Coral reefs studies and threats in Malaysia: a mini review

  • Sarva Mangala PraveenaEmail author
  • Siti Shapor Siraj
  • Ahmad Zaharin Aris


Coral reefs in Malaysia are about 4,006 km2 with over 550 species contributed to nation’s economy. Coral reefs studies and threats in Malaysia have been reviewed briefly. Perspectives are addressed as coral reefs studies, threats, gaps and future studies. Coral reefs in Malaysia are being damaged at an increasing rate where it faces natural and anthropogenic stresses. Excellent summaries are available in terms of coral reefs cover throughout Malaysia however scarce in terms of qualitative, quantitative and biogeographical data. There are also limited studies on heavy metals concentration in corals skeleton studies. Poor to fair conditions of coral reefs in Peninsular Malaysia is due to increases of sedimentation and tourism impacts. Overfishing and fish blasting were main threats of coral reefs damage in Sabah. In Sarawak, coral reefs are threatened by high sedimentation and sand mining. The 1998–1999 bleaching event also affected coral reefs in Malaysia due to climate change. Gaps in coral reefs studies can be completed by continuous collaborations between local and international researchers as well as research by local universities. Economic valuation, policy analysis and community participation are directions in future coral reefs studies in Malaysia. Future studies are to understand effects of management on coral reefs health and impact of pollution on coral reefs growth with a standard coral reefs methodology. Established legal systems to reduce threats received by coral reefs are also need to be introduced. Role of science-driven management with community participation and media mass are also gaps to be highlighted in future studies.


Malaysia Coral reefs Studies Threats 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sarva Mangala Praveena
    • 1
    Email author
  • Siti Shapor Siraj
    • 2
  • Ahmad Zaharin Aris
    • 3
  1. 1.Centre of Marine ScienceUniversiti Putra MalaysiaSerdangMalaysia
  2. 2.Department of Aquaculture, Faculty of AgricultureUniversiti Putra MalaysiaSerdangMalaysia
  3. 3.Centre of Excellence for Environmental Forensics, Faculty of Environmental StudiesUniversiti Putra MalaysiaSerdangMalaysia

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