Reading and Writing

, Volume 31, Issue 1, pp 133–153 | Cite as

A longitudinal investigation of direct and indirect links between reading skills in kindergarten and reading comprehension in tenth grade

  • Christopher T. StanleyEmail author
  • Yaacov Petscher
  • Hugh Catts


In this study, researchers examined the extent to which several fundamental measures of reading proficiency from kindergarten students (N = 3180) were linked to reading comprehension in tenth grade while controlling for third grade vocabulary and oral reading fluency. Analyses tested the direct and indirect relations between and among kindergarten, third grade, and tenth grade measures. Results showed significant direct effects from kindergarten nonsense word fluency and letter naming fluency to tenth grade reading comprehension, along with significant indirect effects of kindergarten nonsense word fluency and vocabulary to tenth grade reading comprehension. Findings suggest that fundamental precursors maintain strong impact upon reading comprehension into the secondary school years. These findings are discussed along with implications for interventions and ideas for future research.


Reading comprehension Reading development Early prediction Simple view 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christopher T. Stanley
    • 1
    Email author
  • Yaacov Petscher
    • 1
  • Hugh Catts
    • 2
  1. 1.Florida Center for Reading ResearchFlorida State UniversityTallahasseeUSA
  2. 2.Florida State UniversityTallahasseeUSA

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