The effect of obesity, alcohol misuse and smoking on employment and hours worked: evidence from the Icelandic economic collapse
- 608 Downloads
In this study the relationship between obesity, alcohol misuse, smoking and changes in quantity of labor supplied during an economic meltdown are examined. The data used stem from a health and lifestyle panel survey carried out by the Public Health Institute of Iceland in 2007 and 2009. Probit analysis was used to assess if pre-crisis body weight, alcohol misuse or smoking were related to subsequent job-loss or a reduction in hours worked following the 2008 economic collapse in Iceland. Results indicated that body weight, alcohol misuse and smoking are related to reductions in quantity of labor supplied for females only. Female body mass index was positively related to the probability of a reduction in quantity of labor supplied, while alcohol misuse and smoking were negatively related to the probability of decreasing hours worked for females.
KeywordsObesity Alcohol Smoking Employment Labor supply Business cycles
JEL ClassificationI10 J01 J16 J23 J22 E00
Funding from the Icelandic Research Fund (IRF) is gratefully acknowledged (Grant number 130611-051).
- Alþingi (2013). Lög um tóbaksvarnir (e. Tobacco Control Act). Retrieved July the 19th, 2013, from http://www.althingi.is/lagasofn/134/2002006.html.
- Ásgeirsdóttir, T. L. (2007). Holdafar: Hagfræðileg greining (e. Physique: An Economic Analysis). Reykjavík: Lýðheilsustöð (e. Public Health Institute of Iceland).Google Scholar
- Babor, T. F., Biddle-Higgins, J. C., Saunders, J. B., & Monteiro, M. G. (2001). AUDIT: The alcohol use disorders identification test: Guidelines for use in primary health care. Geneva: World Health Organization.Google Scholar
- Cawley, J. (2000). Body weight and women′s labor-market outcomes. National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper no. 7841.Google Scholar
- Chan, M. (2010). Progress in public health during the previous decade and major challenges ahead. Report by the Director-General to the Executive Board at its 126th session Geneva, Switzerland 18 January 2010.Google Scholar
- Chatterjee, S., Hadi, A. S., & Price, B. (2000). Regression analysis by example (3rd ed.). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
- Jónsson, S. H., & Guðlaugsson, J. Ó. (2007). Framkvæmdaskýrsla. Heilsa og líðan Íslendinga 2007 (e. Project report: Health and Well Being of Icelanders 2007). Reykjavík: Lýðheilsustöð (e. The Public Health Institute of Iceland).Google Scholar
- Jónsson, S. H., Guðlaugsson, J. Ó., Gylfason, H. F., & Guðmundsdóttir, D. G. (2011). Heilsa og líðan Íslendinga 2007: Framkvæmdaskýrsla (e. Project report: Health and Well Being of Icelanders 2007). Reykjavík: Lýðheilsustöð (e. The Public Health Institute of Iceland).Google Scholar
- Kenkel, D. S., & Ribar, D. (1994). Alcohol consumption and young adults’ socioeconomic status. In C. Winston, M. N. Baily, & P. C. Reiss (Eds.), Brookings papers on economic activity: Microeconomics (pp. 119–175). Washington: The Brookings Institution.Google Scholar
- Kuczmarski, M. F., Kuczmarski, R. J., & Najjar, M. (2001). Effects of age on validity of self-reported height, weight, and body mass index: Findings from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988–1994. Journal of American Dietetic Association, 101(1), 28–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Lundborg, P., Bolin, K., Höjgård, S., & Lindgren, B. (2007). Obesity and occupational attainment among the 50+ of Europe. In K. Bolin & J. Cawley (Eds.), Advances in health economics and health services research (Vol. 17, pp. 219–251). Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
- Mackenbach, J. P., & Kunst, A. E. (1989). Mortality and causes of death during two major economic recessions: The Netherlands 1915–1984. In R. Veenhoven & A. Hagenaars (Eds.), Did the crisis really hurt? Effects of the 1980-1982 economic recessions on satisfaction, mental health and mortality. Rotterdam: Universitaire Pers.Google Scholar
- OECD. (2009a). Overweight or obese females. Retrieved January the 4th, 2011, from http://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/social-issues-migration-health/overweight-or-obese-females_20758480-table15.
- OECD. (2009b). Overweight or obese males. Retrieved January the 4th, 2011, from http://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/social-issues-migration-health/overweight-or-obese-males_20758480-table16.
- OECD. (2010). OECD Health data 2010. Retrieved June the 6th, 2011, from http://www.ecosante.org/index2.php?base=OCDE&langs=ENG&langh=ENG.
- Págan, J. A., & Dávila, A. (1997). Obesity, occupational attainment and earnings. Social Science Quarterly, 78, 756–770.Google Scholar
- Register, C. A., & Williams, D. R. (1990). Wage effects of obesity among young workers. Social Science Quarterly, 71, 130–141.Google Scholar
- StataCorp. (2009). Stata statistical software: Release 11. College Station. TX: Stata Corp LP.Google Scholar
- Statice. (2013). Activity rate, unemployment and labour force by quarters 2003-2010. Retrieved July the 31st, 2013, from: http://www.statice.is/?PageID=1191&src=/temp_en/Dialog/varval.asp?ma=VIN01001%26ti=Activity+rate%2C+unemployment+and+labour+force+by+quarters+2003%2D2010++%26path=../Database/vinnumarkadur/rannsoknir/%26lang=1%26units=Numbe/percent.
- Unit, Strategy. (2003). Alcohol misuse: How much does it cost. London: Cabinet Office.Google Scholar
- WHO. (2007). The challenge of obesity in the WHO European Region and strategies for response. Summary. Copenhagen: World Health Organization Europe.Google Scholar