Review of Economics of the Household

, Volume 10, Issue 1, pp 115–132 | Cite as

The relationship between Civil Unions and fertility in France: Preliminary evidence

  • Emilio GutiérrezEmail author
  • Pablo Suárez Becerra


This paper explores the relationship between fertility and the introduction of new laws regulating cohabitation, in a context of low fertility and high out of wedlock childbearing. We show that in France, while fertility and marriage rates moved closely together before 1999, since the introduction (in 1999) of the “Pacte Civil de Solidarité” (PACS)—a cohabitation contract less binding than marriage—this relationship is much weaker. Surprisingly, legal unions (defined as marriage plus PACS) and fertility continue to move together after this date. We provide evidence of the relationship between the introduction of PACS and fertility, utilizing the regional variation in the number of PACS per woman (PACS intensity) and the differences in fertility before and after 1999. We show that French Departments with high PACS intensity did not show a different trend in fertility before 1999 than those with low PACS intensity (excluding Metropolitan Paris). However, they did experience an increase in their fertility levels after the introduction of PACS. This suggests the need to collect better and more detailed data, in order to assess whether the recent increases in French fertility can be partially explained by the availability of PACS.


Marriage Civil Unions Fertility 



We are grateful for the comments from the editor and two anonymous referees. We acknowledge the advisory of Nancy Qian and the valuable comments of Andrew Foster, the participants at the Applied Microeconomics Lunch at Brown University, ITAM brown bag seminar, and participants at the 2009 LACEA meetings. Adrián Rubli and James Doyle provided excellent research and editorial assistance.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Instituto Tecnológico Autónomo de MéxicoMexico, D.F.Mexico
  2. 2.Department of EconomicsBrown UniversityProvidenceUSA

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