Skip to main content

Low vitamin D status and obesity: Role of nutritionist

Abstract

Low vitamin D status and obesity have concomitantly reached epidemic levels worldwide. Up to now the direction of the association between low vitamin D status and obesity, the exact mechanisms responsible for this association and the clinical usefulness to increase vitamin D status for reducing adiposity still warrant further evaluation. The aim of the present review was to examine the current evidence linking low vitamin D status and obesity in relation to the role of the nutritionist. On the one side, considering obesity as a causal factor, low sun exposure in obese individuals due to their sedentary lifestyle and less outdoor activity, vitamin D sequestration in adipose tissue, and volumetric dilution of ingested or cutaneously synthesized vitamin D3 in the large fat mass of obese patients, might represent some of the factors playing a major role in the pathogenesis of the low vitamin D status. On the other side, the expression of both vitamin D3 receptors and enzymes responsible for vitamin D3 metabolism in adipocytes depicted a role for the low vitamin D status per se in the development of obesity by modulating adipocyte differentiation and lipid metabolism. Nutritionists need to accurately address the aspects influencing the low vitamin D status in obesity and the vitamin D supplementation in obese individuals.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  1. Prasad P, Kochhar A. Interplay of vitamin D and metabolic syndrome: A review. Diabetol Metab Syndr. 2016;10(2):105–12.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Looker AC. Body fat and vitamin D status in black versus white women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005;90(2):635–40.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Cheng S, Massaro JM, Fox CS, Larson MG, Keyes MJ, McCabe EL, Robins SJ, O'Donnell CJ, Hoffmann U, Jacques PF, Booth SL, Vasan RS, Wolf M, Wang TJ. Adiposity, cardiometabolic risk, and vitamin D status: The Framingham heart study. Diabetes. 2010;59(1):242–8.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Vimaleswaran KS, Berry DJ, Lu C, Tikkanen E, Pilz S, Hiraki LT, Cooper JD, Dastani Z, Li R, Houston DK, et al. Causal relationship between obesity and vitamin D status: Bi-directional Mendelian randomization analysis of multiple cohorts. PLoS Med. 2013;10(2):e1001383.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  5. Gangloff A, Bergeron J, Lemieux I, Després JP. Changes in circulating vitamin D levels with loss of adipose tissue. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2016;19(6):464–70.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Zittermann A, Frisch S, Berthold HK, Götting C, Kuhn J, Kleesiek K, Stehle P, Koertke H, Koerfer R. Vitamin D supplementation enhances the beneficial effects of weight loss on cardiovascular disease risk markers. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009;89(5):1321–7.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Salehpour A, Shidfar F, Hosseinpanah F, Vafa M, Razaghi M, Hoshiarrad A, Gohari M. Vitamin D3 and the risk of CVD in overweight and obese women: A randomised controlled trial. Br J Nutr. 2012;108(10):1866–73.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Yao Y, Zhu L, He L, Duan Y, Liang W, Nie Z, Jin Y, Wu X, Fang Y. A meta-analysis of the relationship between vitamin D deficiency and obesity. Int J Clin Exp Med. 2015;8(9):14977–84.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  9. Holick MF, Binkley NC, Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Gordon CM, Hanley DA, Heaney RP, Murad MH, Weaver CM, Endocrine S. Evaluation, treatment, and prevention of vitamin D deficiency: An Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011;96:1911–30.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Lamendola CA, Ariel D, Feldman D, Reaven GM. Relations between obesity, insulin resistance, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012;95(5):1055–9.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Mehmood ZH, Papandreou D. An updated mini review of vitamin D and obesity: Adipogenesis and inflammation state. Open Access Maced J Med Sci. 2016;4(3):526–32.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Vin hquốc lu'o'ng K, Nguyễn LT. The beneficial role of vitamin D in obesity: Possible genetic and cell signaling mechanisms. Nutr J. 2013;12:89.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  13. Ding C, Gao D, Wilding J, Trayhurn P, Bing C. Vitamin D signalling in adipose tissue. Br J Nutr. 2012;108(11):1915–23.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Larsen SC, Ängquist L, Moldovan M, Huikari V, Sebert S, Cavadino A, Ahluwalia TS, Skaaby T, Linneberg A, Husemoen LL, Toft U, Pedersen O, Hansen T, Herzig KH, Jarvelin MR, Power C, Hyppönen E, Heitmann BL, Sørensen TI. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D status and longitudinal changes in weight and waist circumference: Influence of genetic predisposition to adiposity. PLoS One. 2016;11(4):e0153611.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Webb AR, Holick MF. The role of sunlight in the cutaneous production of vitamin D3. Annu Rev Nutr. 1988;8:375–99.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Wacker M, Holick MF. Sunlight and vitamin D: A global perspective for health. Dermatoendocrinol. 2013;5(1):51–108.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Verbraecken J, Van de Heyning P, De Backer W, Van Gaal L. Body surface area in normal-weight, overweight, and obese adults. A comparison study. Metabolism. 2006;55(4):515–24.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Petersen L, Schnohr P, Sørensen TI. Longitudinal study of the long-term relation between physical activity and obesity in adults. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2004;28(1):105–12.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Looker AC. Do body fat and exercise modulate vitamin D status? Nutr Rev. 2007;65(8 Pt 2):S124–6.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Vanlint S. Vitamin D and obesity. Nutrients. 2013;5(3):949–56.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Wortsman J, Matsuoka LY, Chen TC, Lu Z, Holick MF. Decreased bioavailability of vitamin D in obesity. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000;72(3):690–3.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  22. Barrea L, Savastano S, Di Somma C, Savanelli MC, Nappi F, Albanese L, Orio F, Colao A. Low serum vitamin D-status, air pollution and obesity: A dangerous liaison. Rev Endocr Metab Disord. 2016; doi:10.1007/s11154-016-9388-6.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  23. Mawer EB, Backhouse J, Holman CA, Lumb GA, Stanbury SW. The distribution and storage of vitamin D and its metabolites in human tissues. Clin Sci. 1972;43(3):413–31.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Lawson DE, Douglas J, Lean M, Sedrani S. Estimation of vitamin D3 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 in muscle and adipose tissue of rats and man. Clin Chim Acta. 1986;157(2):175–81.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Brouwer DA, van Beek J, Ferwerda H, Brugman AM, van der Klis FR, van der Heiden HJ, Muskiet FA. Rat adipose tissue rapidly accumulates and slowly releases an orally-administered high vitamin D dose. Br J Nutr. 1998;79(6):527–32.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Malmberg P, Karlsson T, Svensson H, Lönn M, Carlsson NG, Sandberg AS, Jennische E, Osmancevic A, Holmäng A. A new approach to measuring vitamin D in human adipose tissue using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry: A pilot study. J Photochem Photobiol B. 2014;138:295–301.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  27. Heaney RP, Recker RR, Grote J, Horst RL, Armas LA. Vitamin D(3) is more potent than vitamin D(2) in humans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011;96(3):E447–52.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  28. Drincic AT, Armas LA, Van Diest EE, Heaney RP. Volumetric dilution, rather than sequestration best explains the low vitamin D status of obesity. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2012;20(7):1444–8.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  29. Drincic A, Fuller E, Heaney RP, Armas LA. 25-hydroxyvitamin D response to graded vitamin D3 supplementation among obese adults. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013;98(12):4845–51.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  30. Zemel MB. Regulation of adiposity and obesity risk by dietary calcium: Mechanisms and implications. J Am Coll Nutr. 2002;21(2):146S–51S.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  31. Duncan RE, Ahmadian M, Jaworski K, Sarkadi-Nagy E, Sul HS. Regulation of lipolysis in adipocytes. Annu Rev Nutr. 2007;27:79–101.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  32. Bell NH, Shaw S, Turner RT. Evidence that 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 inhibits the hepatic production of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in man. J Clin Invest. 1984;74(4):1540–4.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  33. Pathak K, Soares MJ, Calton EK, Zhao Y, Hallett J. Vitamin D supplementation and body weight status: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Obes Rev. 2014;15(6):528–37.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  34. Crujeiras AB, Carreira MC, Cabia B, Andrade S, Amil M, Casanueva FF. Leptin resistance in obesity: An epigenetic landscape. Life Sci. 2015;140:57–63.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  35. Abbas MA. Physiological functions of vitamin D in adipose tissue. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2016; doi:10.1016/j.jsbmb.2016.08.004.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  36. Kong J, Chen Y, Zhu G, Zhao Q, Li YC. 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 upregulates leptin expression in mouse adipose tissue. J Endocrinol. 2013;216:265–71.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  37. Nimitphong H, Holick MF, Fried SK, Lee MJ. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 promote the differentiation of human subcutaneous preadipocytes. PLoS One. 2012;7(12):e52171.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  38. Yki-Järvinen H. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease as a cause and a consequence of metabolic syndrome. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2014;2(11):901–10.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  39. Strange RC, Shipman KE, Ramachandran S. Metabolic syndrome: A review of the role of vitamin D in mediating susceptibility and outcome. World J Diabetes. 2015;6(7):896–911.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  40. Marchesini G, Brizi M, Bianchi G, Tomassetti S, Bugianesi E, Lenzi M, McCullough AJ, Natale S, Forlani G, Melchionda N. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: A feature of the metabolic syndrome. Diabetes. 2001;50(8):1844–50.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  41. Elangovan H, Chahal S, Gunton JE. Vitamin D in liver disease: Current evidence and potential directions. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2017; doi:10.1016/j.bbadis.2017.01.001.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  42. Eliades M, Spyrou E, Agrawal N, Lazo M, Brancati FL, Potter JJ, Koteish AA, Clark JM, Guallar E, Hernaez R. Meta-analysis: Vitamin D and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2013;38(3):246–54.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  43. Grammatiki M, Rapti E, Karras S, Ajjan RA, Kotsa K. Vitamin D and diabetes mellitus: Causal or casual association? Rev Endocr Metab Disord. 2017; doi:10.1007/s11154-016-9403-y.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  44. Moore A, Hochner H, Sitlani CM, Williams MA, Hoofnagle AN, de Boer IH, Kestenbaum B, Siscovick DS, Friedlander Y, Enquobahrie DA. Plasma vitamin D is associated with fasting insulin and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance in young adult males, but not females, of the Jerusalem perinatal study. Public Health Nutr. 2015;18(7):1324–31.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  45. Zhao G, Ford ES, Li C. Associations of serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and parathyroid hormone with surrogate markers of insulin resistance among U.S. adults without physician-diagnosed diabetes: NHANES, 2003-2006. Diabetes Care. 2010;33(2):344–7.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  46. Kayaniyil S, Vieth R, Retnakaran R, Knight JA, Qi Y, Gerstein HC, Perkins BA, Harris SB, Zinman B, Hanley AJ. Association of vitamin D with insulin resistance and beta-cell dysfunction in subjects at risk for type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2010;33(6):1379–81.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  47. Forouhi NG, Luan J, Cooper A, Boucher BJ, Wareham NJ. Baseline serum 25-hydroxy vitamin d is predictive of future glycemic status and insulin resistance: The Medical Research Council Ely prospective study 1990-2000. Diabetes. 2008;57(10):2619–25.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  48. Jorde R, Sneve M, Torjesen P, Figenschau Y. No improvement in cardiovascular risk factors in overweight and obese subjects after supplementation with vitamin D3 for 1 year. J Intern Med. 2010;267(5):462–72.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  49. von Hurst PR, Stonehouse W, Coad J. Vitamin D supplementation reduces insulin resistance in south Asian women living in New Zealand who are insulin resistant and vitamin D deficient - a randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Br J Nutr. 2010;103(4):549–55.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  50. Davidson MB. Response to comment on: Davidson et al. High-dose vitamin D supplementation in people with prediabetes and hypovitaminosis D. Diabetes Care 2013;36:260–266. Diabetes Care. 2013;36(5):e72.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  51. De Pergola G, Nitti A, Bartolomeo N, Gesuita A, Giagulli VA, Triggiani V, Guastamacchia E, Silvestris F. Possible role of hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance in lower vitamin D levels in overweight and obese patients. Biomed Res Int. 2013;2013:921348.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  52. Steingrimsdottir L, Gunnarsson O, Indridason OS, Franzson L, Sigurdsson G. Relationship between serum parathyroid hormone levels, vitamin D sufficiency, and calcium intake. JAMA. 2005;294(18):2336–41.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  53. Teegarden D, Donkin SS. Vitamin D: Emerging new roles in insulin sensitivity. Nutr Res Rev. 2009;22(1):82–92.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  54. Maestro B, Campión J, Dávila N, Calle C. Stimulation by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 of insulin receptor expression and insulin responsiveness for glucose transport in U-937 human promonocytic cells. Endocr J. 2000;47(4):383–91.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  55. Demay MB. Mechanism of vitamin D receptor action. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2006;1068:204–13.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  56. Mangelsdorf DJ, Thummel C, Beato M, Herrlich P, Schütz G, Umesono K, Blumberg B, Kastner P, Mark M, Chambon P, Evans RM. The nuclear receptor superfamily: The second decade. Cell. 1995;83(6):835–9.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  57. Li J, Byrne ME, Chang E, Jiang Y, Donkin SS, Buhman KK, Burgess JR, Teegarden D. 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D hydroxylase in adipocytes. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2008;112(1–3):122–6.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  58. Ching S, Kashinkunti S, Niehaus MD, Zinser GM. Mammary adipocytes bioactivate 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and signal via vitamin D3 receptor, modulating mammary epithelial cell growth. J Cell Biochem. 2011;112(11):3393–405.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  59. Sun X, Zemel MB. Role of uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) expression and 1alpha, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in modulating adipocyte apoptosis. FASEB J. 2004;18(12):1430–2.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  60. Zemel MB, Sun X. Vitamin D modulation of adipocyte function M.F. Holick (Ed.), Vitamin D: Physiology, Molecular Biology and Clinical Applications, Humana Press Copyright Holder Springer Science Business Media, LLC. 2010; 345–357. doi: 10.1007/978-1-60327-303-9_17.

  61. Narvaez CJ, Matthews D, Broun E, Chan M, Welsh J. Lean phenotype and resistance to diet-induced obesity in vitamin D receptor knockout mice correlates with induction of uncoupling protein-1 in white adipose tissue. Endocrinology. 2009;150(2):651–61.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  62. Soares MJ, Chan She Ping-Delfos W, Ghanbari MH. Calcium and vitamin D for obesity: A review of randomized controlled trials. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2011;65(9):994–1004.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  63. Blumberg JM, Tzameli I, Astapova I, Lam FS, Flier JS, Hollenberg AN. Complex role of the vitamin D receptor and its ligand in adipogenesis in 3 T3-L1 cells. J Biol Chem. 2006;281(16):11205–13.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  64. Kong J, Li YC. Molecular mechanism of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 inhibition of adipogenesis in 3 T3-L1 cells. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2006;290(5):E916–24.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  65. de Paula FJ, Dick-de-Paula I, Bornstein S, Rostama B, Le P, Lotinun S, Baron R, Rosen CJ. VDR haploinsufficiency impacts body composition and skeletal acquisition in a gender-specific manner. Calcif Tissue Int. 2011;89(3):179–91.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  66. Weber K, Erben RG. Differences in triglyceride and cholesterol metabolism and resistance to obesity in male and female vitamin D receptor knockout mice. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl). 2013;97(4):675–83.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  67. Narvaez CJ, Simmons KM, Brunton J, Salinero A, Chittur SV, Welsh JE. Induction of STEAP4 correlates with 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 stimulation of adipogenesis in mesenchymal progenitor cells derived from human adipose tissue. J Cell Physiol. 2013;228(10):2024–36.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  68. Sun X, Morris KL, Zemel MB. Role of calcitriol and cortisol on human adipocyte proliferation and oxidative and inflammatory stress: A microarray study. J Nutrigenet Nutrigenomics. 2008;1(1–2):30–48.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  69. Ochs-Balcom HM, Chennamaneni R, Millen AE, Shields PG, Marian C, Trevisan M, Freudenheim JL. Vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms are associated with adiposity phenotypes. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011;93(1):5–10.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  70. Shi H, Norman AW, Okamura WH, Sen A, Zemel MB. 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 modulates human adipocyte metabolism via nongenomic action. FASEB J. 2001;15(14):2751–3.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  71. Sergeev IN. 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 induces Ca2 + −mediated apoptosis in adipocytes via activation of calpain and caspase-12. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009;384(1):18–21.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  72. Wamberg L, Christiansen T, Paulsen SK, Fisker S, Rask P, Rejnmark L, Richelsen B, Pedersen SB. Expression of vitamin D-metabolizing enzymes in human adipose tissue -- the effect of obesity and diet-induced weight loss. Int J Obes. 2013;37(5):651–7.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  73. Stokić E, Kupusinac A, Tomic-Naglic D, Smiljenic D, Kovacev-Zavisic B, Srdic-Galic B, Soskic S, Isenovic ER. Vitamin D and dysfunctional adipose tissue in obesity. Angiology. 2015;66(7):613–8.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  74. Stokić E, Kupusinac A, Tomić-Naglić D, Zavišić BK, Mitrović M, Smiljenić D, Soskić S, Isenović E. Obesity and vitamin D deficiency: Trends to promote a more proatherogenic cardiometabolic risk profile. Angiology. 2015;66(3):237–43.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  75. Bellia A, Garcovich C, D'Adamo M, Lombardo M, Tesauro M, Donadel G, Gentileschi P, Lauro D, Federici M, Lauro R, Sbraccia P. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels are inversely associated with systemic inflammation in severe obese subjects. Intern Emerg Med. 2013;8(1):33–40.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  76. Trayhurn P. Hypoxia and adipose tissue function and dysfunction in obesity. Physiol Rev. 2013;93(1):1–21.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  77. Wellen KE, Hotamisligil GS. Obesity-induced inflammatory changes in adipose tissue. J Clin Invest. 2003;112(12):1785–8.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  78. Foss YJ. Vitamin D deficiency is the cause of common obesity. Med Hypotheses. 2009;72(3):314–21.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  79. Ferket BS, Colkesen EB, Visser JJ, Spronk S, Kraaijenhagen RA, Steyerberg EW, Hunink MG. Systematic review of guidelines on cardiovascular risk assessment: Which recommendations should clinicians follow for a cardiovascular health check? Arch Intern Med. 2010;170(1):27–40.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  80. van Dijk SB, Takken T, Prinsen EC, Wittink H. Different anthropometric adiposity measures and their association with cardiovascular disease risk factors: A meta-analysis. Neth Hear J. 2012;20(5):208–18.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  81. Després JP, Lemieux I, Bergeron J, Pibarot P, Mathieu P, Larose E, Rodés-Cabau J, Bertrand OF, Poirier P. Abdominal obesity and the metabolic syndrome: Contribution to global cardiometabolic risk. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2008;28(6):1039–49.

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  82. Rodríguez-Rodríguez E, Navia B, López-Sobaler AM, Ortega RM. Vitamin D in overweight/obese women and its relationship with dietetic and anthropometric variables. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2009;17(4):778–82.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  83. McGill AT, Stewart JM, Lithander FE, Strik CM, Poppitt SD. Relationships of low serum vitamin D3 with anthropometry and markers of the metabolic syndrome and diabetes in overweight and obesity. Nutr J. 2008;7:4.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  84. Kotler DP, Burastero S, Wang J, Pierson Jr RN. Prediction of body cell mass, fat-free mass, and total body water with bioelectrical impedance analysis: Effects of race, sex, and disease. Am J Clin Nutr. 1996;64(3):489S–97S.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  85. Xu L, Cheng X, Wang J, Cao Q, Sato T, Wang M, Zhao X, Liang W. Comparisons of body-composition prediction accuracy: A study of 2 bioelectric impedance consumer devices in healthy Chinese persons using DXA and MRI as criteria methods. J Clin Densitom. 2011;14(4):458–64.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  86. Kang SH, Cho KH, Park JW, Yoon KW, Do JY. Association of visceral fat area with chronic kidney disease and metabolic syndrome risk in the general population: Analysis using multi-frequency bioimpedance. Kidney Blood Press Res. 2015;40(3):223–30.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  87. Bi X, Tey SL, Leong C, Quek R, Henry CJ. Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in Singapore: its implications to cardiovascular risk factors. PLoS One. 2016;11(1):e0147616.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  88. Kim YJ, Park JW, Kim JW, Park CS, Gonzalez JP, Lee SH, Kim KG, Oh JH. Computerized automated quantification of subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue from computed tomography scans: Development and validation study. JMIR Med Inform. 2016;4(1):e2.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  89. Young KA, Engelman CD, Langefeld CD, Hairston KG, Haffner SM, Bryer-Ash M, Norris JM. Association of plasma vitamin D levels with adiposity in Hispanic and African Americans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009;94(9):3306–13.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  90. Lenders CM, Feldman HA, Von Scheven E, Merewood A, Sweeney C, Wilson DM, Lee PD, Abrams SH, Gitelman SE, Wertz MS, Klish WJ, Taylor GA, Chen TC. Holick MF; Elizabeth Glaser pediatric research network obesity study group. Relation of body fat indexes to vitamin D status and deficiency among obese adolescents. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009;90(3):459–67.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  91. Kremer R, Campbell PP, Reinhardt T, Gilsanz V. Vitamin D status and its relationship to body fat, final height, and peak bone mass in young women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009;94(1):67–73.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  92. Sulistyoningrum DC, Green TJ, Lear SA, Devlin AM. Ethnic-specific differences in vitamin D status is associated with adiposity. PLoS One. 2012;7(8):e43159.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  93. Rosenblum JL, Castro VM, Moore CE, Kaplan LM. Calcium and vitamin D supplementation is associated with decreased abdominal visceral adipose tissue in overweight and obese adults. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012;95(1):101–8.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  94. Mensink GB, Fletcher R, Gurinovic M, Huybrechts I, Lafay L, Serra-Majem L, Szponar L, Tetens I, Verkaik-Kloosterman J, Baka A, Stephen AM. Mapping low intake of micronutrients across Europe. Br J Nutr. 2013;110(4):755–73.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  95. Tripkovic L, Lambert H, Hart K, Smith CP, Bucca G, Penson S, Chope G, Hyppönen E, Berry J, Vieth R, Lanham-New S. Comparison of vitamin D2 and vitamin D3 supplementation in raising serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D status: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012;95(6):1357–64.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  96. Belenchia AM, Tosh AK, Hillman LS, Peterson CA. Correcting vitamin D insufficiency improves insulin sensitivity in obese adolescents: A randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2013;97(4):774–81.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  97. Macdonald HM. Contributions of sunlight and diet to vitamin D status. Calcif Tissue Int. 2013;92(2):163–76.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  98. Muscogiuri G, Altieri B, Annweiler C, Balercia G, Pal HB, Boucher BJ, Cannell JJ, Foresta C, Grübler MR, Kotsa K, Mascitelli L, März W, Orio F, Pilz S, Tirabassi G, Colao A. Vitamin D and chronic diseases: The current state of the art. Arch Toxicol. 2016; doi:10.1007/s00204-016-1804-x.

    Google Scholar 

  99. Lentjes MA, Mulligan AA, Welch AA, Bhaniani A, Luben RN, Khaw KT. Contribution of cod liver oil-related nutrients (vitamins a, D, E and eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid) to daily nutrient intake and their associations with plasma concentrations in the EPIC-Norfolk cohort. J Hum Nutr Diet. 2015;28(6):568–82.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  100. Smutna M, Kruzikova K, Marsalek P, Kopriva V, Svobodova Z. Fish oil and cod liver as safe and healthy food supplements. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2009;30(1):156–62.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  101. Bloomfield HE, Kane R, Koeller E, Greer N, MacDonald R, Wilt T. Benefits and harms of the mediterranean diet compared to other diets [Internet]. editors source Washington (DC): Department of Veterans Affairs (US); 2015. VA Evidence-based Synthesis Program Reports.

  102. Castro-Quezada I, Román-Viñas B, Serra-Majem L. The Mediterranean diet and nutritional adequacy: A review. Nutrients. 2014;6(1):231–48.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  103. Baggerly CA, Cuomo RE, French CB, Garland CF, Gorham ED, Grant WB, Heaney RP, Holick MF, Hollis BW, McDonnell SL, Pittaway M, Seaton P, Wagner CL, Wunsch A. Sunlight and vitamin D: Necessary for public health. J Am Coll Nutr. 2015;34(4):359–65.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  104. Salehpour A, Hosseinpanah F, Shidfar F, Vafa M, Razaghi M, Dehghani S, Hoshiarrad A, Gohari M. A 12-week double-blind randomized clinical trial of vitamin D3 supplementation on body fat mass in healthy overweight and obese women. Nutr J. 2012;11:78.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  105. Gallagher JC, Yalamanchili V, Smith LM. The effect of vitamin D supplementation on serum 25(OH)D in thin and obese women. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2013;136:195–200.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  106. Mason C, Xiao L, Imayama I, Duggan C, Wang CY, Korde L, McTiernan A. Vitamin D3 supplementation during weight loss: A double-blind randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2014;99(5):1015–25.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  107. Roust LR, DiBaise JK. Nutrient deficiencies prior to bariatric surgery. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2016; doi:10.1097/MCO.0000000000000352.

    Google Scholar 

  108. Bacci V, Silecchia G. Vitamin D status and supplementation in morbid obesity before and after bariatric surgery. Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2010;4(6):781–94.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  109. Lanzarini E, Nogués X, Goday A, Benaiges D, de Ramón M, Villatoro M, Pera M, Grande L, Ramón JM. High-dose vitamin D supplementation is necessary after bariatric surgery: A prospective 2-year follow-up study. Obes Surg. 2015;25(9):1633–8.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  110. Kim J, Brethauer S. ASMBS clinical issues committee; American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery Clinical Issues Committee, position statement. Metabolic bone changes after bariatric surgery. Surg Obes Relat Dis. 2015;11(2):406–11.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  111. Mechanick JI, Youdim A, Jones DB, Garvey WT, Hurley DL, McMahon MM, Heinberg LJ, Kushner R, Adams TD, Shikora S, Dixon JB, Brethauer S. American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists; Obesity Society; American Society for Metabolic & Bariatric Surgery. Clinical practice guidelines for the perioperative nutritional, metabolic, and nonsurgical support of the bariatric surgery patient--2013 update: Cosponsored by American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists, the Obesity Society, and American Society for Metabolic & Bariatric Surgery. Endocr Pract. 2013;19(2):337–72.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

We would like to acknowledge all the Collaborators of this review: Antonio Improta, Dr. Vincenza Grazia Mele and Dr. Lidia Albanese.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Annamaria Colao.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Funding

There was no funding source for this work.

Additional information

Silvia Savastano and Luigi Barrea equally contributed to this work.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Savastano, S., Barrea, L., Savanelli, M.C. et al. Low vitamin D status and obesity: Role of nutritionist. Rev Endocr Metab Disord 18, 215–225 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11154-017-9410-7

Download citation

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11154-017-9410-7

Keywords

  • Environmental factor
  • Vitamin D
  • Obesity
  • Diet
  • Nutritionist