The vitamin D deficiency pandemic: Approaches for diagnosis, treatment and prevention

Abstract

Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency is a global health issue that afflicts more than one billion children and adults worldwide. The consequences of vitamin D deficiency cannot be under estimated. There has been an association of vitamin D deficiency with a myriad of acute and chronic illnesses including preeclampsia, childhood dental caries, periodontitis, autoimmune disorders, infectious diseases, cardiovascular disease, deadly cancers, type 2 diabetes and neurological disorders. This review is to put into perspective the controversy surrounding the definition for vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency as well as providing guidance for how to treat and prevent vitamin D deficiency.

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Correspondence to Michael F. Holick.

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This is a review and therefore there are no issues regarding compliance and ethical standards.

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The author declares that he is a consultant for Quest Diagnostics, Ontometrics Inc. and is on speaker’s Bureau for Sanofi Inc.

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Holick, M.F. The vitamin D deficiency pandemic: Approaches for diagnosis, treatment and prevention. Rev Endocr Metab Disord 18, 153–165 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11154-017-9424-1

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Keywords

  • Vitamin D deficiency
  • Vitamin D insufficiency
  • Sunlight
  • Rickets
  • Vitamin D2
  • Vitamin D3
  • 25-hydroxyvitamin D
  • Vitamin D toxicity