Reviews in Environmental Science and Bio/Technology

, Volume 12, Issue 3, pp 313–332 | Cite as

Impacts of shrimp farming on the coastal environment of Bangladesh and approach for management

  • M. S. Hossain
  • M. J. Uddin
  • A. N. M. Fakhruddin


The frozen food export sector, next to readymade garments sector, is the second largest export earner of Bangladesh. Shrimp, main item of frozen food, is a major contributor in the national economy of Bangladesh since mid 1980s. Although it provides millions of employment and earns more than US$ 445 million annually, it has been facing a host of challenges. Shrimp farming has been associated with a number of negative environmental and social impacts which hinder the sustainable development of this blooming sector. This paper aim to focus on how the shrimp culture in Bangladesh is affecting the adjacent environment as well as society and management approach for it’s sustain ability by means of reviewing the available scientific literatures. It finds the grave socioeconomic impacts including traditional livelihood displacement, loss of land security, food insecurity, marginalization, rural unemployment, social unrest and conflicts in the wake of shrimp culture development in Bangladesh. Similarly, environmental impacts such as mangrove degradation, loss of biodiversity, sedimentation, saltwater intrusion, and pollution and disease outbreaks are found to be the main obstacles for the development of sustainable shrimp farming. Inappropriate management practices and inadequate plans regarding water quality, seed supply, irrigation facilities and fishery resources are the main reasons for these impacts of shrimp farming. The effective management measures to mitigate the adverse environmental impact of shrimp farming development have now become urgent requirement.


Environmental impact Frozen food Socio-economic impact Sustainable shrimp culture Management approach Bangladesh 


  1. Ahmed N (2003) Environmental impacts of freshwater prawn farming in Bangladesh. Shellfish News 15:25–28Google Scholar
  2. Ahmed SA, Mallick DL, Ali ML, Rahman AA (2002) Literature review on Bangladesh Shrimp. Individual partner report for the project: policy research for sustainable shrimp farming in Asia (PORESSFA), a comparative analysis of Bangladesh, India, Thailand and Vietnam with Particular Reference to Institutional and Socio-economic Aspects. European Commission INCO-DEV Project PORESSFA No. IC4-2001-10042. CEMARE University of Portsmouth UK and BCAS, Dhaka, BangladeshGoogle Scholar
  3. Ahmed N, Demaine H, Muir JF (2008) Freshwater prawn farming in Bangladesh: history, present status and future prospects. Aquac Res 39:806–819CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Alam SMN, Lin CK, Yakupitiyage A, Demaine H, Phillips MJ (2005) Compliance of Bangladesh shrimp culture with FAO code of conduct for responsible fisheries: a development challenge. Ocean Coast Manag 48:177–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Alam S, Pokrant B, Yakupitiyage A, Phillips M (2007) Economic returns of disease affected extensive shrimp farming in southwest Bangladesh. Aquac Int 15:363–370CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Alauddin M, Hamid MA (1996) Shrimp culture in Bangladesh: key sustainable and research issues. Paper presented during the AClAR workshop on key researchable issues in sustainable coastal shrimp aquaculture in Thailand. Songkhla, p 27Google Scholar
  7. Alderman DJ, Hastings TS (1998) Antibiotic use in aquaculture: development of resistance-potential for consumer health risks. Intl J Food Sci Technol 33:139–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Ali AMS (2006) Rice to shrimp: land use/land cover changes and soil degradation in southwestern Bangladesh. Land Use Policy 23:421–435CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Alves CS, Mello GL (2007) Manual para o Monitoramento Hidrobiológico em Fazendas de Cultivo de Camarão. Recife, PernambucoGoogle Scholar
  10. Azad A, Jensen K, Lin C (2009) Coastal aquaculture development in Bangladesh: unsustainable and sustainable experiences. Environ Manag 44:800–809CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Baird IB, Quarto A (1994) The environmental and social costs of developing coastal shrimp aquaculture in Asia In: Trade and environment: prospects for regional cooperation nautilus institute. Berkeley, CA. p 188–214Google Scholar
  12. Banarjee BK, Singh H (1993) The shrimp fry by catch in West Bengal. Bay of Bengal Programme. Madras, India, BOBP/WP/88Google Scholar
  13. Barraclough S, Finger-Stich A (1996) Some ecological and social implications of commercial shrimp farming in Asia. UNRISD discussion paper 74. UNRISD (United Nations Research Institute for Social Development), Geneva, Switzerland, p 71Google Scholar
  14. BFFEA (2009) Bangladesh frozen foods exporters association. Shrimp and Fish News, BFFEA, Skylark point, 24/A, Bijoynagar North South Road, Dhaka-1000Google Scholar
  15. Bhaskar N, Setty TMR, Reddy GVS, Manoj YB, Anantha CS, Raghunath BS, Joseph MA (1995) Incidence of Salmonella in cultured shrimp Penaeus monodon. Aquaculture 138:257–266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bhattacharya D, Rahman M, Khatun FA (1999) Environmental impacts of trade liberalization and of policies for the sustainable management of natural resources: a case study on Bangladesh’s shrimp farming industry. GenevaGoogle Scholar
  17. Biao X, Kaijin Y (2007) Shrimp farming in China: operating characteristics, environmental impact and perspectives. Ocean Coast Manag 50:538–550CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Briggs MRP, Funge-Smith SJ (1994) A nutrient budget of some intensive marine shrimp ponds in Thailand. Aquac Fish Manag 25:789–811Google Scholar
  19. Brix H (1994) Functions of macrophytes in constructed wetlands. Water Sci Tech 29:71–78Google Scholar
  20. BSFF (2008) Bangladesh shrimp and fish foundation.¼statistics. Accessed on 16 Aug 2010Google Scholar
  21. Cabello FC (2006) Heavy use of prophylactic antibiotics in aquaculture: a growing problem for human and animal health and for the environment. Environ Microbiol 8:1137–1144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Chávez J (2008) Parámetros quimicos usados en acuacultura. Sociedad Latinoamericana de Acuacultura (SLA)Google Scholar
  23. Chen SQ, Li XQ, Li ZX, Zhai YX (1995) The loss of nutrients of shrimp formulated diet soaked in water and its effects on the water environment. J Fish Sci China 2:40–47Google Scholar
  24. Choudhury AM, Quadir DA, Islam MJ (1994) Study of Chokoria Sundarbans using remote sensing techniques. ISME Mangrove Ecosyst Tech Rep 4:1–22Google Scholar
  25. Chowdhury MA, Shivakoti GP, Salequzzaman M (2006) A conceptual framework for the sustainability assessment procedures of the shrimp aquaculture industry in coastal Bangladesh. Int J Agric Resour Gov Ecol 5:162–184Google Scholar
  26. Costa-Pierce B (2008) An ecosystem approach to marine aquaculture: a global review. In: Soto D, Aguilar-Manjarrez J, Hishamunda N (eds) Building an ecosystem approach to aquaculture. FAO/Universitat de les Illes Balears Expers Workshop, 7–11 May 2007, Palma de Mallorca Spain, FAO Fisheries and aquaculture proceedings No. 14. Food and agriculture organization of the united nations (FAO). Rome, p 81–115Google Scholar
  27. Deb AK (1997) Fake blue revolution: environmental and socio-economic impact of shrimp culture in the coastal areas of Bangladesh. Community Development Centre (CDC), CanadaGoogle Scholar
  28. Deb AK (1998) Fake blue revolution: environmental and socio-economic impacts of shrimp culture in the coastal areas of Bangladesh. Ocean Coast Manag 41:63–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Dewalt BR, Vergne P, Hardin M (1996) Shrimp aquaculture development and the environment: people, mangroves and fisheries on the Gulf of Fonseca, Honduras. World Dev 24:1193–1208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Diana JS (2009) Aquaculture production and biodiversity conservation. Bioscience 59:27–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Dierberg FE, Kiattisimkul W (1996) Issues, impacts, and implications of shrimp aquaculture in Thailand. Environ Manag 20:649–666CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. DoF (2006) Shrimp sub-strategy. Department of Fisheries. Matshya Bhaban, Ramna, Dhaka, p 48Google Scholar
  33. DoF (2009) Fishery statistical yearbook of Bangladesh 2007–2008. In: Fisheries resources survey system. Department of Fisheries, Ministry of Fisheries and Livestock, 25th edn. Matshya Bhaban, Dhaka, p 42Google Scholar
  34. DoF (2010) Annual report. Department of fisheries. Government of the Peoples Republic of Bangladesh. Accessed on 07 May 2012
  35. Erondu ES, Anyanwu PE (2005) Potential hazards and risks associated with the aquaculture industry. Afr J Biotechnol 4:1622–1627Google Scholar
  36. FAO (1999) Aquaculture production statistics 1988–1997. Fisheries Circular No. 815 Rev. 11, FAO, RomeGoogle Scholar
  37. FAO (2008) Fish stat (FAO yearbook of fishery statistics), FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Department. FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations), RomeGoogle Scholar
  38. Ferreira NC, Bonetti C, Seiffert WQ ( 2011) Hydrological and water quality indices as management tools in marine shrimp culture. Aquaculture 318:425–433Google Scholar
  39. Flaherty M, Karnjanakesorn C (1995) Marine shrimp aquaculture and natural resource degradation in Thailand. Environ Manag 19:27–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Flaherty M, Vandergeest P (1998) ‘Low-salt’ shrimp aquaculture in Thailand: goodbye coastline, Hello Khon Kaen! Environ Manag 22:817–830CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Flaherty M, Vandergeest P, Miller P (1999) Rice paddy or shrimp pond: tough decisions in Rural Thailand. World Dev 27:2045–2060CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Flaherty M, Szuster B, Miller P (2000) Low salinity inland shrimp farming in Thailand. Ambio 29:174–179Google Scholar
  43. Funge-Smith SJ, Briggs MRP (1998) Nutrient budgets in intensive shrimp ponds: implications for sustainability. Aquaculture 164:117–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Gaag JJVD, Paulissen MPCP, Slim PA (2010) Halophytes filters as saline treatment wetland: application and constraints. Wagennian, Alterra, Alterrareport 2115, p 54Google Scholar
  45. Gain P (1995) Bangladesh: attack of the shrimps. Third World Resurgence 59:18–19Google Scholar
  46. Gammage S, Swanburg K, Khandkar M, Islam MZ, Zobair M, Muzareba AM (2006) A gendered analysis of the shrimp sector in Bangladesh. Greater access to trade and expansion. USAID, BangladeshGoogle Scholar
  47. Giri C, Zhu Z, Tieszen LL, Singh A, Gillette S, Kelmelis JA (2008) Mangrove forest distributions and dynamics (1975–2005) of the tsunami-affected region of Asia. J Biogeogr 35:519–528CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Gräslund S, Bengtsson BE (2001) Chemicals and biological products used in Southeast Asian shrimp farming and their potential impact on the environment—a review. Sci Total Environ 280:93–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Hansen PK, Lunestad BT, Samuelsen OB (1992) Effects of oxytetracycline, oxolinic acid, and flumequine on bacteria in an artificial marine fish farm sediment. Can J Microbiol 38:1307–1312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Hazardous Substance Data Bank (HSDB) (1995) National library of medicine specialized information services.
  51. Hein L (2002) Toward improved environmental and social management of Indian shrimp farming. Environ Manag 29:349–359CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Holmström K, Gräslund S, Wahlström A, Poungshompoo S, Bengtsson BE, Kautsky N (2003) Antibiotic use in shrimp farming and implications for environmental impacts and human health. Int J Food Sci Technol 38:255–266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Hoq ME (2007) An analysis of fisheries exploitation and management practices in Sundarbans mangrove ecosystem, Bangladesh. Ocean Coast Manag 50:411–427CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Hussain MM (1994) Status of development of the fishery and seafood processing industry in Bangladesh. In: Sinha VRP, Mazid MA, Kamal Md (eds) Proceedings of the workshop on sustainable development of marine fisheries resources in Bangladesh. Field Document No. 7. FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Department, p 65–85. Accessed 20 Sept 2010
  55. Iftekhar MS (2006) Conservation and management of the Bangladesh coastal ecosystem: overview of an integrated approach. Nat Resour Forum 30:230–237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Iftekhar MS, Takama T (2008) Perceptions of biodiversity, environmental services, and conservation of planted mangroves: a case study on Nijhum Dwip Island, Bangladesh. Wetl Ecol Manag 16:119–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Imfeld G, Braeckevelt M, Kuschk P, Richnow HH (2009) Monitoring and assessing processes of organic removal in constructed wetlands. Chemosphere 74:349–362CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Islam A (1999) Effects of shrimp farming on the physico-chemical and biological qualities of water. Bangladesh Agriculture University, MymensinghGoogle Scholar
  59. Islam MS (2003) Perspectives of the coastal and marine fisheries of the Bay of Bengal, Bangladesh. Ocean Coast Manag 46:763–796CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Islam MS, Tanaka M (2004) Impacts of pollution on coastal and marine ecosystems including coastal and marine fisheries and approach for management: a review and synthesis. Mar Pollut Bull 48:624–649CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Islam ML, Alam MJ, Rheman S, Ahmed SU, Mazid MA (2004a) Water quality, nutrient dynamics and sediment profile in shrimp farm of the Sundarbans mangrove forest, Bangladesh. Indian J Marin Sci 33:170–176Google Scholar
  62. Islam MS, Wahab MA, Tanaka M (2004b) Seed supply for coastal brackish water shrimp farming: environmental impacts and sustainability. Division of Applied Biosciences, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Kyoto, p 606–850Google Scholar
  63. Islam MS, Milstein A, Wahab MA, Kamal AHM, Dewan S (2005) Production and economic return of shrimp aquaculture in coastal ponds of different sizes and with different management regimes. Aquac Int 13:489–500CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Ito S (2002) From rice to prawns: economic transformation and agrarian structure in rural Bangladesh. J Peasant Stud 29:47–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Jerry M, Zuckerman MD (2004) Macrolides and ketolides: azithromycin, clarithromycin, telithromycin. Infect Dis Clin N Am 18:621–649CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Jung SH, Kim JW, Jeon IG, Lee YH (2001) Formaldehyde residues in formalin-treated olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus), black rockfish (Sebastes schlegeli), and seawater. Aquaculture 194:253–262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Kadlec RH, Wallace SD (2009) Treatment wetlands, 2nd edn. CRC Press, Taylor and Francis Group, Boca Raton, London, NYGoogle Scholar
  68. Kern J, Idler C (1999) Treatment of domestic and agricultural waste water by reed bed systems. Ecol Eng 12:13–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Knight RL, Payne VWE, Borer RE, Clarke RA, Pries JH (2000) Constructed wetlands for livestock waste water management. Ecol Eng 15:41–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Knowler D, Philcox N, Nathan S, Delamare W, Haider W, Gupta K (2009) Assessing prospects for shrimp culture in the Indian Sundarbans: a combined simulation modeling and choice experiment approach. Mar Policy 33:613–623CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Koskiaho J, Ekholm P, Raty M, Riihimaki J, Puustinen M (2003) Retaining agricultural nutrients in constructed wetlands e experiences under boreal conditions. Ecol Eng 20:89–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Kumar P, Jetani KL, Yusuzai SI, Sayani AN, Dar SA, Rather MA (2012) Effect of sediment and water quality parameters on the productivity of coastal shrimp farm. Adv Appl Sci Res 3:2033–2041Google Scholar
  73. Lebel L, Tri HN, Saengnoree A, Pasong S, Buatama U, Thoa LK (2002) Industrial transformation and shrimp aquaculture in Thailand and Vietnam: pathways to ecological, social and economic sustainability? Ambio 31:311–323Google Scholar
  74. Lin YF, Jing SR, Lee DY, Wang TW (2002) Nutrient removal from aquaculture wastewater using a constructed wetlands system. Aquaculture 209:169–184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Lin YF, Jing SR, Lee DY, Chang YF, Chen YM, Shih KC (2005) Performance of a constructed wetland treating intensive shrimp aquaculture wastewater under high hydraulic loading rate. Environ Poll 134:411–421CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Maniruzzaman M (2006) The acts and actors in Bangladesh shrimp sector: legal and institutional framework (chapter 24). In: Rahman AA, Quddus AHG, Pokrant B, Ali ML (eds) Shrimp farming and industry: sustainability, trade and livelihoods. Bangladesh Centre for Advanced Studies (BCAS). The University Press Limited, Dhaka, p 461–485Google Scholar
  77. Murthy HS (1997) Impact of the Supreme Court judgment on shrimp culture in India. Infofish International May/June, pp 30–34Google Scholar
  78. Naylor RL, Goldburg RJ, Primavera JH, Kautsky N, Beveridge MCM, Clay J, Folke C, Lubchenco J, Mooney H, Troell M (2000) Effect of aquaculture on world fish supplies. Nature 405:1017–1024CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Neiland AE, Soley N, Varley JB, Whitmarsh DJ (2001) Shrimp aquaculture: economic perspectives for policy development. Mar Policy 25:265–279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Newman JM, Clausen JC, Neafsey JA (1999) Seasonal performance of a wetland constructed to process dairy milk house waste water in Connecticut. Ecol Eng 14:181–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Nunes AJP, Gesteira TCV, Oliveira GG, Lima RC, Miranda PTC, Madrid RM (2005) Princípios para Boas Práticas de Manejo (BPM) na engorda de camarão marinhos no Estado do Ceará. Instituto de Ciências do Mar (Labomar/UFC). Programa de Zoneamento Ecológico Econômico (ZEE) do Estado do Ceará, Fortaleza, CearáGoogle Scholar
  82. Paez-Osuna F (2001) The environmental impact of shrimp aquaculture: causes, effects, and mitigating alternatives. Environ Manag 28:131–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Paez-Osuna F, Gracia A, Flores-Verdugo F, Lyle-Fritch LP, Alonso-Rodraguez R, Roque A, Ruiz-Fernandez AC (2003) Shrimp aquaculture development and the environment in the Gulf of California ecoregion. Mar Pollut Bull 46:806–815CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Patil PG, Krishnan M (1998) The social impacts of shrimp farming in Nellore District, India. Aquac Asia 3:3–5Google Scholar
  85. Paul BG, Vogl CR (2011) Impacts of shrimp farming in Bangladesh: challenges and alternatives. Ocean Coast Manag 54:201–211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Poach ME, Hunt PG, Vanotti MB, Stone KC, Matheny TA, Johnson MH, Sadler EJ (2003) Improved nitrogen treatment by constructed wetlands receiving partially nitrified liquids wine manure. Ecol Eng 20:183–197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Pokrant RJ, Bhuiyan S (2001) The coastal shrimp sector in Bangladesh: review of the literature with annotated bibliography. In: Ahmed SA, Mallick DL, Ali ML, Rahman AA (eds) (2002) Literature review on Bangladesh shrimp. Individual partner report for the project: policy research for sustainable shrimp farming in Asia (PORESSFA), a comparative analysis of Bangladesh, India, Thailand and Vietnam with Particular Reference to Institutional and Socio-economic Aspects. European Commission INCO-DEV Project PORESSFA No. IC4-2001-10042. CEMARE University of Portsmouth UK and BCAS, Dhaka, p 31Google Scholar
  88. Primavera JH (1991) Intensive prawn farming in the Philippines: ecological, social and economic implications. Ambio 20:28–33Google Scholar
  89. Primavera JH (1993) A critical review of shrimp pond culture in the Philippines. Rev Fish Sci 1:151–201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Primavera JH (1997) Socio-economic impacts of shrimp culture. Aquac Res 28:815–827CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Primavera JH (1998) Tropical shrimp farming and its sustainability. In: de Silva S (ed) Tropical mariculture. Academic Press, London, pp 257–289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Primavera JH (2006) Overcoming the impacts of aquaculture on the coastal zone. Ocean Coast Manag 49:531–545CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Primavera JH, Lavilla-Pitogo CR, Ladja JM, Dela Peña MR (1993) A survey of chemical and biological products used in intensive prawn farms in the Philippines. Mar Pollut Bull 26:35–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Rönnbäck P (2002) Environmentally sustainable shrimp aquaculture, report prepared for Swedish society for nature conservation. p 1–25Google Scholar
  95. Rousseau DPL, Vanrolleghem PA, DePauw N (2004) Constructed wetlands in Flanders: a performance analysis. Ecol Eng 23:151–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Samarakoon J (2004) Issues of livelihood, sustainable development, and governance: Bay of Bengal. Ambio 33:34–44Google Scholar
  97. Samuelsen OB, Solheim E, Lunestad BT (1991) Fate and microbiological effects of furazolidone in a marine aquaculture sediment. Sci Total Environ 108:275–283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Samuelson OB, Lunestad BT, Ervik A, Fjelde S (1994) Stability of antibacterial agents in an artificial marine aquaculture sediment studied under laboratory conditions. Aquaculture 126:283–290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Sanders PF, Seiber JN (1983) A chamber for measuring volatilization of pesticides for model soil and water disposal systems. Chemosphere 12:999–1012CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Sapkota A, Sapkota AR, Kucharski M, Burke J, McKenzie S, Walker P, Lawrence R (2008) Aquaculture practices and potential human health risks: current knowledge and future priorities. Environ Int 34:1215–1226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Schwartz MF, Boyd CE (1995) Constructed wetlands for treatment of channel catfish pond effluents. Prog Fish Cult 57:255–267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Sebastian A (2009) Development of safety and quality management system in shrimp farming, Ph.D. Thesis. School of industrial fisheries. Cochin University of Science and Technology, KeralaGoogle Scholar
  103. Shahid MA, Islam J (2002) Impact of denudation of mangrove forest due to shrimp farming on coastal environment in Bangladesh. In: Wahab MA (ed) Environmental and socioeconomic impacts of shrimp farming in Bangladesh. Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, pp 49–60Google Scholar
  104. Shahid MA, Islam J (2003) Impact of denudation of mangrove forest due to shrimp farming on the coastal environment in Bangladesh. In: Wahab MA (ed) Technical proceedings of BAU-NURAD workshop on environment and socio-economic impacts of shrimp farming in Bangladesh. 5 March, 2002. BRAC Centre, Dhaka. Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensing, p 67–75Google Scholar
  105. Shiva V (1995) The damaging social and environment effects of aquaculture. Third World Resurg 59:22–24Google Scholar
  106. Sohel MSI, Ullah MH (2012) Ecohydrology: a framework for overcoming the environmental impacts of shrimp aquaculture on the coastal zone of Bangladesh. Ocean Coast Manag 63:67–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Stonich SC, Bailey C (2000) Resisting the blue revolution: contending coalitions surrounding industrial shrimp farming. Hum Organ 59:23–36Google Scholar
  108. Sudova E, Machova J, Svobodoval Z, Vesely T (2007) Negative effects of malachite green and possibilities of its replacement in the treatment of fish eggs and fish: a review. Vet Med 52:527–539Google Scholar
  109. Sun GZ, Zhao YQ, Allen S (2005) Enhanced removal of organic matter and ammoniacal-nitrogen in a column experiment to tidal flow constructed wetland system. J Biotechnol 115:189–197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Uddin SA, Kader MA (2006) The use of antibiotics in shrimp hatcheries in Bangladesh. J Fish Aquat Sci 1:64–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Varadi L (2003) A review of extensive/semi-intensive integrated freshwater fish production systems in Central and Eastern Europe. In: Chopin T, Reinertsen H (eds) Beyond monoculture. EAS special publication 33, p 88–91Google Scholar
  112. Varadi L, Bekefi E (2003) Economic analysis of combined intensive—extensive pond fish production systems. In: Chopin T, Reinertsen H (eds) Beyond monoculture. EAS special publication 33, p 348–349Google Scholar
  113. Verhoven JTA, Meuleman AFM (1999) Wetlands for waste water treatment: opportunities and limitations. Ecol Eng 12:5–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Wahab MA (2003) Environmental impacts of shrimp farming in the coastal areas of Bangladesh. In: Wahab MA (ed) Environmental and socioeconomic impact of shrimp farming in Bangladesh, technical proceeding BAU-NORAD workshop, 5 March 2002. BRAC Center, Dhaka, p 19–32Google Scholar
  115. Wahab MA, Bergheim A, Braaten B (2003) Water quality and partial mass budget in extensive shrimp ponds in Bangladesh. Aquaculture 218:413–423CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Williams C (1996) Combating marine pollution from land-based activities: Australian initiatives. Ocean Coast Manag 33:87–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. WRI (2000) A guide to world resources 2000–2001: people and ecosystems: the fraying web of life. World Resources Institute, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  118. Yang QX, Jiang YW, Zhang XY, Yang Y (1999) Study on the effects of decomposition of the bait in a shrimp pond on the maricultural environment. Mar Environ Sci 18:11–15Google Scholar
  119. Zalewski M, Wagner-Lotkowska I, Robarts RD (2004) Integrated watershed management—ecohydrology and phytotechnology—manual. UNESCO—IHP, UNESCO—ROSTE, UNEP—IETC. International Centre for Ecology PAS. Dept. of Applied Ecology University of Lodz, Venice Osaka, Shiga, Warsaw, Lodz, p 210Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. S. Hossain
    • 1
  • M. J. Uddin
    • 1
  • A. N. M. Fakhruddin
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Environmental SciencesJahangirnagar UniversityDhakaBangladesh

Personalised recommendations