Advertisement

Coral reefs studies and threats in Malaysia: a mini review

  • Sarva Mangala PraveenaEmail author
  • Siti Shapor Siraj
  • Ahmad Zaharin Aris
Mini-Review

Abstract

Coral reefs in Malaysia are about 4,006 km2 with over 550 species contributed to nation’s economy. Coral reefs studies and threats in Malaysia have been reviewed briefly. Perspectives are addressed as coral reefs studies, threats, gaps and future studies. Coral reefs in Malaysia are being damaged at an increasing rate where it faces natural and anthropogenic stresses. Excellent summaries are available in terms of coral reefs cover throughout Malaysia however scarce in terms of qualitative, quantitative and biogeographical data. There are also limited studies on heavy metals concentration in corals skeleton studies. Poor to fair conditions of coral reefs in Peninsular Malaysia is due to increases of sedimentation and tourism impacts. Overfishing and fish blasting were main threats of coral reefs damage in Sabah. In Sarawak, coral reefs are threatened by high sedimentation and sand mining. The 1998–1999 bleaching event also affected coral reefs in Malaysia due to climate change. Gaps in coral reefs studies can be completed by continuous collaborations between local and international researchers as well as research by local universities. Economic valuation, policy analysis and community participation are directions in future coral reefs studies in Malaysia. Future studies are to understand effects of management on coral reefs health and impact of pollution on coral reefs growth with a standard coral reefs methodology. Established legal systems to reduce threats received by coral reefs are also need to be introduced. Role of science-driven management with community participation and media mass are also gaps to be highlighted in future studies.

Keywords

Malaysia Coral reefs Studies Threats 

References

  1. Abdullah AL, Yasin Z (2002) The changes in the fringing reef of north Langkawi. In: Ali A, Rawi CSM, Mansor M, Nakamura R, Ramakrishna S, Mundkur T (eds) The Asian wetlands: bringing partnerships into good wetland practices. Penerbit Universiti Sains Malaysia, PenangGoogle Scholar
  2. Abdullah A, Yasin Z, Ismail W, Shutes B, Fitzsimons M (2002) The effect of early coastal development on the fringing coral reefs of Langkawi: a study in small-scale changes. Malaysian J Remote Sensing GIS 3:1–10Google Scholar
  3. Abdullah NA, Shazili NAM, Tahir NM, Darus SZ (2010) Sedimentology of the Redang Island coral reefs environment. J Chem Chem Eng 4:41–47Google Scholar
  4. Affendi YA, Tajuddin BH, Lee YL, Kee Alfian AA, Yusuf Y (2005) Scleractinian coral diversity of Kg Tekek, Pulau Tioman Marine Park. In: Abdul Rahim S, Surif S, Abdullah MP, Samsudin AR, Mohd. Rafek AG, Ratnam W, Abdul Ghani I, Mohd. Zain BM, Mohd. Said MN, Kee Alfian AA, Ng YF (eds) Proceedings of second regional symposium on environment and natural resources, BangiGoogle Scholar
  5. Bastidas C, García E (1999) Metal content on the reef coral Porites astreoides: an evaluation of river influence and 35 years of chronology. Mar Pollut Bull 38:899–907CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bryant D, Burke L, Mcmanus J, Spalding M (1998) Reefs at risk: a map-based indicator of threats to the world’s coral reefs. International center for living aquatic resources management, World Conservation Monitoring Centre and United Nations Environment Programme, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  7. Buddumeir RW, Kleypas JA, Aronson RB (2004) Coral reefs potential contributions of climate change to stresses on coral reef ecosystems & global climate change. Pew Center on Global Climate Change, ArlingtonGoogle Scholar
  8. Burke L, Selig L, Spalding M (2002) Reefs at risk in Southeast Asia. UNEP-WCMC, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  9. Burke L, Reytar K, Spalding M, Perry A (2011) Reefs at risk revisited. World Resources Institute, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  10. Chai NW (2009) Ecotourism and environmental conservation in small islands in the East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia. Malay J Environ Manage 10:53–69Google Scholar
  11. Chong CK, Cesar H, Ahmed M, Balasubramaniam H (2004) Future research directions in coral reef management. World Fish Center, PenangGoogle Scholar
  12. Chou LM, Wilkinson CR, Licuanan WRY, Alino P, Cheshire AC, Loo MGK, Tanjaitrong S, Sudara A, Ridzwan AR, Soekarno (1994) Status of coral reefs in the ASEAN region. In: Wilkinson CR, Sudara S, Chou LM (eds) Proceedings of third Asean-Australia symposium on living coastal resources. Australian Institute of Marine Science, TownsvilleGoogle Scholar
  13. Chou LM (1998) Status of Southeast Asian coral reefs. In: Wilkinson CR (ed) Status of coral reefs of the world. Australian Institute of Marine Science and Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network, TownsvilleGoogle Scholar
  14. Coral Reef Monitoring Report (2008) Annual report reef check Malaysia. [Online] 2008. [Cited: 1 08 2011] http://www.reefcheck.org.my/wp-content/uploads/…/Survey-Report-2008/
  15. Eghtesadi-Araghi P (2009) Coral reefs in the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea: an integrated perspective on some important stressors. J Fish Aquat Sci 6:48–56Google Scholar
  16. Fourth National Report to the Convention on Biological Diversity (2009) Conservation and environmental management division. Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment, Kuala LumpurGoogle Scholar
  17. Harborne A, Fenner D, Barnes A, Beger M, Harding S, Roxburgh T (2000) Status report on the coral reefs of the East Coast of Peninsula Malaysia, Coral Cay Conservation LtdGoogle Scholar
  18. Hillyard M, Rosenberg D (2000) Coral reef pollution in the South China Sea. [Online] 2000. [Cited: 1 10 2010] http://www.southchinasea.org/miranda/index.html/
  19. Hussin AH, Abdullah R, Affendi YA, Yusuf Y (2003) A preliminary study on the coral reef ecosystem of Pulau Pangkor, Perak. Seminar on islands and reefs: towards conservation and sustainable management, Mid Valley, Kuala LumpurGoogle Scholar
  20. Idris MH, Muta Harah Z, Arshad A (2006) Status of coral reefs species at Patricia Shoals, Bintulu, Sarawak, Malaysia. J App Sci Res 10:816–820Google Scholar
  21. Kaur CR (2010) Coastal and marine ecosystems-based adaptations to mitigation climate change. IMPAK Bulletin Issue 1/2010. Department of Environment, MalaysiaGoogle Scholar
  22. Koh LL, Chou LM, Tun KPP (2002) The status of coral reefs of Pulau Banggi and its vicinity, Sabah, based on surveys in June 2002. REST Technical Report. National University of Singapore, SingaporeGoogle Scholar
  23. Kushairi MH (1997) Labuan Marine Park. Unpublished Report. Ecosystem Research & Marine Parks Division, Malaysian Fisheries Department, MalaysiaGoogle Scholar
  24. Langdon C (2003) Review of experimental evidence for effects of CO2 on calcification of reef builders. In: Proceedings of the 9th international coral reef symposium, BaliGoogle Scholar
  25. Lee WS (2000) Rapid reef mapping—an attempt with hydroacoustic method. In: Proceedings of the 9th international coral reef symposium, BaliGoogle Scholar
  26. Lee LY (2005) Ecology of Scleractinian Corals in the waters of Port Dickson and their tolerance to sedimentation. Master Thesis. Universiti Putra Malaysia, SerdangGoogle Scholar
  27. Lee WS (2007) Coral reefs and marine benthic habitat mapping using hydroacoustics method. Master Thesis. Borneo Marine Research Institute. Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Kota KinabaluGoogle Scholar
  28. Lee JN, Mohamed CAR (2009) Trace metal contents in the Porites corals of Peninsular Malaysia. Int J Env Res 3:85–94Google Scholar
  29. Lee JN, Mohamed CAR (2011) Accumulation of settling particles in some coral reef areas of Peninsular Malaysia. Sains Malaysiana 40:549–554Google Scholar
  30. Lee WS, Chong G, Mohd. Pauzi bin Abdullah (2000) An acoustic approach to resource mapping of Pulau Payar’s coral reef. Survey report. Bay of Bengal Programme, ChennaiGoogle Scholar
  31. Lee YL, Affendi YA, Tajuddin BH, Yusuf YB, Kee Alfian AA, Anuar EA (2005) A post-tsunami assessment of coastal living resources of Langkawi Archipelago, Peninsular Malaysia. NAGA, WorldFish Center Newsletter, Penang, pp 17–22Google Scholar
  32. Lim LC, Spring N (1995) The concepts and analysis of carrying capacity: a management tool for effective planning, part 3. Case study: Pulau Tioman. Project MY0058. World Wildlife Foundation, MalaysiaGoogle Scholar
  33. Marshall P, Schuttenberg H (2006) A reef manager’s guide to coral bleaching. Great Barrier Reef Marine Park, TownsvilleGoogle Scholar
  34. Mazlan AG, Zaidi CC, Wan-Lotfi WM, Othman BHR (2005) On the current status of coastal marine biodiversity in Malaysia. Ind J Mar Sci 34:76–87Google Scholar
  35. McCulloch MT, Esat TM (2000) The coral record of last interglacial sea levels and sea surface temperatures. Chem Geo 169:107–129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. McLeod E, Moffitt R, Timmermann A, Salm R, Menviel L, Palmer MJ, Selig ER, Casey KS, Bruno JF (2010) Warming seas in the coral triangle: coral reef vulnerability and management implications. Coast Manage 38:518–539CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Ministry of the Environment Japan (2010) Status of coral reefs in East Asian seas region. Ministry of the Environment, JapanGoogle Scholar
  38. Mokthar M, Awaluddin AB, Leow KF, Ahmad AK (1994) Determination of metals in corals: records of seasonal and annual variation. International conference and exhibition on environment and development, Kuala LumpurGoogle Scholar
  39. Mokthar M, Awaluddin A, Tan MM, Yasin Z (2001) Trace metals in Langkawi coral and sediment: a study using AAS and XRF. Malay J Anal Sci 7:189–196Google Scholar
  40. Mokthar M, Yong OC, Aris AZ, Praveena SM (2011) Heavy metals accumulation in the coral reef ecosystem: a record for Sabah, Borneo. CLEAN—Soil, Air, Water (Under Review)Google Scholar
  41. National Action Plan for the Management of Coral Reefs in Malaysia (2008) UNEP-GEF South China Sea Project and Department of Marine Park Malaysia. Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment, MalaysiaGoogle Scholar
  42. Pilcher NJ, Cabanban A (2000) The status of coral reefs in Sabah, Labuan and Sarawak, East Malaysia. Australian Institute of Marine Sciences, TownsvilleGoogle Scholar
  43. Reef Check Malaysia Annual Survey Report (2010) Reef check Malaysia, Kuala LumpurGoogle Scholar
  44. Ridwan AR, Cabanban AS (1994) Status of coral reefs in Malaysia. Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network & Australian Institute of Marine Sciences, TownsvilleGoogle Scholar
  45. Ridzwan AR (1994) Status of coral reefs in Malaysia. In: Wilkinson CR, Sudara S, Ming CL (eds) Proceedings of the third ASEAN-Australian symposium on living coastal resources, BangkokGoogle Scholar
  46. Shen GT, Boyle EA (1988) Lead in corals: reconstruction of historical industrial fluxes to the surface ocean. Earth Planet Sci Lett 82:289–303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Sholkovitz E, Shen GT (1995) The incorporation of rare earth elements in modern corals. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 59:2749–2756CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Teh L, Cabanban AS (2007) Planning for sustainable tourism in southern Pulau Banggi: an assessment of biophysical conditions and their implications for future tourism development. J Environ Manage 85:999–1008CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Toda T, Okashita T, Maekawa M, Alfian AA, Rajuddin MK, Nakajima R, Chen W, Takahashi KT, Othman HR, Terazaki M (2007) Community structures of coral reefs around Peninsular Malaysia. J Oceanogr 63:113–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Tun K, Ming Chou L, Cabanban A, Si Tuan V, Nanola C, Yeemin T, Suharsono, Sour K, Lane D (2004) Status of coral reefs, coral reef monitoring and management in Southeast Asia. In: Wilkinson C (ed) Status of coral reefs of the world. Australian Institute of Marine Science, TownsvilleGoogle Scholar
  51. UNEP (2007) National reports on coral reefs in the coastal waters of the South China Sea. UNEP/GEF/SCS Technical Publication No. 11Google Scholar
  52. Veron JEN (2000) Corals of the world. Australian Institute of Marine Science, TownsvilleGoogle Scholar
  53. Waheed Z, Adnan FAF, Hwa LC, Hashim SRM (2007) Status of coral reefs and sedimentation at Kota Kinabalu: a preliminary study at Gaya Bay and Sepangar Bay. Borneo Sci 21:29–44Google Scholar
  54. West JM, Salm RV (2003) Resistance and resilience to coral bleaching: implications for coral reef conservation and management. Conserv Biol 17:956–957CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Wilkinson CR (2008) Status of coral reefs of the world. Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network and Reef and Rainforest Research Center, TownsvilleGoogle Scholar
  56. Wilkinson CR, Souter D, Goldberg J (2005) Status of coral reefs in tsunami affected countries. Australian Institute of Marine Science, TownsvilleGoogle Scholar
  57. Yasin Z (2011) The richness and splendors of the Malaysian Seas. Geophysical Information for Teachers (Gift) Workshop, PenangGoogle Scholar
  58. Yasin Z, Tan ASH, Abdullah AL (1998) The conservation of coral reefs in Malaysia. International Workshop on the Rehabilitation of Degraded Coastal Systems, PhuketGoogle Scholar
  59. Yusuf Y, Ali AB (2000) Butterflyfish (Chaetodontidae) of Pulau Payar Marine Park. In: Ali AB, Arshad MA, Zaidnuddin I, Mohd Sah SA (eds) Proceedings of national symposium on Pulau Payar Marine Park. Fisheries Research Institute, Pulau PinangGoogle Scholar
  60. Yusuf YB, Mohd-Norizam M, Ali AB, Zaidnuddin I (2001) Coral reef fish of some selected sites at Pulau Redang Marine Park, Terengganu: a brief study. In: Husain ML, Shahrom F, Law AT, Yunus K, Yaman ARG (eds) Proceedings of national symposium on marine park and Terengganu Islands. Department of Fisheries, Kuala Lumpur and KUSTEM, Kuala Terengganu, MalaysiaGoogle Scholar
  61. Zaidnuddin Ilias, Abdul Razak Latun, Mohd Akhir Arshad, Ahmad Husin Alias (2000) Rapid coral reef indicator species survey of Pulau Perhentian, Terengganu. Workshop on bio-monitoring of tropical coastal ecosystem. University Malaya, Kuala LumpurGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sarva Mangala Praveena
    • 1
    Email author
  • Siti Shapor Siraj
    • 2
  • Ahmad Zaharin Aris
    • 3
  1. 1.Centre of Marine ScienceUniversiti Putra MalaysiaSerdangMalaysia
  2. 2.Department of Aquaculture, Faculty of AgricultureUniversiti Putra MalaysiaSerdangMalaysia
  3. 3.Centre of Excellence for Environmental Forensics, Faculty of Environmental StudiesUniversiti Putra MalaysiaSerdangMalaysia

Personalised recommendations