Shadow education: Private supplementary tutoring and its implications for policy makers in Asia
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Tucked away inside a section of this study is a narrative about a Vietnamese high school student who rises at three each day, hits the books, bicycles 90 minutes to school, and returns home to help her single father parent her siblings and prepare meals. All the while she holds fast to her unshakeable belief that education can change destinies and this belief drives her dazzling work ethic. It is also the belief across Asia that after-school tutoring is the key to achieving long-term dreams. For some though, like our Vietnamese student, the cost of such tutoring is prohibitive and the inability to afford it is yet one more obstacle to rise out of crushing poverty.
Despite illustrative narratives such as this, the analysis of after-school tutoring programmes, referred to as shadow education, is not nearly as clear. Mark Bray and Chad Lykins attempt to generate some clarity as they examine countries as disparate in economic strength as they are in geographic extremity. They have managed...