Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders

, Volume 19, Issue 3, pp 231–242 | Cite as

Fertility preservation options in transgender people: A review

  • Natnita MattawanonEmail author
  • Jessica B. Spencer
  • David A. SchirmerIII
  • Vin Tangpricha


Gender affirming procedures adversely affect the reproductive potential of transgender people. Thus, fertility preservation options should be discussed with all transpeople before medical and surgical transition. In transwomen, semen cryopreservation is typically straightforward and widely available at fertility centers. The optimal number of vials frozen depends on their reproductive goals and treatment options, therefore a consultation with a fertility specialist is optimal. Experimental techniques including spermatogonium stem cells (SSC) and testicular tissue preservation are technologies currently under development in prepubertal individuals but are not yet clinically available. In transmen, embryo and/or oocyte cryopreservation is currently the best option for fertility preservation. Embryo cryopreservation requires fertilization of the transman’s oocytes with a donor or partner’s sperm prior to cryopreservation, but this limits his future options for fertilizing the eggs with another partner or donor. Oocyte cryopreservation offers transmen the opportunity to preserve their fertility without committing to a male partner or sperm donor at the time of cryopreservation. Both techniques however require at least a two-week treatment course, egg retrieval under sedation and considerable cost. Ovarian tissue cryopreservation is a promising experimental method that may be performed at the same time as gender affirming surgery but is offered in only a limited amount of centers worldwide. In select places, this method may be considered for prepubertal children, adolescents, and adults when ovarian stimulation is not possible. Novel methods such as in-vitro activation of primordial follicles, in vitro maturation of immature oocytes and artificial gametes are under development and may hold promise for the future.


Fertility preservation Reproduction Transgender health Transgender 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Natnita Mattawanon
    • 1
    Email author
  • Jessica B. Spencer
    • 2
  • David A. SchirmerIII
    • 2
  • Vin Tangpricha
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.Division of Reproductive Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of MedicineChiang Mai UniversityChiang MaiThailand
  2. 2.Division of Reproductive Endocrinology, Department of Gynecology and ObstetricsEmory University School of MedicineAtlantaUSA
  3. 3.Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Lipids, Department of MedicineEmory University School of MedicineAtlantaUSA
  4. 4.Atlanta VA Medical CenterDecaturUSA

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