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Seaweed biorefinery

Abstract

Seaweed offers a wide range of interesting bioactives. With over 10,000 species globally, it is of great interest to be able to extract these compounds. Hence, seaweed fractionation into a wide spectrum of valuable products using multistage cascade processes offers a sustainable approach of exploitation of this resource to produce bioactive ingredients, chemicals and biofuels. This biorefinery processing approach should be adapted to local conditions to maximize the biomass utilization and to lower the waste fractions or preventing any waste materials re-enforcing the circular economy. This review presents an overview of the potential uses of waste generated after seaweed processing for food and other uses, as well as the utilization of invasive species biomass and other invasive species.

Graphical abstract

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Abbreviations

ABTS:

2,2′-Azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid)

ACE:

Angiotensin-converting-enzyme

ALT:

Alanine aminotransferase

AST:

Aspartate aminotransferase

BWG:

Body weight gain

CF:

Crude fiber

CP:

Crude protein

d.w.:

Dry weight

DCP:

Digestible crude protein

DE:

Digestible extract

DM:

Dry matter

DNA:

Deoxyribonucleic acid

DPPH:

2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl

EE:

Ether extract

FCM:

Fat corrected milk

FI:

Feed intake

HaCaT cells:

Spontaneously immortalized human keratinocyte line

MAAs:

Microsporyne amino acids

MMP-1:

Fibroblast collagenase

NFE:

Nitrogen free extract

NSP:

Non-starch polysaccharides

OM:

Organic matter

SHF:

Separate enzyme hydrolysis and fermentation

SNF:

Solids non fat

SSF:

Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation

SWOT:

Strengths, weaknesses opportunities, threats

TDN:

Total digestible nutrient

TS:

Total soluble

UV:

Ultraviolet

UVB:

Ultraviolet B radiation

V:

Volume

VS:

Volatile solids

wt:

Weight

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Torres, M.D., Kraan, S. & Domínguez, H. Seaweed biorefinery. Rev Environ Sci Biotechnol 18, 335–388 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11157-019-09496-y

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Keywords

  • Seaweed
  • Biorefinery
  • Food
  • Feed
  • Cosmetics
  • Pharmaceuticals
  • Fertilizer
  • Energy