Assessing the applicability of phytoremediation of soils with mixed organic and heavy metal contaminants

  • Reshma A. Chirakkara
  • Claudio Cameselle
  • Krishna R. Reddy
Review paper

Abstract

Soil pollution is a major environmental problem and many contaminated sites are tainted with a mixture of organic and heavy metal contaminants. Compared to other remedial strategies, phytoremediation is a low cost, environmentally-friendly, sustainable means of remediating the contamination. This review first provides an overview of phytoremediation studies where the soil is contaminated with just one type of pollutant (heavy metals or organics) and then critically evaluates the applicability of phytotechnologies for the remediation of contaminated sites where the soil is polluted by a mixture of organic and heavy metal contaminants. In most of the earlier research studies, mixed contamination was held to be detrimental to plant growth, yet there were instances where plant growth was more successful in soil with mixed contamination than in the soil with only individual contaminants. New effective phytoremediation strategies can be designed for remediation of co-contaminated sites using: (a) plants species especially adapted to grow in the contaminated site (hyperacumulators, local plants, transgenic plants); (b) endophytic bacteria to enhance the degradation in the rizhosphere; (c) soil amendments to increase the contaminants bioavailability [chelating agents and (bio)surfactants]; (d) soil fertilization to enhance the plant growth and microbial activity in the soil; and (e) coupling phytoremediation with other remediation technologies such as electrokinetic remediation or enhanced biodegradation in the rhizosphere.

Keywords

Mixed contamination Soil Phytoremediation Heavy metals Organic contaminants Chelates Electrokinetic remediation 

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© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Civil and Materials EngineeringUniversity of Illinois at ChicagoChicagoUSA
  2. 2.Department of Chemical EngineeringUniversity of VigoVigoSpain

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