Understanding the efficacy of evidence-based reading practices delivered in the Tier 1 (i.e. general classroom) setting is critical to successful implementation of multi-tiered systems, meeting a diverse range of student learning needs, and providing high quality reading instruction across content areas. This meta-analysis presents evidence on the effects of Tier 1 reading instruction on the reading outcomes of students in Grades 4–12, and a synthesis of effects for students identified as struggling readers. Results from this meta-analysis of 37 publications conducted between 2000 and 2015 reveal significant, positive effects for Tier 1 reading instruction on comprehension and vocabulary outcomes. A synthesis of the results for struggling readers indicates that they maintained or improved reading comprehension over struggling readers receiving typical instruction.
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The research reported here was supported by the Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education, through Grant R305A150407 to The University of Texas at Austin. The opinions expressed are those of the authors and do not represent views of the Institute or the U.S. Department of Education.
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Swanson, E., Stevens, E.A., Scammacca, N.K. et al. The impact of tier 1 reading instruction on reading outcomes for students in Grades 4–12: A meta-analysis. Read Writ 30, 1639–1665 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11145-017-9743-3
- Tier 1
- Response to intervention
- Reading instruction