Reading and Writing

, Volume 32, Issue 5, pp 1175–1195 | Cite as

Multimedia-assisted self-learning materials: the benefits of E-flashcards for vocabulary learning in Chinese as a foreign language

  • Jui-Teng LiEmail author
  • Fuhui Tong


In this study, we examined the effects of E-flashcards and paper flashcards on Chinese vocabulary learning and learning attitudes among students learning Chinese as a foreign language. One hundred fourth and fifth grade English-speaking students participated in two groups, E-flashcards (n = 50) and paper flashcards (n = 50), to learn 20 new Chinese words. E-flashcards (or digital flashcards through students’ iPads) incorporate multimedia resources with comprehensive visual, verbal, and audio inputs while the paper flashcards provide only visual and verbal inputs. Results revealed that students who used E-flashcards statistically outperformed those who used paper flashcards on immediate post-tests of Chinese word reading and listening, as well as on 1-week delayed listening test. In addition, students who used E-flashcards demonstrated more positive learning attitudes toward Chinese word learning than those who used paper flashcards. Such findings support the audio application of multimedia on Chinese word recognition among novice Chinese language learners as an effective pedagogical approach. Instructional implications are discussed.


Chinese as a foreign language (CFL) Vocabulary learning Multimedia aids Learning attitudes E-flashcards 


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© Springer Nature B.V. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Educational PsychologyTexas A&M UniversityCollege StationUSA

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