Literacy development beyond early schooling: a 4-year follow-up study of Croatian

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to investigate literacy development beyond the early school years. We investigated mean-level and rank-order changes in two reading (word decoding speed and reading comprehension) and two spelling (word and pseudoword spelling accuracy) tasks during a 4-year period from beginning to the later grades of elementary school, and examined whether rank-order changes in literacy skills could be predicted from verbal working memory, phonological awareness, and morpho-syntactic awareness. The sample consisted of Croatian speaking children, poor (n = 50) and good (n = 61) readers. Croatian is a language with a highly transparent orthography but a rather complex grammar. Word decoding speed and word spelling accuracy improved significantly over the study period, word decoding speed more so among good than among poor readers, supporting the Matthew effect hypothesis. Literacy skills were moderately stable, with the highest stability coefficients obtained for word decoding speed, and the lowest for pseudoword spelling. The predictors of rank-order changes varied across literacy outcomes, but did not differ for poor and good readers. Morpho-syntactic awareness predicted rank-order development of all outcomes except for word spelling. Phonological awareness predicted rank-order development of reading comprehension and word spelling. Verbal working memory predicted rank-order development of word spelling only, and at a low level. The finding that the more language related cognitive variables, i.e., morpho-syntactic and phonological skills, were stronger predictors of literacy development than working memory, for both poor and good readers, suggests remedial focus on these more predictive variables.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1

References

  1. Aarnoutse, C., van Leeuwe, J., Voeten, M., & Oud, H. (2001). Development of decoding, reading comprehension, vocabulary and spelling during the elementary school years. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 14, 61–89. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1008128417862.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Adlof, S. M., Catts, H. W., & Lee, J. (2010). Kindergarten predictors of second versus eighth grade reading comprehension impairments. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 43, 332–345. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022219410369067.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Ajdukovic, M., & Kolesaric, V. (2003). Eticki kodeks istrazivanja s djecom [Code of research with children ethics]. Zagreb: Vijece za djecu Vlade Republike Hrvatske i Drzavni zavod za zastitu obitelji, materinstva i mladezi.

  4. Aro, M., & Wimmer, H. (2003). Learning to read: English in comparison to six more regular orthographies. Applied Psycholinguistics, 24, 621–635. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0142716403000316.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Barbosa, T., Miranda, M. C., Santos, R. F., & Bueno, O. F. A. (2009). Phonological working memory, phonological awareness and language in literacy difficulties in Brazilian children. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 22, 201–218. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11145-007-9109-3.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Bast, J., & Reitsma, P. (1998). Analyzing the development of individual differences in terms of Matthew effects in reading: Results from a Dutch longitudinal study. Developmental Psychology, 34, 1373–1399. https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.34.6.1373.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Bourassa, D. C., & Treiman, R. (2001). Spelling development and disability: The importance of linguistic factors. Language, Speech & Hearing Services in Schools, 32, 172–181. https://doi.org/10.1044/0161-1461(2001/016).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Cain, K., Oakhill, J., & Bryant, P. E. (2004). Children’s reading comprehension ability: Concurrent prediction by working memory, verbal ability, and component skills. Journal of Educational Psychology, 96, 31–42. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.96.1.31.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Caravolas, M., Lervåg, A., Defior, S., Seidlová Málková, G., & Hulme, C. (2013). Different patterns, but equivalent predictors, of growth in reading in consistent and inconsistent orthographies. Psychological Science, 24, 1398–1407. https://doi.org/10.1177/0956797612473122.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Caravolas, M., Volin, J., & Hulme, C. (2005). Phonological awareness is a key component of alphabetic literacy skills in consistent and inconsistent orthographies: Evidence from Czech and English children. Journal of Experimental Child Psyhology, 92, 107–139. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jecp.2005.04.003.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Caspi, A., Roberts, B. W., & Shiner, R. L. (2005). Personality development: Stability and change. Annual Review of Psychology, 56, 453–484. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.55.090902.141913.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Catts, H. W., Fey, M. E., Zhang, X., & Tomblin, J. B. (1999). Language basis of reading and reading disabilities: Evidence from a longitudinal study. Scientific Studies of Reading, 3, 331–361. https://doi.org/10.1207/s1532799xssr0304_2.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Catts, H. W., Gillispie, M., Leonard, L. B., Kail, R. V., & Miller, C. A. (2002). The role of speed of processing, rapid naming, and phonological awareness in reading achievement. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 35, 509–524. https://doi.org/10.1177/00222194020350060301.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Compton, D. L., Fuchs, L. S., Fuchs, D., Lambert, W., & Hamlett, C. (2012). The cognitive and academic profiles of reading and mathematics learning disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 45, 79–95. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022219410393012.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Ehri, L. C. (1997). Learning to read and learning to spell are one and the same, almost. In C. A. Perfetti, L. Rieben, & M. Fayol (Eds.), Learning to spell: Research, theory, and practice across languages (pp. 237–269). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

    Google Scholar 

  16. Ehri, L. C. (2002). Phases of acquisition in learning to read words and implications for teaching. In R. Stainthorp & P. Tomlinson (Eds.), Learning and teaching reading (pp. 7–28). London: British Journal of Educational Psychology Monograph Series II.

    Google Scholar 

  17. Ehri, L. C. (2005). Development of sight word reading: Phases and findings. In M. J. Snowling & C. J. Hulme (Eds.), The science of reading: A handbook (pp. 135–154). Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.

    Google Scholar 

  18. Eklund, K., Torppa, M., Aro, M., Leppänen, P. H. T., & Lyytinen, H. (2015). Literacy skill development of children with familial risk for dyslexia through grades 2, 3, and 8. Journal of Educational Psychology, 107, 126–140. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0037121.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Etmanskie, J., Partanen, M., & Siegel, L. S. (2014). A longitudinal examination of the persistence of late emerging reading disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 49, 21–35. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022219414522706.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Farnia, F., & Geva, E. (2013). Growth and predictors of change in English language learners’ reading comprehension. Journal of Research in Reading, 36, 389–421. https://doi.org/10.1111/jrir.12003.

    Google Scholar 

  21. Frost, R. (2005). Orthographic systems and skilled word recognition processes in reading. In M. J. Snowling & C. J. Hulme (Eds.), The science of reading: A handbook (pp. 272–295). Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.

    Google Scholar 

  22. Furnes, B., & Samuelsson, S. (2010). Predicting reading and spelling difficulties in transparent and opaque orthographies: A comparison between Scandinavian and US/Australian children. Dyslexia, 16, 119–142. https://doi.org/10.1002/dys.401.

    Google Scholar 

  23. Galletly, S. A., Knight, B. A., Dekkers, J., & Galletly, T. A. (2009). Indicators of late emerging reading-accuracy difficulties in Australian schools. Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 34, 54–64. https://doi.org/10.14221/ajte.2009v34n5.5.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Georgiou, G. K., Parrila, R., & Papadopoulos, T. C. (2008). Predictors of word decoding and reading fluency across languages varying in orthographic consistency. Journal of Educational Psychology, 100, 566–580. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.100.3.566.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Gough, P. B., & Tunmer, W. E. (1986). Decoding, reading, and reading disability. Remedial and Special Education, 7, 6–10. https://doi.org/10.1177/074193258600700104.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Hoover, W. A., & Gough, P. B. (1990). The simple view of reading. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 2, 127–160. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00401799.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. Indrisano, R., & Chall, J. S. (1995). Literacy development. Journal of Education, 177, 63–83. https://doi.org/10.1177/002205749517700104.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. Jacobson, C. (2001). Manual till Ordkedjetestet [The Wordchains test Manual]. Sockholm: Psykologiförlaget.

    Google Scholar 

  29. Klicpera, C., & Schabmann, A. (1993). Do German-speaking children have a chance to overcome reading and spelling difficulties? A longitudinal survey from the second until the eighth grade. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 8, 307–323. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03174084.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  30. Kwong, T. E., & Brachman, K. J. (2014). Strategy choice mediates the link between auditory processing and spelling. PLoS ONE, 9(9), e107131. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0107131.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  31. Landerl, K., Ramus, F., Moll, K., Lyytinen, H., Leppänen, P. H. T., Lohvansuu, K., …, & Schulte-Körne, G. (2013). Predictors of developmental dyslexia in European orthographies with varying complexity. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 54, 686–694. https://doi.org/10.1111/jcpp.12029.

  32. Landerl, K., & Wimmer, H. (2008). Development of word reading fluency and spelling in a consistent orthography: An 8-year follow-up. Journal of Educational Psychology, 100, 150–161. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.100.1.150.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  33. Langston, K., & Peti-Stantic, A. (2014). Language planning and national identity in Croatia. London: Palgrave MacMillan.

    Google Scholar 

  34. Leach, J. M., Scarborough, H. S., & Rescorla, L. (2003). Late-emerging reading disabilities. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95(2), 211–224. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.95.2.211.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  35. Lee, I. A., & Preacher, K. J. (2013). Calculation for the test of the difference between two dependent correlations with no variable in common [Computer software]. Available from http://quantpsy.org.

  36. Leppänen, U., Niemi, P., Aunola, K., & Nurmi, J.-E. (2004). Development of reading skills among preschool and primary school pupils. Reading Research Quarterly, 39, 72–93. https://doi.org/10.1598/RRQ.39.1.5.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  37. Lerner, R. M. (2002). Concepts and theories of human development (3rd ed.). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

    Google Scholar 

  38. Lervåg, A., Bråten, I., & Hulme, C. (2009). The cognitive and linguistic foundations of early reading development: A Norwegian latent variable longitudinal study. Developmental Psychology, 45, 764–781. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0014132.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  39. Lindeblad, E., Nilsson, S., Gustafson, S., & Svensson, I. (2016). Assistive technology as reading interventions for children with reading impairments with a one-year follow-up. Disability and Rehabilitation: Assistive Technology, 12, 713–724. https://doi.org/10.1080/17483107.2016.1253116.

    Google Scholar 

  40. Lundberg, I. (2001). Vilken bild är rätt? [Which picture is the correct one?]. Stockholm: Natur och Kultur.

    Google Scholar 

  41. Lundberg, I., & Reichenberg, M. (2013). Developing reading comprehension among students with mild intellectual disabilities: An intervention study. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 57, 89–100. https://doi.org/10.1080/00313831.2011.623179.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  42. Lundberg, I., & Sterner, G. (2006). Reading, arithmetic, and task orientation—How are they related? Annals of Dyslexia, 56, 361–377. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11881-006-0016-0.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  43. Melby-Lervåg, M., & Hulme, C. (2013). Is working memory training effective? A meta-analytic review. Developmental Psychology, 49, 270–291. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0028228.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  44. Moll, K., Ramus, F., Bartling, J., Bruder, J., Kunze, S., Neuhoff, N., … & Landerl, K. (2014). Cognitive mechanisms underlying reading and spelling development in five European orthographies. Learning and Instruction, 29, 65–77. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.learninstruc.2013.09.003.

  45. Muter, V., Hulme, C., Snowling, M., & Stevenson, J. (2004). Phonemes, rimes, vocabulary, and grammatical skills as foundations of early reading development: Evidence from a longitudinal study. Developmental Psychology, 40, 665–681. https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.40.5.665.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  46. Parrila, R., Aunola, K., Leskinen, E., Nurmi, J.-E., & Kirby, J. R. (2005). Development of individual differences in reading: Results from longitudinal studies in English and Finnish. Journal of Educational Psychology, 97, 299–319. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.97.3.299.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  47. Partanen, M., & Siegel, L. S. (2014). Long-term outcome of the early identification and intervention of reading disabilities. Reading & Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 27, 665–684. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11145-013-9472-1.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  48. Patel, T. K., Snowling, M. J., & de Jong, P. F. (2004). A cross-linguistic comparison of children learning to read in English and Dutch. Journal of Educational Psychology, 96, 785–797. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.96.4.785.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  49. Perry, C., & Ziegler, J. C. (2004). Beyond the two-strategy model of skilled spelling: Effects of consistency, grain size, and orthographic redundancy. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology A, Human Experimental Psychology, 57, 325–356. https://doi.org/10.1080/02724980343000323.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  50. Peti-Stantic, A. (2014). Informativity of the sentence information structure: Word order. In A. Peti-Stantic & M. M. Stanojevic (Eds.), Language as information. Proceedings from the CALS Conference 2012 (pp. 155–178). Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang.

    Google Scholar 

  51. Peti-Stantic, A. (2015). How much grammar is needed in lexicon? In M. Smolej (Ed.), Slovnica in slovar: Aktualni jezikovni opis [Grammar and Dictionary: Current language description] (pp. 569–577). Ljubljana: Center za slovenscino kot drugi/tuji jezik, Filozofska fakulteta v Ljubljani.

    Google Scholar 

  52. Pfost, M., Dörfler, T., & Artelt, C. (2012). Reading competence development of poor readers in a German elementary school sample: An empirical examination of the Matthew effect model. Journal of Research in Reading, 35, 411–426. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9817.2010.01478.x.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  53. Phillips, L. M., Norris, S. P., Osmond, W. C., & Maynard, A. M. (2002). Relative reading achievement: A longitudinal study of 187 children from first through sixth grades. Journal of Educational Psychology, 94, 3–13. https://doi.org/10.1037//0022-0663.94.1.3.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  54. Plaza, M. (2001). The interaction between phonological processing, syntactic awareness and reading: A longitudinal study from kindergarten to grade 1. First Language, 21, 3–24. https://doi.org/10.1177/014272370102106101.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  55. Plaza, M., & Cohen, H. (2003). The interaction between phonological processing, syntactic awareness, and naming speed in the reading and spelling performance of first-grade children. Brain and Cognition, 53, 287–292. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0278-2626(03)00128-3.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  56. Rau, A. K., Moeller, K., & Landerl, K. (2014). The transition from sublexical to lexical processing in a consistent orthography: An eye-tracking study. Scientific Studies of Reading, 18, 224–233. https://doi.org/10.1080/10888438.2013.857673.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  57. Roncevic Zubkovic, B. (2011). Vjestina citanja u ranoj adolescenciji: Profili ucenika [Reading skill in early adolescence: Student profiles]. Drustvena istrazivanja, 20, 189–210. https://doi.org/10.5559/di.20.1.10.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  58. Rosner, J., & Simon, P. D. (1971). The auditory analysis test: An initial report. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 4, 384–392. https://doi.org/10.1177/002221947100400706.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  59. Rutter, M. (1987). Continuities and discontinuities from infancy. In J. Osofsky (Ed.), Handbook of infancy (2nd ed., pp. 1256–1296). New York: Wiley.

    Google Scholar 

  60. Scarborough, H. S. (2001). Connecting early language and literacy to later reading (dis)abilities: Evidence, theory, and practice. In S. Neuman & D. Dickinson (Eds.), Handbook for research in early literacy (pp. 97–110). New York: Guilford Press.

    Google Scholar 

  61. Scarborough, H. S., & Parker, J. D. (2003). Matthew effects in children with learning disabilities: Development of reading, IQ, and psychosocial problems from grade 2 to grade 8. Annals of Dyslexia, 53, 47–71. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11881-003-0004-6.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  62. Seymour, P. H. K., Aro, M., & Erskine, J. M. (2003). Foundation literacy acquisition in European orthographies. British Journal of Psychology, 94, 143–174. https://doi.org/10.1348/000712603321661859.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  63. Share, D. L. (2008). On the Anglocentricities of current reading research and practice: The perils of overreliance on an “outlier” orthography. Psychological Bulletin, 134, 584–615. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.134.4.584.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  64. Share, D. L., & Leikin, M. (2004). Language impairment at school entry and later reading disability: Connections at lexical versus supralexical levels of reading. Scientific Studies of Reading, 8, 87–110. https://doi.org/10.1207/s1532799xssr0801_5.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  65. Shaywitz, B. A., Holford, T. R., Holahan, J. M., Fletcher, J. M., Stuebing, K. K., Francis, D. J., et al. (1995). A Matthew effect for IQ but not for reading: Results from a longitudinal study. Reading Research Quarterly, 30, 894–906. https://doi.org/10.2307/748203.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  66. Siegel, L. S., & Ryan, E. B. (1988). Development of grammatical-sensitivity, phonological, and short-term memory skills in normally achieving and learning disabled children. Developmental Psychology, 24, 28–37. https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.24.1.28.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  67. Siegel, L. S., & Ryan, E. B. (1989a). The development of working memory in normally achieving and subtypes of learning disabled children. Child Development, 60, 973–980. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.1989.tb03528.x.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  68. Siegel, L. S., & Ryan, E. B. (1989b). Subtypes of developmental dyslexia: The influence of definitional variables. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 1, 257–287. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00377646.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  69. Snowling, M. J., Muter, V., & Carroll, J. (2007). Children at family risk of dyslexia: A follow-up in early adolescence. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 48, 609–618. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2006.01725.x.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  70. Stanovich, K. E. (1986). Matthew effects in reading: Some consequences of individual differences in the acquisition of literacy. Reading Research Quarterly, 21, 360–407. https://doi.org/10.1598/RRQ.21.4.1.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  71. Storch, S. A., & Whitehurst, G. J. (2002). Oral language and code-related precursors to reading: Evidence from a longitudinal structural model. Developmental Psychology, 38, 934–947. https://doi.org/10.1037//0012-1649.38.6.934.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  72. Swanson, H. L., & Alexander, J. (1997). Cognitive processes as predictors of word recognition and reading comprehension in learning disabled and skilled readers: Revisiting the specificity hypothesis. Journal of Educational Psychology, 89, 128–158. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.89.1.128.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  73. Swanson, H. L., & Howell, M. (2001). Working memory, short-term memory, and speech rate as predictors of children’s reading performance at different ages. Journal of Educational Psychology, 93, 720–734. https://doi.org/10.1037//0022-0663.93.4.720.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  74. Swanson, H. L., Zheng, X., & Jerman, O. (2009). Working memory, short-term memory, and reading disabilities: A selective meta-analysis of the literature. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 42, 260–287. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022219409331958.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  75. Tabachnick, G. B., & Fidell, L. (2001). Using multivariate statistics (5th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson.

    Google Scholar 

  76. Tilanus, E. A. T., Segers, E., & Verhoeven, L. (2013). Diagnostic profiles of children with developmental dyslexia in a transparent orthography. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 34, 4194–4202. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ridd.2013.08.039.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  77. Tong, X., Tong, X., Shu, H., Chan, S., & McBride-Chang, C. (2014). Discourse-level reading comprehension in Chinese children: What is the role of syntactic awareness? Journal of Research in Reading, 37(S1), S48–S70. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9817.12016.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  78. Treiman, R., & Kessler, B. (2005). Writing systems and spelling development. In M. J. Snowling & C. J. Hulme (Eds.), The science of reading: A handbook (pp. 120–134). Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.

    Google Scholar 

  79. Vaessen, A., & Blomert, L. (2010). Long-term cognitive dynamics of fluent reading development. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 105, 213–231. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jecp.2009.11.005.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  80. Vaessen, A., & Blomert, L. (2013). The cognitive linkage and divergence of spelling and reading development. Scientific Studies of Reading, 17, 89–107. https://doi.org/10.1080/10888438.2011.614665.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  81. Vellutino, F. R., Fletcher, J. M., Snowling, J. M., & Scanlon, D. M. (2004). Specific reading disability (dyslexia): What have we learned in the past four decades? Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 45, 2–40. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.0021-9630.2003.00305.x.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  82. Willows, D. M., & Ryan, E. B. (1981). Differential utilization of syntactic and semantic information by skilled and less skilled readers in the intermediate grades. Journal of Educational Psychology, 73, 607–615. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.73.5.607.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  83. Zaretsky, E., Kuvac Kraljevic, J., Core, C., & Lencek, M. (2009). Literacy predictors and early reading and spelling skills as a factor of orthography: Cross-linguistic evidence. Written Language and Literacy, 12, 52–81. https://doi.org/10.1075/wll.12.1.03zar.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  84. Zentall, S. S., & Lee, J. (2012). A reading motivation intervention with differential outcomes for students at risk for reading disabilities, ADHD, and typical comparisons: “Clever is and clever does”. Learning Disability Quarterly, 35, 248–259. https://doi.org/10.1177/0731948712438556.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank all the children who participated in the study, as well as their parents. We are also grateful to Edita Ilijašević, Kristina Kos, Nataša Lalić, Irena Rasonja, Melanija Slaviček, Silva Strnad-Jerbić, and Tanja Subotičanec, school psychologists, Maja Brozičević and Mirjana Ugarković, graduate psychology students who helped in data collection, and Julie Kim who helped in the data analysis.

Funding

The study was financed by a Grant from the Swedish Research Council, Award Number 421-2006-2318, and the Sten A Olsson Foundation for Research and Culture (date of approval December 17th, 2010).

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Gordana Keresteš.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Keresteš, G., Brkovic, I., Siegel, L.S. et al. Literacy development beyond early schooling: a 4-year follow-up study of Croatian. Read Writ 32, 1955–1988 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11145-018-9931-9

Download citation

Keywords

  • Reading
  • Spelling
  • Transparent orthography
  • Predictors
  • Later stages of literacy development