Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent among children and adolescents worldwide. The high rates of vitamin D deficiency during childhood are of major public health relevance, given the growing evidence that vitamin D deficiency may play a key role in the pathophysiology of many chronic diseases beyond rickets, including autoimmune conditions, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. Identification, treatment, and prevention of vitamin D deficiency in childhood may therefore have profound health effects throughout the life span. In this review, we discuss the definitions, epidemiology, clinical implications, and treatment of vitamin D deficiency in children and adolescents.
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This work was supported in part by The Allen Foundation Inc., the McCarthy Family Foundation, Grant RO1 HD43869 from the National Institutes of Health, and Project 5-T71-MC-00009-14 from the Maternal and Child Health Bureau.
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Huh, S.Y., Gordon, C.M. Vitamin D deficiency in children and adolescents: Epidemiology, impact and treatment. Rev Endocr Metab Disord 9, 161–170 (2008). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11154-007-9072-y