Ainsworth, S. (2006). DeFT: A conceptual framework for considering learning with multiple representations. Learning and Instruction, 16(3), 183–198. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.learninstruc.2006.03.001
Alexander, P. A. (2014). Thinking critically and analytically about critical-analytic thinking: An introduction. Educational Psychology Review, 26, 469–476. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10648-014-9283-1
Bartholomé, T., & Bromme, R. (2009). Coherence formation when learning from text and pictures: What kind of support for whom? Journal of Educational Psychology, 101(2), 282–293. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0014312
Begolli, K. N., Richland, L. E., Jaeggi, S. M., Lyons, E. M., Klostermann, E. C., & Matlen, B. J. (2018). Executive function in learning mathematics by comparison: Incorporating everyday classrooms into the science of learning. Thinking & Reasoning, 24(2), 280–313. https://doi.org/10.1080/13546783.2018.1429306
Bernacki, M. L., Vosicka, L., & Utz, J. C. (2020). Can a brief, digital skill training intervention help undergraduates “learn to learn” and improve their STEM achievement? Journal of Educational Psychology, 112(4), 765–781. https://doi.org/10.1037/edu0000405
Borkowski, J. G., & Burke, J. E. (1996). Theories, models, and measurements of executive functioning: An information processing perspective. In G. R. Lyon & N. A. Krasnegor (Eds.), Attention, memory, and executive function (pp. 235–261). Paul H. Brookes Publishing.
Braasch, J. L., & Bråten, I. (2017). The discrepancy-induced source comprehension (D-ISC) model: Basic assumptions and preliminary evidence. Educational Psychologist, 52(3), 167–181. https://doi.org/10.1080/00461520.2017.1323219
Bråten, I., Britt, M. A., Strømsø, H. I., & Rouet, J. F. (2011). The role of epistemic beliefs in the comprehension of multiple expository texts: Toward an integrated model. Educational Psychologist, 46(1), 48–70. https://doi.org/10.1080/00461520.2011.538647
Bråten, I., & Strømsø, H. I. (2011). Measuring strategic processing when students read multiple texts. Metacognition and Learning, 6(2), 111–130. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11409-011-9075-7
Bråten, I., Strømsø, H. I., & Andreassen, R. (2016). Sourcing in professional education: Do text factors make any difference? Reading and Writing, 29(8), 1599–1628.
Bråten, I., Strømsø, H. I., & Britt, M. A. (2009). Trust matters: Examining the role of source evaluation in students’ construction of meaning within and across multiple texts. Reading Research Quarterly, 44, 6–28. https://doi.org/10.1598/RRQ.44.1.1
Bråten, I., Stadtler, M., & Salmerón, L. (in press). The role of sourcing in discourse comprehension. In M. F. Schober, D. N. Rapp, & M. A. Britt (Eds.), Handbook of discourse processes (2nd. ed.). Routledge.
Barzilai, S., & Chinn, C. A. (2018). On the goals of epistemic education: Promoting apt epistemic performance. Journal of the Learning Sciences, 27(3), 353–389. https://doi.org/10.1080/10508406.2017.1392968
Britt, M. A., Perfetti, C. A., Sandak, R. L., & Rouet, J.-F. (1999). Content integration and source separation in learning from multiple texts. In S. R. Goldman (Ed.), Essays in honor of Tom Trabasso (pp. 209–233). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Inc.
Britt, M. A., & Rouet, J. F. (2011). Research challenges in the use of multiple documents. Information Design Journal, 19(1), 62–68. https://doi.org/10.1075/idj.19.1.08bri
Britt, M. A., & Rouet, J. F. (2012). Learning with multiple documents: Component skills and their acquisition. In M. J. Lawson & J. R. Kirby (Eds.), Enhancing the quality of learning: Dispositions, instruction, and learning processes (pp. 276–314). Cambridge University Press.
Broughton, S. H., Sinatra, G. M., & Reynolds, R. E. (2010). The nature of the refutation text effect: An investigation of attention allocation. Journal of Educational Research, 103(6), 407–423. https://doi.org/10.1080/00220670903383101
Brown, A. L. (1978). Knowing when, where, and how to remember: A problem of metacognition. In R. Glaser (Ed.), Advances in instructional psychology. Lawrence Erlbaum.
Butterfuss, R., & Kendeou, P. (2018). The role of executive functions in reading comprehension. Educational Psychology Review, 30(3), 801–826. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10648-017-9422-6
Cartwright, K. B., Bock, A. M., Clause, J. H., Coppage August, E. A., Saunders, H. G., & Schmidt, K. J. (2020). Near-and far-transfer effects of an executive function intervention for 2nd to 5th-grade struggling readers. Cognitive Development, 56, 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cogdev.2020.100932
Cartwright, K. B., Lee, S. A., Taboada Barber, A., DeWyngaert, L. U., Lane, A. B., & Singleton, T. (2020). Contributions of executive function and cognitive intrinsic motivation to university students’ reading comprehension. Reading Research Quarterly, 55(3), 345–369. https://doi.org/10.1002/rrq.273
Cromley, J. G., & Azevedo, R. (2007). Testing and refining the direct and inferential mediation model of reading comprehension. Journal of Educational Psychology, 99(2), 311–325. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-06126.96.36.1991
Cutting, L. E., & Scarborough, H. S. (2006). Prediction of reading comprehension: Relative contributions of word recognition, language proficiency, and other cognitive skills can depend on how comprehension is measured. Scientific Studies of Reading, 10(3), 277–299. https://doi.org/10.1207/s1532799xssr1003_5
Denckla, M. B. (1996). A theory and model of executive function: A neuropsychological perspective. In G. R. Lyon & N. A. Krasnegor (Eds.), Attention, memory, and executive function (pp. 263–278). Paul H Brookes Publishing Co.
Flavell, J. H. (1979). Metacognition and cognitive monitoring: A new area of cognitive-developmental inquiry. American Psychologist, 34(10), 906–911. https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066x.34.10.906
Flesch, R. (1948). A new readability yardstick. Journal of Applied Psychology, 32(3), 221–233. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0057532
Flora, D. B., & Curran, P. J. (2004). An empirical evaluation of alternative methods of estimation for confirmatory factor analysis with ordinal data. Psychological Methods, 9(4), 466–491. https://doi.org/10.1037/1082-989X.9.4.466
Follmer, D. J. (2018). Executive function and reading comprehension: A meta-analytic review. Educational Psychologist, 53(1), 42–60. https://doi.org/10.1080/00461520.2017.1309295
Follmer, D. J. (2022, Under review). A text-embedded, executive function-based microanalytic intervention to support adults’ comprehension-evaluation of conflicting texts.
Follmer, D. J., & Sperling, R. A. (2016). The mediating role of metacognition in the relationship between executive function and self-regulated learning. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 86(4), 559–575. https://doi.org/10.1111/bjep.12123
Follmer, D. J., & Sperling, R. A. (2018). Interactions between reader and text: Contributions of cognitive processes, strategy use, and text cohesion to comprehension of expository science text. Learning and Individual Differences, 67, 177–187. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lindif.2018.08.005
Follmer, D. J., & Sperling, R. A. (2019). Examining the role of self-regulated learning microanalysis in the assessment of learners’ regulation. The Journal of Experimental Education, 87(2), 269–287. https://doi.org/10.1080/00220973.2017.1409184
Follmer, D. J., & Sperling, R. A. (2020). The roles of executive functions in learning from multiple representations and perspectives. In D. Lombardi, P. Van Meter, A. List, & P. Kendeou (Eds.), Handbook of learning from multiple representations and perspectives (1st ed., pp. 297–313). Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780429443961-18
Garner, J. K. (2009). Conceptualizing the relations between executive functions and self-regulated learning. The Journal of Psychology, 143(4), 405–426. https://doi.org/10.3200/JRLP.143.4.405-426
Georgiou, G. K., & Das, J. P. (2016). What component of executive functions contributes to normal and impaired reading comprehension in young adults? Research in Developmental Disabilities, 49, 118–128. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ridd.2015.12.001
Georgiou, G. K., & Das, J. P. (2018). Direct and indirect effects of executive function on reading comprehension in young adults. Journal of Research in Reading, 41(2), 243–258. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9817.12091
Graesser, A. C., McNamara, D. S., Louwerse, M. M., & Cai, Z. (2004). Coh-Metrix: Analysis of text on cohesion and language. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers, 36(2), 193–202. https://doi.org/10.3758/BF03195564
Guajardo, N. R., & Cartwright, K. B. (2016). The contribution of theory of mind, counterfactual reasoning, and executive function to pre-readers’ language comprehension and later reading awareness and comprehension in elementary school. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 144, 27–45. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jecp.2015.11.004
Harrison, J. E., Buxton, J. E., Husain, M., & Wise, R. (2000). Short test of semantic and phonological fluency: Normal performance, validity and test-retest reliability. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 39, 181–191. https://doi.org/10.1348/014466500163202
Hayes, A. F. (2018). Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis: A regression-based approach (2nd ed.). The Guilford Press.
Hofmann, W., Schmeichel, B. J., & Baddeley, A. D. (2012). Executive functions and self-regulation. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 16(3), 174–180. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2012.01.006
Jacob, R., & Parkinson, J. (2015). The potential for school-based interventions that target executive function to improve academic achievement: A review. Review of Educational Research, 85(4), 512–552. https://doi.org/10.3102/0034654314561338
Kieffer, M. J., Vukovic, R. K., & Berry, D. (2013). Roles of attention shifting and inhibitory control in fourth-grade reading comprehension. Reading Research Quarterly, 48, 333–348. https://doi.org/10.1002/rrq.54
Kintsch, W. (1988). The role of knowledge in discourse comprehension: A construction-integration model. Psychological Review, 95(2), 163–182. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0166-4115(08)61551-4
Kline, R. B. (2011). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling (3rd ed.). The Guilford Press.
Kopatich, R. D., Magliano, J. P., Millis, K. K., Parker, C. P., & Ray, M. (2019). Understanding how language-specific and domain-general resources support comprehension. Discourse Processes, 56(7), 530–552. https://doi.org/10.1080/0163853X.2018.1519358
Latzman, R. D., Elkovitch, N., Young, J., & Clark, L. A. (2010). The contribution of executive functioning to academic achievement among male adolescents. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 32, 455–462. https://doi.org/10.1080/13803390903164363
Li, C. H. (2014). The performance of MLR, USLMV, and WLSMV estimation in structural regression models with ordinal variables (Doctoral dissertation, Michigan State University). Retrieved from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Database.
Lischetzke, T. (2014). Daily diary methodology. In A. C. Michalos (Ed.), Encyclopedia of quality of life and well-being research (pp. 1413–1419). Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-0753-5
List, A. (2020). Investigating the cognitive affective engagement model of learning from multiple texts: A structural equation modeling approach. Reading Research Quarterly, 56, 781–817. https://doi.org/10.1002/rrq.361
List, A., & Alexander, P. A. (2017a). Analyzing and integrating models of multiple text comprehension. Educational Psychologist, 52(3), 143–147. https://doi.org/10.1080/00461520.2017.1328309
List, A., & Alexander, P. A. (2017b). Cognitive affective engagement model of multiple source use. Educational Psychologist, 52(3), 182–199. https://doi.org/10.1080/00461520.2017.1329014
List, A., & Alexander, P. A. (2019). Toward an integrated framework of multiple text use. Educational Psychologist, 54(1), 20–39. https://doi.org/10.1080/00461520.2018.1505514
List, A., Du, H., & Lee, H. Y. (2019). Examining relation formation across consistent and conflicting texts. Discourse Processes, 58, 134–154. https://doi.org/10.1080/0163853X.2020.1834328
Lund, E. S., Bråten, I., Brandmo, C., Brante, E. W., & Strømsø, H. I. (2019). Direct and indirect effects of textual and individual factors on source-content integration when reading about a socio-scientific issue. Reading and Writing, 32(2), 335–356. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11145-018-9868-z
Magliano, J. P., Millis, K. K., Ozurur, Y., & McNamara, D. S. (2007). A multidimensional framework to evaluate assessment tools. In D. S. McNamara (Ed.), Reading comprehension strategies: Theories, interventions, and technologies (pp. 107–136). Erlbaum.
Magliano, J. P., Higgs, K., Santuzzi, A., Tonks, S. M., O’Reilly, T., Sabatini, J., Feller, D., Kopatich, R. D., Ray, M., & Parker, C. (2020). Testing the inference mediation hypothesis in a post-secondary context. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 61, 101867. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cedpsych.2020.101867
Maier, J., & Richter, T. (2013). Text belief consistency effects in the comprehension of multiple texts with conflicting information. Cognition and Instruction, 31(2), 151–175. https://doi.org/10.1080/07370008.2013.769997
Maier, J., & Richter, T. (2014). Fostering multiple text comprehension: How metacognitive strategies and motivation moderate the text-belief consistency effect. Metacognition and Learning, 9(1), 51–74. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11409-013-9111-x
Martinussen, R., & Mackenzie, G. (2015). Reading comprehension in adolescents with ADHD: Exploring the poor comprehender profile and individual differences in vocabulary and executive functions. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 38, 329–337. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ridd.2014.12.007
McNamara, D. S. (2020). If integration is the keystone of comprehension: Inferencing is the key. Discourse Processes. https://doi.org/10.1080/0163853X.2020.1788323
McNamara, D. S., & Magliano, J. P. (2009). Towards a comprehensive model of comprehension. In B. Ross (Ed.), The psychology of learning and motivation. Vol. 51. The psychology of learning and motivation (pp. 297–384). Elsevier Science.
Miller, A. C., Davis, N., Gilbert, J. K., Cho, S. J., Toste, J. R., Street, J., & Cutting, L. E. (2014). Novel approaches to examine passage, student, and question effects on reading comprehension. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 29(1), 25–35. https://doi.org/10.1111/ldrp.12027
Miyake, A., Friedman, N. P., Emerson, M. J., Witzki, A. H., Howerter, A., & Wager, T. D. (2000). The unity and diversity of executive functions and their contributions to complex “frontal lobe” tasks: A latent variable analysis. Cognitive Psychology, 41(1), 49–100. https://doi.org/10.1006/cogp.1999.0734
Miyake, A., & Friedman, N. P. (2012). The nature and organization of individual differences in executive functions: Four general conclusions. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 21(1), 8–14. https://doi.org/10.1177/0963721411429458
Murphy, P. K., Rowe, M. L., Ramani, G., & Silverman, R. (2014). Promoting critical-analytic thinking in children and adolescents at home and in school. Educational Psychology Review, 26(4), 561–578.
Muthén, B. O., & Muthén, L. K. (2017). Software Mplus version 8.
Perfetti, C. A., Rouet, J.-F., & Britt, M. A. (1999). Toward a theory of documents representation. In H. van Oostendorp & S. R. Goldman (Eds.), The construction of mental representations during reading (pp. 99–122). Erlbaum.
Pintrich, P. R., & De Groot, E. V. (1990). Motivational and self-regulated learning components of classroom academic performance. Journal of educational psychology, 82(1), 33.
Pintrich, P. R., Smith, D. A. F., Garcia, T., & McKeachie, W. J. (1991). A manual for the use of the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ). University of Michigan, National Center for Research to Improve Postsecondary Teaching and Learning.
Richter, T., & Maier, J. (2017). Comprehension of multiple documents with conflicting information: A two-step model of validation. Educational Psychologist, 52(3), 148–166. https://doi.org/10.1080/00461520.2017.1322968
Roebers, C. M. (2017). Executive function and metacognition: Towards a unifying framework of cognitive self-regulation. Developmental Review, 45, 31–51. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dr.2017.04.001
Royer, J. M., Greene, B. A., & Sinatra, G. M. (1987). The sentence verification technique: A practical procedure for testing comprehension. Journal of Reading, 30(5), 414–422.
Rouet, J. F., & Britt, M. A. (2011). Relevance processing in multiple document comprehension. In M. T. McCrudden, J. P. Magliano, & G. Schraw (Eds.), Text relevance and learning from text (pp. 19–52). Information Age.
Rouet, J. F., Britt, M. A., & Durik, A. M. (2017). RESOLV: Readers’ representation of reading contexts and tasks. Educational Psychologist, 52(3), 200–215. https://doi.org/10.1080/00461520.2017.1329015
Schraw, G., & Dennison, R. S. (1994). Assessing metacognitive awareness. Contemporary educational psychology, 19(4), 460–475.
Schraw, G., & Moshman, D. (1995). Metacognitive theories. Educational Psychology Review, 7(4), 351–371.
Sinatra, G. M., & Lombardi, D. (2020). Evaluating sources of scientific evidence and claims in the post-truth era may require reappraising plausibility judgments. Educational Psychologist. https://doi.org/10.1080/00461520.2020.1730181
Smith, B. L., Holliday, W. G., & Austin, H. W. (2010). Students’ comprehension of science textbooks using a question-based reading strategy. Journal of Research in Science Teaching: THe Official Journal of the National Association for Research in Science Teaching, 47(4), 363–379. https://doi.org/10.1002/tea.20378
Spinella, M. (2005). Self-rated executive function: Development of the executive function index. International Journal of Neuroscience, 115(5), 649–667.
Stadtler, M., & Bromme, R. (2007). Dealing with multiple documents on the WWW: The role of metacognition in the formation of documents models. Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning, 2, 191–210. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11412-007-9015-3
Strømsø, H. I., Bråten, I., & Samuelstuen, M. S. (2003). Students’ strategic use of multiple sources during expository text reading: A longitudinal think-aloud study. Cognition and Instruction, 21(2), 113–147. https://doi.org/10.1207/S1532690XCI2102_01
Strømsø, H. I., Bråten, I., & Samuelstuen, M. S. (2008). Dimensions of topic-specific epistemological beliefs as predictors of multiple text understanding. Learning and Instruction, 18(6), 513–527. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.learninstruc.2007.11.001
Swanson, H. L. (2011). Working memory, attention, and mathematical problem solving: A longitudinal study of elementary school children. Journal of Educational Psychology, 103, 821–837. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0025114
Weinstein, C. E., Acee, T. W., Jung, J., & Dearman, J. K. (2011). Strategic and self-regulated learning for the 21st century: The merging of skill, will and self-regulation. In B. Morrison (Ed.), Independent language learning: Building on experience, seeking new perspectives (pp. 41–54). Hong Kong University Press.
Welsh, M., Friedman, S., & Spieker, S. (2006). Executive functions in developing children: Current conceptualizations and questions for the future. In K. McCartney & D. Phillips (Eds.), Blackwell handbook of early childhood development (pp. 167–187). Blackwell. https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470757703.ch9
Wineburg, S. S. (1991). Historical problem solving: A study of the cognitive processes used in the evaluation of documentary and pictorial evidence. Journal of educational Psychology, 83(1), 73.
Winkelmes, M. A., Bernacki, M., Butler, J., Zochowski, M., Golanics, J., & Weavil, K. H. (2016). A teaching intervention that increases underserved college students’ success. Peer Review, 18(1/2), 31–36.
Winne, P. H. (1996). A metacognitive view of individual differences in self-regulated learning. Learning and Individual Differences, 8(4), 327–353. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1041-6080(96)90022-9
Winne, P. H. (2017). The trajectory of scholarship about self-regulated learning. Teachers College Record, 119, 1–16.