Skip to main content

SCUSA: integrated approaches and strategies to address the sanitation crisis in unsewered slum areas in African mega-cities

Abstract

Africa, though reported to be the least urbanized continent, is recognized as one where the rate of urbanization is highest. The development and expansion of informal settlements in the suburbs of the cities is widespread, while they harbor the majority of the urban population. Slums are characterized by, among other things, poorly constructed houses, poor water supply and sanitary conditions, and lack or inadequate support services. Besides the spreading of diseases related to surface water (e.g., malaria), one of the main problems associated with sanitation and water in slum areas is related to the pollutant load entering and leaving the slum catchment, either as surface water or groundwater. This is polluting drinking water or causing eutrophication of surface water, due to the extremely high nitrogen and phosphorus fluxes discharging those slum catchments. The SCUSA research project aims at identifying the most sustainable sanitation solutions in urban slums, including the most important parameters determining and guaranteeing sustainability. Our approach is multidisciplinary, and should therefore yield answers with a financial, social, technical, and environmental view on the extremely complex field of sanitation in urban slums.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3

References

  • Arimoro FO, Ikomi RB, Iwegbue CMA (2007) Water quality changes in relation to Diptera community patterns and diversity measured at an organic effluent impacted stream in the Niger Delta, Nigeria. Ecol Indic 7(3):541–552

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Bere T (2007) The assessment of nutrient loading and retention in the upper segment of the Chinyika River, Harare: implications for eutrophication control. Water SA 33(2):279–284

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Beyene A, Legesse W, Triest L, Kloos H (2009) Urban impact on ecological integrity of nearby rivers in developing countries: the Borkena River in highland Ethiopia. Environ Monit Assess 153(1–4):461–476

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Bracken P, Kvarnström E, Ysunza A, Kärrman E, Finnson A, Saywell D (2005) Making sustainable choices—the development and use of sustainability oriented criteria in sanitary decision making. Third International Conference on Ecological Sanitation, Durban, South Africa

  • Chaggu JE (2004). Sustainable environmental protection using modified pit-latrines. PhD Thesis, Wageningen University, The Netherlands. ISBN:90-5808-989-4

  • De Villiers S (2007) The deteriorating nutrient status of the Berg River, South Africa. Water SA 33(5):659–664

    Google Scholar 

  • Fatoki OS, Muyima NYO, Lujiza N (2001) Situation analysis of water quality in the Umtata River Catchment. Water SA 27(4):467–474

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Howard G, Pedley S, Barret M, Nalubega M, Johal K (2003) Risk factors contributing to microbiological contamination of shallow groundwater in Kampala, Uganda. Water Res 37:3421–3429

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • JMP (2006) Joint monitoring programme. Website: www.wssinfo.org. Accessed June 2009

  • Kemka N, Njiné T, Togouet SHZ, Menbohan SF, Nola M, Monkiedje A, Niyitegeka D, Compère P (2006) Eutrophication of lakes in urbanized areas: the case of Yaounde Municipal Lake in Cameroon, Central Africa. Lakes Reserv Res Manag 11(1):47–55

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Kulabako NR, Nalubega M, Thunvik R (2004) Characterisation of Peri-urban Anthropogenic Pollution in Kampala, Uganda. Proceedings of the 30th WEDC international conference on people centred approaches to water and environmental sanitation, Vientiane: Lao PDR, 25–29th October 2004, p 474–482

  • Kulabako NR, Nalubega M, Thunvik R (2007) Study of the impact of land use and hydrogeological settings on the shallow groundwater quality in a peri-urban area of Kampala, Uganda. Sci Total Environ 381(1–3):180–199

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Kulabako NR, Nalubega M, Thunvik R (2008) Phosphorus transport in shallow groundwater in peri-urban Kampala, Uganda: results from field and laboratory measurements. Environ Geol 53(7):1535–1551

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Lawrence AR, Gooddy DC, Kanatharana P, Meesilp W, Ramnarong V (2000) Groundwater evolution beneath Hat Yai, a rapidly developing city in Thailand. Hydrogeol J 8(5):564–575

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Lettinga G, Lens P, Zeeman G (2001) Environmental protection technologies for sustainable development. Decentralized sanitation and reuse concepts, system and implementations, 1st edn. IWA publishing Alliance House, London

    Google Scholar 

  • Maksimović C, Tejada-Guibert JA (2001) Frontiers in urban water management, 1st edn. IWA-publishing Alliance House, London

    Google Scholar 

  • Marshall BE, Falconer AC (1973) Eutrophication of a Tropical African Impoundment (Lake McIlwaine, Rhodesia). Hydrobiologia 43(1–2):109–123

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • MWE (2007) Uganda water and sanitation sector performance report, Ministry of Water and Environment (MWE)—The Government of Uganda

  • Nhapi I, Tirivarombo S (2004) Sewage discharges and nutrient levels in Marimba River, Zimbabwe. Water SA 30(1):107–113

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Oberholster PJ, Botha AM, Cloete TE (2008) Biological and chemical evaluation of sewage water pollution in the Rietvlei nature reserve wetland area, South Africa. Environ Pollut 156(1):184–192

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Oberholster PJ, Botha AM, Ashton PJ (2009) The influence of a toxic cyanobacterial bloom and water hydrology on algal populations and macroinvertebrate abundance in the upper littoral zone of Lake Krugersdrift, South Africa. Ecotoxicology 18(1):34–46

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Palamuleni GL (2002) Effect of sanitation facilities, domestic solid waste disposal and hygiene practices on water quality in Malawi’s urban poor areas: a case study of South Lunzu Township in the city of Blantyre. In: Physics and chemistry of the Earth vol 27. Elsevier Science Ltd, Publishers, pp 845–850

  • Plan International Uganda (2001) Feasibility study project preparation Bwaise III-Kawempe division. Field report on community, environment, sanitation and solidwaste management, drainage and flood aspects. By COWI Consulting Engineers, Kampala

  • Ridderstolpe P (2007) Mulch filter and resorption for onsite grey water management-a report from the demo-facility built in Kimberly, South Africa. WRS 2007-02-12

  • Robarts RD, Southall GC (1977) Nutrient limitation of phytoplankton growth in seven tropical man-made lakes, with specific reference to lake Mcllwaine, Rhodesia. Hydrobiologia 79(1):1–35

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Thornton JA, Nduku WK (1982) Lake Mcllwaine—the eutrophication and recovery of a tropical man-made lake. In: Water chemistry and nutrient budgets. Dr. W. Junk Publishers, The Hague, the Netherlands, pp 43–59

  • UBOS (2002) Uganda population and housing census-provisional results. Uganda Bureau of Statistics, Kampala-Uganda

    Google Scholar 

  • UNEP (2002) Africa environment outlook. Past, present and future perspectives. United Nations Environment Programme Publication. Earth Print, Nairobi, Kenya. URL address: http://www.unep.org/aeo/

  • UN-HABITAT (2003) The challenge of slums: global report on human settlements, 2003/United Nations Human Settlements Programme. ISBN 1-84407-037-9

  • WSP/NWSC (2000) Identification of management options for improved water and sanitation services in informal settlements in Kampala, situation assessment report. By Aqua Consults Consulting Engineers, Kampala, Uganda

  • Zuma BM, Tandlich R, Whittington-Jones KJ, Burgess JE (2009) Mulch tower treatment system; part I: overall performance in grey water treatment. Desalination 242:38–56

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Jan Willem Foppen.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Foppen, J.W., Kansiime, F. SCUSA: integrated approaches and strategies to address the sanitation crisis in unsewered slum areas in African mega-cities. Rev Environ Sci Biotechnol 8, 305 (2009). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11157-009-9174-y

Download citation

  • Published:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11157-009-9174-y

Keywords

  • Sanitation
  • Eutrophication
  • Health
  • Pollution
  • Sustainability
  • Slums
  • Kampala