Advertisement

Review of Economics of the Household

, Volume 15, Issue 1, pp 335–355 | Cite as

Military service and marital dissolution: a trajectory analysis

  • P. Wesley RoutonEmail author
Article

Abstract

Military service adds additional challenges for married couples. Previous literature on service and marital stability is comprised of mixed results and has often ignored the timing of these effects. This timing is important as it helps disclose the nature of causality and has implications for both military and social security policies. Using a trajectory specification, I estimate the effect of military service on the likelihood of divorce during the volunteer’s period of service and the years following. Two veteran cohorts are examined, those who served during the early twenty-first century wars and those who served during the early 1980s. Among my results, the former cohort is shown to have had their divorce probability increased in the first 2 years post-service, while the opposite effect is found for the latter cohort. Unlike many previous studies of military service and marital stability, I find that effects are not overly dissimilar across racial groups.

Keywords

Military service Divorce Marital stability Marital dissolution Trajectory analysis 

JEL Classification

J12 J15 

References

  1. Angrist, J. D. (1998). Estimating the labor market impact of voluntary military service using social security data on military applicants. Econometrica, 66(2), 249–288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Angrist, J. D., & Johnson, J. H, I. V. (2000). Effects of work-related absences on families: Evidence from the Gulf War. Industrial & Labor Relations Review, 54(1), 41–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Becker, G. S. (1973). A theory of marriage: Part I. Journal of Political Economy, 81(4), 813–846.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Becker, G. S. (1974). A theory of marriage: Part II. Journal of Political Economy, 82(2), S11–S26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Becker, G., Landes, E., & Michael, R. (1977). An economic analysis of marital instability. Journal of Political Economy, 85(1), 1141–1187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bremmer, D., & Kesselring, R. (2004). Divorce and female labor-force participation: Evidence from time-series data and cointegration. Atlantic Economic Journal, 32(3), 175–190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Brines, J., & Joyner, K. (1999). The ties that bind: Principles of cohesion in cohabitation and marriage. American Sociological Review, 64(1), 333–355.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor. (2011a). National Londitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 cohort, 1979–2010 (rounds 1–24) [computer file]. Produced and distributed by the Center for Human Resource Research: The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.Google Scholar
  9. Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor. (2011b). National Londitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 cohort, 1997–2010 (rounds 1–14) [computer file]. Produced and distributed by the Center for Human Resource Research: The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.Google Scholar
  10. Cadigan, J. (2000). Family status of enlisted personnel. Technical Paper Series 2000-6, Washington, DC: Congressional Budget Office.Google Scholar
  11. Call, V. R., & Teachman, J. D. (1991). Military service and stability in the family course. Military Psychology, 3(4), 233–250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Call, V. R., & Teachman, J. D. (1996). Life-course timing and sequencing of marriage and military service and their effects on marital stability. Journal of Marriage and Family, 58(1), 219–226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Carlson, E. (1979). Divorce rate fluctuation as a cohort phenomenon. Population Studies, 33(3), 523–536.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chandra, A., Lara-Cinisomo, S., Jaycox, L. H., Tanielian, T., Han, B., Burns, R. M., et al. (2011). Views from the honefront. Santa Monica: RAND Corporation.Google Scholar
  15. Cohen, J., & Segal, M. W. (2009). Veterans, the Vietnam era, and marital dissolution: An event history analysis. Armed Forces & Society, 36(1), 19–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Elder, G. H, Jr, Gimbel, C., & Ivie, R. (1991). Turning points in life: The case of military service and war. Military Psychology, 3(4), 215–231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Fernández-Kranz, D., Lacuesta, A., & Rodríguez-Planas, N. (2013). The motherhood earnings dip: Evidence from administrative records. The Journal of Human Resources, 48(1), 169–197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Friedberg, L. (1998). Did unilateral raise divorce rates? Evidence from panel data. American Economic Review, 88(3), 608–627.Google Scholar
  19. Gimbel, C., & Booth, A. (1994). Why does military combat experience adversely affect marital relations? Journal of Marriage and Family, 56(3), 691–703.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Goldstein, J. (1999). The leveling of divorce rates in the United States. Demography, 36(3), 409–414.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Granger, C. W. J. (1969). Investigating causal relationships by econometric models and cross-spectral methods. Econometrica, 37(3), 424–438.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hattiangadi, A. U., Ackerman, D., Kimble, T. H. & Quester, A. O. (2004). Cost-benefit analysis of lump sum bonuses for Zone A, Zone B, and Zone C reenlistments: final report. Center for Naval Analyses, Alexandria. http://www.cna.org/documents/D0009652.A4. Retrieved October 11, 2015.
  23. Hogan, P. F., & Seifert, R. F. (2010). Marriage and the military: Evidence that those who serve marry earlier and divorce earlier. Armed Forces & Society, 36(3), 420–438.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hosek, J. R., Kavanagh, J., & Miller, L. (2006). How deployments affect service members. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Jordan, B. K., Marmar, C. R., Fairbank, J. A., Schlenger, W. E., Kulka, R. A., Hough, R. L., et al. (1992). Problems in families of males Vietnam veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 60(6), 916–926.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kaylor, J. A., King, D. W., & King, L. A. (1987). Psychological effects of military service in Vietnam: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 102(2), 257–271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Lundquist, J. H. (2004). When race makes no difference: Marriage and the military. Social Forces, 83(1), 731–757.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Lundquist, J. H., & Smith, H. L. (2005). Family formation among women in the U.S. military: Evidence from the NLSY. Journal of Marriage and Family, 67(1), 1–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. MacLean, A., & Elder, G. H, Jr. (2007). Military service in the life course. Annual Review of Sociology, 33(1), 175–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Magnum, S. L., & Ball, D. E. (1987). The transferability of military-provided occupational training in the post-draft era. Industrial and Labor Relations Review, 42(2), 230–245.Google Scholar
  31. Michael, R. (1978). The rise in divorce rates, 1960–1974: Age-specific components. Demography, 15(2), 177–182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Michael, R. (1988). Why did the U.S. divorce rate double within a decade? In TP Schultz (Ed.), Research in population economics (Vol. 6, pp. 367–399). Connecticut: JAI Press.Google Scholar
  33. Negrusa, B., & Negrusa, S. (2014). Home front: Post-deployment mental health and divorces. Demography, 51(3), 895–916.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Negrusa, S., Negrusa, B., & Hosek, J. (2014). Gone to war: Have deployments increased divorces? Journal of Population Economics, 27(2), 473–496.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Nunley, J. M. (2010). Inflation and other aggregate determinants of the trend in U.S. divorce rates since the 1960s. Applied Economics, 42(26), 3367–3381.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Nunley, J. M., & Zietz, J. (2012). The long-run impact of age demographics on the U.S. divorce rate. American Economist, 57(1), 65–77.Google Scholar
  37. Ono, H. (1998). Husbands’ and wives’ resources and marital dissolution. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 60(1), 674–689.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Oppenheimer, V. K. (1997). Comment on “The rise in divorce and separation in the United States, 1890–1990”. Demography, 34(4), 467–472.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Pavalko, E. K., & Elder, G. H, Jr. (1990). World War II and divorce: A life-course perspective. American Journal of Sociology, 95(5), 1213–1234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Pollard, M., Karney, B., & Loughran, D. (2008). Comparing rates of marriage and divorce in civilian, military, and veteran populations. Presentation to the Population Association of America. New Orleans. Retrieved from http://paa2008.princeton.edu/papers/81696.
  41. Preston, S. H. (1997). Comment on Steven Ruggles’s “The rise in divorce and separation in the United States, 1890–1990”. Demography, 34(4), 473–474.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Rodgers, S. (2004). Dollars, dependency, and divorce: Four oerspectives on the role of wives’ income. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 66(1), 59–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Routon, P. W. (2014). The effect of 21st century military service on civilian labor and educational outcomes. Journal of Labor Research, 35(1), 15–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Ruger, W., Wilson, S. E., & Waddoups, S. L. (2002). Warfare and welfare: Military service, combat, and marital dissolution. Armed Forces & Society, 29(1), 85–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Ruggles, S. (1997). The rise of divorce and separation in the United States, 1880–1990. Demography, 34(4), 455–466.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Savych, B. (2008). Effects of Deployments on spouses of military personnel. Ph.D. dissertation, Pardee RAND Graduate School. RAND Corporation, Santa Monica.Google Scholar
  47. South, S. (1985). Economic conditions and the divorce rate: A time-series analysis of postwar United States. Journal of Marriage and Family, 47(1), 31–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Teachman, J. D. (2007). Race, military service, and marital timing: Evidence from the NLSY-79. Demography, 44(2), 380–404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Teachman, J. D., & Tedrow, L. (2008). Divorce, race, and military service: More than equal pay and equal opportunity. Journal of Marriage & Family, 70(4), 1030–1044.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs, Office of the Budget website. Annual budget sumbission. http://www.va.gov/budget/products.asp. Retrieved October 11, 2015.
  51. Weiss, Y., & Willis, R. J. (1997). Match quality, new information, and marital dissolution. Journal of Labor Economics, 15(1), 293–329.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Wolfers, J. (2006). Did unilateral divorce laws raise divorce rates? A reconciliation and new results. American Economic Review, 96(5), 1802–1820.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Zax, J. S., & Flueck, D. W. (2003) Marriage, divorce, income, and marriage incentives. Working paper, Dept of Economics, University of Colorado at Bolder.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of BusinessGeorgia Gwinnett CollegeLawrencevilleUSA

Personalised recommendations