Ogden CL, Carroll MD, Kit BK, Flegal KM. Prevalence of childhood and adult obesity in the United States, 2011–2012. JAMA. 2014;311:806–14.
Ng M, Fleming T, Robinson M, Thomson B, Graetz N, Margono C, et al. Global, regional, and national prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adults during 1980–2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013. Lancet (London). 2014;384:766–81.
Harnack L, Stang J, Story M. Soft drink consumption among US children and adolescents: nutritional consequences. J Am Diet Assoc. 1999;99:436–41.
Tremblay MS, Willms JD. Is the Canadian childhood obesity epidemic related to physical inactivity? Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2003;27:1100–5.
Martinez Steele E, Baraldi LG, da Costa Louzada ML, Moubarac J-C, Mozaffarian D, Monteiro CA. Ultra-processed foods and added sugars in the US diet: evidence from a nationally representative cross-sectional study. BMJ Open. 2016;6:e009892.
Moubarac J-C, Martins APB, Claro RM, Levy RB, Cannon G, Monteiro CA. Consumption of ultra-processed foods and likely impact on human health. Evidence from Canada. Public Health Nutr. 2013;16:2240–8.
Poti JM, Mendez MA, Ng SW, Popkin BM. Is the degree of food processing and convenience linked with the nutritional quality of foods purchased by US households? Am J Clin Nutr US. 2015;101:1251–62.
Singh GM, Micha R, Khatibzadeh S, Lim S, Ezzati M, Mozaffarian D. Estimated global, regional, and national disease burdens related to sugar-sweetened beverage consumption in 2010. Circulation. 2015;132:639–66. 2015/07/01 ed.
United States Department of Agriculture. Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2015–2020. 8Th Ed. 2015.
International survey shows most consumers worry about extra sugar. NewHope360.com [Internet]. 2015 Apr 10.
Sylvetsky AC, Welsh JA, Brown RJ, Vos MB. Low-calorie sweetener consumption is increasing in the United States. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012;96:640–6. 2012/08/03 ed.
Sylvetsky A, Rother K. Trends in the consumption of low-calorie sweeteners. Physiol. Behav. [Internet]. 2016;1:1–17. Available from: http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0031938416301184.
Butchko HH, Stargel WW, Comer CP, Mayhew DA, Benninger C, Blackburn GL, et al. Aspartame: review of safety. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2002;35:S1–93. 2002/08/16 ed.
Magnuson BA, Burdock GA, Doull J, Kroes RM, Marsh GM, Pariza MW, et al. Aspartame: a safety evaluation based on current use levels, regulations, and toxicological and epidemiological studies. Crit Rev Toxicol. 2007;37:629–727. 2007/09/11 ed.
Swithers SE. Not-so-healthy sugar substitutes? Curr. Opin. Behav. Sci. 2016;106–10.
Nowlis GH, Kessen W. Human newborns differentiate differing concentrations of sucrose and glucose. Science. 1976;191:865–6.
Ganchrow JR, Steiner JE, Canetto S. Behavioral displays to gustatory stimuli in newborn rat pups. Dev Psychobiol. 1986;19:163–74.
Nelson LF, Hazel LN, Moore AA, Maddock HM, Ashton GC, Culbertson CC, et al. Baby pigs have a sweet tooth. Iowa Farm Sci. 1953;17:3–6.
Hanson LE, Rutledge EA, JMR and EFF. Dry rations for pigs weaned at 3 weeks. Minn Agr Exp Sta Mimeo Minn Agr Exp Sta Mimeo. 1954;H-124.
Lewis CJ, Catron DV, Combs GE, Ashton GC, Culbertson CC. Sugar in pig starters. J Anim Sci. 1955;14:1103–15.
Sterk A, Schlegel P, Mul AJ, Ubbink-Blanksma M, Bruininx EM. Effects of sweeteners on individual feed intake characteristics and performance in group-housed weanling pigs. J Anim Sci. 2008;86:2990–7.
Ponce CH, Brown MS, Silva JS, Schlegel P, Rounds W, Hallford DM. Effects of a dietary sweetener on growth performance and health of stressed beef calves and on diet digestibility and plasma and urinary metabolite concentrations of healthy calves. J Anim Sci US. 2014;92:1630–8.
Siurana A, Wall EH, Rodriguez M, Castillejos L, Ferret A, Calsamiglia S. The effect of dietary supplementation of artificial sweetener on performance of milk-fed calves. In: Shanks RD, editor. J. Anim. Sci. Vol. 92, E-Supplement 2Journal Dairy Sci. Vol. 97, E-Supplement 1. Kansas City, MO; 2014. p. 816.
Soulet C. SUCRAM®, the white-gold taste enhancer from PANCOSMA. Engromix Website. 2015.
Bigos A, Palkowska E, Rosolowska-Huszca D. Effect of artificial and natural sweeteners on glucose and insulin in plasma of rats. J Pre-Clin Clin Res. 2012;6:93–7.
Mitsutomi K, Masaki T, Shimasaki T, Gotoh K, Chiba S, Kakuma T, et al. Effects of a nonnutritive sweetener on body adiposity and energy metabolism in mice with diet-induced obesity. Metabolism US. 2014;63:69–78.
Abou-Donia MB, El-Masry EM, Abdel-Rahman AA, McLendon RE, Schiffman SS. Splenda alters gut microflora and increases intestinal p-glycoprotein and cytochrome p-450 in male rats. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2008;71:1415–29. 2008/09/19 ed.
Suez J, Korem T, Zeevi D, Zilberman-Schapira G, Thaiss CA, Maza O, et al. Artificial sweeteners induce glucose intolerance by altering the gut microbiota. Nature. 2014;514:181–6. 2014/09/19 ed.
Foletto KC, Melo Batista BA, Neves AM, de Matos Feijo F, Ballard CR, Marques Ribeiro MF, et al. Sweet taste of saccharin induces weight gain without increasing caloric intake, not related to insulin-resistance in Wistar rats. Appetite. 2015/11/12 ed. 2015.
Feijo Fde M, Ballard CR, Foletto KC, Batista BA, Neves AM, Ribeiro MF, et al. Saccharin and aspartame, compared with sucrose, induce greater weight gain in adult Wistar rats, at similar total caloric intake levels. Appetite. 2013;60:203–7. 2012/10/24 ed.
Swithers SE, Davidson TL. A role for sweet taste: calorie predictive relations in energy regulation by rats. Behav Neurosci. 2008;122:161–73. 2008/02/27 ed.
Swithers SE, Sample CH, Davidson TL. Adverse effects of high-intensity sweeteners on energy intake and weight control in male and obesity-prone female rats. Behav Neurosci. 2013;127:262–74. 2013/02/13 ed.
Martinez C, Gonzalez E, Garcia RS, Salas G, Constantino-Casas F, Macias L, et al. Effects on body mass of laboratory rats after ingestion of drinking water with sucrose, fructose, aspartame, and sucralose additives ~ !2009-03-31 ~ !2010-11-25 ~ !2010-08-26 ~ !. Open Obes J. [Hilversum] :; 2010. p. 116–24.
Fowler SP, Williams K, Resendez RG, Hunt KJ, Hazuda HP, Stern MP. Fueling the obesity epidemic? Artificially sweetened beverage use and long-term weight gain. Obes (Silver Spring). 2008;16:1894–900. 2008/06/07 ed.
Bleich SN, Wolfson JA, Vine S, Wang YC. Diet-beverage consumption and caloric intake among US adults, overall and by body weight. Am J Public Health. 2014;104:e72–8. 2014/01/18 ed.
Fowler SP, Williams K, Hazuda HP. Diet soda intake is associated with long-term increases in waist circumference in a biethnic cohort of older adults: the San Antonio Longitudinal Study of Aging. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2015;63:708–15. 2015/03/18 ed.
Swithers SE. Artificial sweeteners produce the counterintuitive effect of inducing metabolic derangements. Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2013;24:431–41. 2013/07/16 ed.
O’Connor L, Imamura F, Lentjes MA, Khaw KT, Wareham NJ, Forouhi NG. Prospective associations and population impact of sweet beverage intake and type 2 diabetes, and effects of substitutions with alternative beverages. Diabetologia. 2015;58:1474–83. 2015/05/07 ed.
Azad MB, Sharma AK, de Souza RJ, Dolinsky VW, Becker AB, Mandhane PJ, et al. Association Between Artificially Sweetened Beverage Consumption During Pregnancy and Infant Body Mass Index. JAMA Pediatr. [Internet]. 2016; Available from: http://archpedi.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2016.0301
Mueller NT, Jacobs DRJ, MacLehose RF, Demerath EW, Kelly SP, Dreyfus JG, et al. Consumption of caffeinated and artificially sweetened soft drinks is associated with risk of early menarche. Am J Clin Nutr US. 2015;102:648–54.
Carwile JL, Willett WC, Spiegelman D, Hertzmark E, Rich-Edwards J, Frazier AL, et al. Sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and age at menarche in a prospective study of US girls. Hum Reprod. 2015;30:675–83.
Charalampopoulos D, McLoughlin A, Elks CE, Ong KK. Age at menarche and risks of all-cause and cardiovascular death: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Epidemiol US. 2014;180:29–40.
Swithers SE. Not so sweet revenge: unanticipated consequences of high-intensity sweeteners. Behav Anal. 2015;38:1–17.
Provencher V, Polivy J, Herman CP. Perceived healthiness of food. If it’s healthy, you can eat more! Appetite. England. 2009;52:340–4.
Forwood SE, Ahern A, Hollands GJ, Fletcher PC, Marteau TM. Underestimating calorie content when healthy foods are present: an averaging effect or a reference-dependent anchoring effect? PLoS One US. 2013;8:e71475.
Carels RA, Harper J, Konrad K. Qualitative perceptions and caloric estimations of healthy and unhealthy foods by behavioral weight loss participants. Appetite. 2006;46:199–206.
Chernev A. The dieter’s paradox. J Consum Psychol Elsevier. 2011;21:178–83.
Macdiarmid J, Blundell J. Assessing dietary intake: who, what and why of under-reporting. Nutr Res Rev. 1998;11:231–53.
Duca FA, Bauer PV, Hamr SC, Lam TK. Glucoregulatory relevance of small intestinal nutrient sensing in physiology, bariatric surgery, and pharmacology. Cell Metab. 2015;22:367–80.
Nelson G, Hoon MA, Chandrashekar J, Zhang Y, Ryba NJ, Zuker CS. Mammalian sweet taste receptors. Cell. 2001;106:381–90.
Tellez LA, Han W, Zhang X, Ferreira TL, Perez IO, Shammah-Lagnado SJ, et al. Separate circuitries encode the hedonic and nutritional values of sugar. Nat Neurosci US. 2016;19:465–70.
Swithers SE, Laboy AF, Clark K, Cooper S, Davidson TL. Experience with the high-intensity sweetener saccharin impairs glucose homeostasis and GLP-1 release in rats. Behav Brain Res. 2012;233:1–14. 2012/05/09 ed.
Bryant C, Mclaughlin J. Low calorie sweeteners: evidence remains lacking for effects on human gut function. Physiol Behav. 2016. doi:10.1016/j.physbeh.2016.04.026.
Sato S, Hokari R, Kurihara C, Sato H, Narimatsu K, Hozumi H, et al. Dietary lipids and sweeteners regulate glucagon-like peptide-2 secretion. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2013;304:G708–14.
Moran AW, Al-Rammahi M, Zhang C, Bravo D, Calsamiglia S, Shirazi-Beechey SP. Sweet taste receptor expression in ruminant intestine and its activation by artificial sweeteners to regulate glucose absorption. J Dairy Sci. 2014;97:4955–72.
Jang HJ, Kokrashvili Z, Theodorakis MJ, Carlson OD, Kim BJ, Zhou J, et al. Gut-expressed gustducin and taste receptors regulate secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:15069–74. 2007/08/29 ed.
Pepino MY. Metabolic effects of non-nutritive sweeteners. Physiol. Behav. [Internet]. 2015;152:450–5. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0031938415003728.
Gorboulev V, Schurmann A, Vallon V, Kipp H, Jaschke A, Klessen D, et al. Na(+)-D-glucose cotransporter SGLT1 is pivotal for intestinal glucose absorption and glucose-dependent incretin secretion. Diabetes. 2012;61:187–96.
Palmnas MS, Cowan TE, Bomhof MR, Su J, Reimer RA, Vogel HJ, et al. Low-dose aspartame consumption differentially affects gut microbiota-host metabolic interactions in the diet-induced obese rat. PLoS One. 2014;9:e109841. 2014/10/15 ed.
Wisen O, Johansson C. Gastrointestinal function in obesity: motility, secretion, and absorption following a liquid test meal. Metabolism. 1992;41:390–5.
Nguyen NQ, Debreceni TL, Bambrick JE, Chia B, Wishart J, Deane AM, et al. Accelerated intestinal glucose absorption in morbidly obese humans: relationship to glucose transporters, incretin hormones, and glycemia. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2015;100:968–76.
Pepino MY, Tiemann CD, Patterson BW, Wice BM. S. K. Sucralose affects glycemic and hormonal responses to an oral glucose load. Diabetes Care. 2013;36:2530–5.
Ley RE, Backhed F, Turnbaugh P, Lozupone CA, Knight RD, Gordon JI, et al. Obesity alters gut microbial ecology. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:11070–5.
Backhed F, Ding H, Wang T, Hooper LV, Koh GY, Nagy A, et al. The gut microbiota as an environmental factor that regulates fat storage. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:15718–23. 2004/10/27 ed.
Nettleton JE, Reimer RA, Shearer J. Reshaping the gut microbiota: impact of low calorie sweeteners and the link to insulin resistance? Physiol. Behav. [Internet]. 2016; Available from: http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0031938416301640.
Karlsson FH, Fak F, Nookaew I, Tremaroli V, Fagerberg B, Petranovic D, et al. Symptomatic atherosclerosis is associated with an altered gut metagenome. Nat Commun. 2012;3:1245. 2012/12/06 ed.
Tremaroli V, Backhed F. Functional interactions between the gut microbiota and host metabolism. Nature. 2012;489:242–9. 2012/09/14 ed.
Daly K, Darby AC, Hall N, Nau A, Bravo D, Shirazi-Beechey SP. Dietary supplementation with lactose or artificial sweetener enhances swine gut Lactobacillus population abundance. Br J Nutr. 2014;111 Suppl:S30–5.
Daly K, Darby AC, Hall N, Wilkinson MC, Pongchaikul P, Bravo D, et al. Bacterial sensing underlies artificial sweetener-induced growth of gut Lactobacillus. Env Microbiol 2015.
Rettig S, Tenewitz J, Ahearn G, Coughlin C. Sucralose causes a concentration dependent metabolic inhibition of the gut flora Bacteroides, B. fragilis and B. uniformis not observed in the Firmicutes, E. faecalis and C. sordellii (1118.1). FASEB J. 2014;28:1118.1.
Anderson RL, Kirkland JJ. The effect of sodium saccharin in the diet on caecal microflora. Food Cosmet Toxicol. 1980;18:353–5.
Frankenfeld CL, Sikaroodi M, Lamb E, Shoemaker S, Gillevet PM. High-intensity sweetener consumption and gut microbiome content and predicted gene function in a cross-sectional study of adults in the United States. Ann Epidemiol. 2015.
Konstantinov SR, Favier CF, Zhu WY, Williams BA, Klus J, Souffrant W-B, et al. Microbial diversity studies of the porcine gastrointestinal ecosystem during weaning transition. Anim Res. 2004;53:317–24.
O’Toole PW, Jeffery IB. Gut microbiota and aging. Science. 2015;350:1214–5.
Frankenfeld CL, Sikaroodi M, Lamb E, Shoemaker S, Gillevet PM. High-intensity sweetener consumption and gut microbiome content and predicted gene function in a cross-sectional study of adults in the United States. Ann Epidemiol. 2015;25:736–42. e4.
Lozupone CA, Stombaugh JI, Gordon JI, Jansson JK, Knight R. Diversity, stability and resilience of the human gut microbiota. Nature. 2012;489:220–30. 2012/09/14 ed.
Martínez I, Stegen JC, Maldonado-Gómez MX, Eren AM, Siba PM, Greenhill AR, et al. The gut microbiota of rural papua new guineans: composition, diversity patterns, and ecological processes. Cell Rep. 2015;11:527–38.