, environmental factors, oxygen, temperature, presence of xenobiotics) on antioxidant defenses in fish. Studies of antioxidant activity in fish open a number of novel research lines providing greater knowledge of fish physiology, which will benefit various aspects of fish farming and artificial production.


antioxidant defenses biotic and abiotic factors fish lipid peroxidation oxidative stress 


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© Springer 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rosa M. Martínez-Álvarez
    • 1
  • Amalia E. Morales
    • 1
  • Ana Sanz
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Departamento de Biología Animal y Ecología, Facultad de CienciasUniversidad de GranadaGranadaSpain

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