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Improving The Quality of Education Through School-Based Management: Learning From International Experiences

Abstract

School-based management is being increasingly advocated as a shortcut to more efficient management and quality improvement in education. Research, however, has been unable to prove conclusively such a linkage. Especially in developing countries, concerns remain about the possible detrimental impact of school-based management on school quality; equity among different schools in the same system; the motivation of and relationships between principals and teachers; and financial as well as administrative transparency. The present study defines school-based management and, in view of its implementation in different world regions, examines some of its advantages and disadvantages. In particular, the author explores the strategies which must accompany school-based management in order to ensure a positive impact on quality. These are found to include (1) guaranteeing that all schools have certain basic resources; (2) developing an effective school-support system; (3) providing schools with regular information on their performance and advice on how they might improve; and (4) emphasizing the motivational element in the management work of the school principal.

Zusammenfassung

DIE VERBESSERUNG DER QUALITÄT VON BILDUNG DURCH SCHULBASIERTES MANAGEMENT: AUS INTERNATIONALEN ERFAHRUNGEN LERNEN – Schulbasiertes Bildungsmanagement wird immer häufiger als schnell wirksames Mittel zum effizienteren Management und zur Qualitätsverbesserung in der Bildung propagiert. Eine direkte Verbindung konnte jedoch von der Forschung bisher nicht nachgewiesen werden. Besonders in Entwicklungsländern gibt es Bedenken, dass sich schulbasiertes Bildungsmanagement nachteilig auf die Qualität von Bildung auswirkt, wie z. B. im Bezug auf die Gleichheit zwischen verschiedenen Schulen im selben System und die Motivation von und die Beziehungen zwischen Schulleitern und Lehrern sowie die finanzielle und administrative Transparenz. Die vorliegende Studie definiert schulbasiertes Bildungsmanagement und untersucht Vor- und Nachteile dieses Ansatzes im Hinblick auf dessen Umsetzung in verschiedenen Regionen der Welt. Der Schwerpunkt liegt auf Strategien, die schulbasiertes Management begleiten müssen, um eine positive Auswirkung auf die Qualität sicherzustellen. Der Autor befindet, dass diese Strategien folgende Punkte einschließen: (1) die Garantie, dass alle Schulen über bestimmte Basis-Resourcen verfügen, (2) die Entwicklung eines effektiven Systems zur Unterstützung von Schulen, (3) die regelmäßige Versorgung der Schulen mit Information über ihre Leistung sowie Beratung, wie sie sich verbessern können, und (4) die Betonung des motivierenden Elementes in der Verwaltungsarbeit des Schulleiters.

Résumé

AMÉLIORER LA QUALITÉ DE L’ÉDUCATION PAR LA GESTION SCOLAIRE : APPRENDRE DES EXPÉRIENCES INTERNATIONALES – La gestion scolaire a été de plus en plus préconisée comme un raccourci vers une gestion plus efficace et une amélioration de la qualité de l’éducation. Cependant, la recherche n’a pas été en mesure d’établir définitivement un tel enchaînement de faits. En particulier dans les pays en voie de développement, il reste des inquiétudes quant à l’impact préjudiciable possible de la gestion scolaire sur la qualité de l’école; l’égalité entre les différentes écoles dans un même système ; la relation entre les directeurs et les instituteurs et leur motivation ; et la transparence financière aussi bien qu’administrative. L’étude présente définit la gestion scolaire et, en vue de sa mise en œuvre dans les différentes parties du monde, examine certains de ses avantages et de ses inconvénients. En particulier, l’auteur explore les stratégies qui doivent accompagner la gestion scolaire afin d’assurer un impact positif sur la qualité. On estime qu’elles comprennent (1) la garantie que toutes les écoles aient des ressources fondamentales sûres ; (2) le développement d’un système effectif pour aider les écoles ; (3) l’alimentation des écoles en informations régulières sur leurs performances et en conseils sur la façon dont elles peuvent s’améliorer ; et (4) l’accentuation de l’élément de motivation dans le travail de gestion du directeur de l’école.

Resumen

MEJORAR LA CALIDAD DE LA EDUCACIÓN MEDIANTE UNA GESTIÓN BASADA EN LA ESCUELA Y APRENDER DE LAS EXPERIENCIAS INTERNACIONALES – La gestión basada en la escuela se está defendiendo de forma creciente como solución rápida para lograr una gestión más eficiente y mejorar la calidad en la educación. No obstante, los estudios realizados sobre el tema no han podido probar la existencia de estos efectos de forma concluyente. Más que nada en los países en desarrollo, subsisten las preocupaciones en cuanto a los posibles efectos negativos que una gestión basada en la escuela podría tener sobre la calidad de la escuela y por ende de la enseñanza, sobre la equidad entre diferentes escuelas dentro de un mismo sistema, sobre la motivación de directores y docentes y las relaciones que existen entre ellos y sobre la transparencia económica y financiera. El autor define lo que es una gestión basada en la escuela y analiza algunas de sus ventajas y desventajas en vista de su implementación en diferentes regiones del mundo. En particular, el autor analiza las estrategias que deben acompañar a una enseñanza basada en la escuela para asegurar un efecto positivo sobre la calidad. Estas estrategias están basadas en las siguientes medidas: (1) garantizar determinados recursos básicos para todas las escuelas, (2) desar- rollar un sistema efectivo de apoyo a las escuelas, (3) informar a las escuelas, a intervalos regulares, sobre su rendimiento y asesorarlas sobre las posibilidades de mejorarlo, y (4) reforzar el elemento motivacional en el trabajo de gestión de los directores de las escuelas.

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Grauwe, A.D. Improving The Quality of Education Through School-Based Management: Learning From International Experiences. Int Rev Educ 51, 269–287 (2005). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11159-005-7733-1

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Keywords

  • International Experience
  • School Principal
  • World Region
  • School Quality
  • Motivational Element