Reading and Writing

, Volume 30, Issue 3, pp 613–629 | Cite as

Viewing a phonological deficit within a multifactorial model of dyslexia

  • Hugh W. Catts
  • Autumn McIlraith
  • Mindy Sittner Bridges
  • Diane Corcoran Nielsen
Article

Abstract

Participants were administered multiple measures of phonological awareness, oral language, and rapid automatized naming at the beginning of kindergarten and multiple measures of word reading at the end of second grade. A structural equation model was fit to the data and latent scores were used to identify children with a deficit in phonological awareness alone or in combination with other kindergarten deficits. Children with a deficit in phonological awareness in kindergarten were found to be five times more likely to have dyslexia in second grade than children without such a deficit. This risk ratio substantially increased with the addition of deficits in both oral language and rapid naming. Whereas children with one or more kindergarten deficits were at heighten risk for dyslexia, some of these children were found to be adequate or better readers. These results are discussed within a multifactorial model of dyslexia that includes both risk and protective factors.

Keywords

Dyslexia Multifactorial model Phonological deficit Early identification 

References

  1. Bishop, D. V., McDonald, D., Bird, S., & Hayiou-Thomas, M. E. (2009). Children who read words accurately despite language impairment: Who are they and how do they do it? Child Development, 80, 593–605.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Boets, B., De Smedt, B., Cleuren, L., Vandewalle, E., Wouters, J., & Ghesquiere, P. (2010). Towards a further characterization of phonological and literacy problems in Dutch-speaking children with dyslexia. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 28, 5–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bridges, M., & Catts, H. W. (2010). Dynamic Screening of Phonological Awareness. East Moline, IL: LinguiSystems.Google Scholar
  4. Catts, H. W., & Adlof, S. M. (2011). Phonological and other deficits associated with dyslexia. In S. Brady, D. Blaze, & A. Fowler (Eds.), Explaining individual differences in reading: Theory and evidence (pp. 137–152). New York, NY: Taylor & Frances.Google Scholar
  5. Catts, H. W., Adlof, S. M., Hogan, T. P., & Weismer, S. E. (2005). Are specific language impairment and dyslexia distinct disorders? Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 48, 1378–1396.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Catts, H. W., Fey, M. E., Tomblin, J. B., & Zhang, Z. (2002). A longitudinal investigation of reading outcomes in children with language impairments. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 45, 1142–1157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Catts, H. W., Fey, M. E., Zhang, X., & Tomblin, J. B. (1999). Language basis of reading and reading disabilities: Evidence from a longitudinal investigation. Scientific Studies of Reading, 3, 331–361.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Catts, H. W., Nielsen, D., Bridges, M., Bontempo, D., & Liu, Y. (2015). Early identification of reading disabilities within an RTI framework. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 48, 281–297.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Denckla, M. B., & Rudel, R. G. (1976). Rapid ‘automatized’ naming (R.A.N.): Dyslexia differentiated from other learning disabilities. Neuropsychologia, 14, 471–479.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Duckworth, A. L., Peterson, C., Matthews, M. D., & Kelly, D. R. (2007). Grit: Perseverance and passion for long-term goals. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 92, 1087–1101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Duckworth, A. L., & Seligman, M. E. (2005). Self-discipline outdoes IQ in predicting academic performance of adolescents. Psychological Science, 16, 939–944.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Dunn, L. M., & Dunn, L. M. (1997). Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Third Edition. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Services.Google Scholar
  13. Eklund, K. M., Torppa, M., & Lyytinen, H. (2013). Predicting reading disability: Early cognitive risk and protective factors. Dyslexia, 19, 1–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Elliott, J. G., & Grigorenko, E. L. (2014). The dyslexia debate. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Gillam, R. B., & Pearson, N. (2004). Test of Narrative Language. Austin, TX: Pro-Ed.Google Scholar
  16. Good, R. H., & Kaminski, R. A. (Eds.). (2002). Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (6th ed.). Eugene, OR: Institute for the Development of Educational Achievement.Google Scholar
  17. Harm, M. W., & Seidenberg, M. S. (1999). Phonology, reading acquisition, and dyslexia: Insights from connectionist models. Psychological Review, 106, 491–528.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hirvonen, R., Georgiou, G. K., Lerkkanen, M. K., Aunola, K., & Nurmi, J. E. (2010). Task-focused behaviour and literacy development: A reciprocal relationship. Journal of Research in Reading, 33, 302–319.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hu, L., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Evaluating model fit. In R. Hoyle (Ed.), Structural equation modeling: Concepts, issues, and applications (pp. 76–99). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage publications Inc.Google Scholar
  20. Kline, T. (2005). Psychological testing: A practical approach to design and evaluation. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publication Inc.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Liberman, I. Y., & Shankweiler, D. (1985). Phonology and the problems of learning to read and write. Remedial and Special Education, 6, 8–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Lyon, R., Shaywitz, S., & Shaywitz, B. (2003). A definition of dyslexia. Annals of Dyslexia, 53, 1–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Lyytinen, H., Erskine, J., Tovanen, A., Torppa, M., Poikkeus, A., & Lyytinen, P. (2006). Trajectories of reading development: A follow-up from birth to school age of children with and without risk for dyslexia. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 52, 514–546.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Lyytinen, P., Poikkeus, A. M., Laakso, M. L., Eklund, K., & Lyytinen, H. (2001). Language development and symbolic play in children with and without familial risk for dyslexia. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 44, 873–885.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. McGrath, L. M., Pennington, B. F., Shanahan, M. A., Santerre-Lemmon, L. E., Barnard, H. D., Willcutt, E. G., et al. (2011). A multiple deficit model of reading disability and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Searching for shared cognitive deficits. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 52, 547–557.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Melby-Lervag, M., Lyster, S., & Hulme, C. (2012). Phonological skills and their role in learning to read: A meta-analytic review. Psychological Bulletin, 138, 322–352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Moll, K., Loff, A., & Snowling, M. J. (2013). Cognitive endophenotypes of dyslexia. Scientific Studies of Reading, 17, 385–397.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (1998–2011). Mplus user’s guide (6th ed.). Los Angeles, CA: Muthén & Muthén.Google Scholar
  29. No Child Left Behind Act of 2001. (2002). P.L. 107-110, 20 U.S.C. § 6319.Google Scholar
  30. Pennington, B. F. (2006). From single to multiple deficit models of developmental disorders. Cognition, 101, 385–413.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Pennington, B. F., Gilger, J. W., Pauls, D., Smith, S. A., Smith, S. D., & DeFries, J. C. (1991). Evidence for major gene transmission of developmental dyslexia. The Journal of the American Medical Association, 266, 1527–1534.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Pennington, B. F., Santerre-Lemmon, L., Rosenberg, J., MacDonald, B., Boada, R., Friend, A., et al. (2012). Individual prediction of dyslexia by single versus multiple deficit models. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 121, 212–224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Peterson, R. L., Pennington, B. F., Shiberg, L. D., & Boada, R. (2009). What influences literacy outcome in children with speech sound disorder? Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 52, 1175–1188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Puolakanaho, A., Ahonen, T., Aro, M., Eklund, K., Leppanen, P. H., Poikkeus, A. M., et al. (2007). Very early phonological and language skills: Estimating individual risk of reading disability. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 48, 923–931.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Ramus, F., Rosen, S., Dakin, S. C., Day, B. L., Castellote, J. M., White, S., et al. (2003). Theories of developmental dyslexia: Insights from a multiple case study of dyslexic adults. Brain, 126, 841–864.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Scarborough, H. S. (1990). Very early language deficits in dyslexic children. Child Development, 61, 1728–1743.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Schatschneider, C., Carlson, C. D., Francis, D. J., Foorman, B. R., & Fletcher, J. M. (2002). Relationship of rapid automatized naming and phonological awareness in early reading development: Implications for the double-deficit hypothesis. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 35, 245–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Seidenberg, M. S., & McClelland, J. L. (1989). A distributed, developmental model of word recognition and naming. Psychological Review, 96, 523–568.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Snowling, M. J. (2000). Dyslexia (2nd ed.). Malden: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  40. Snowling, M. J. (2008). Specific disorders and broader phenotypes: The case of dyslexia. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 61, 142–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Snowling, M. J., Gallagher, A., & Frith, U. (2003). Family risk of dyslexia is continuous: Individual differences in the precursors of reading skill. Child Development, 74, 358–373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Stanovich, K. E. (1988). Explaining the differences between the dyslexic and the garden-variety poor reader: The phonological-core variable-difference model. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 21, 590–604.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Stephenson, K. A., Parrila, R. K., Georgiou, G. K., & Kirby, J. R. (2008). Effects of home literacy, parents’ beliefs, and children’s task-focused behavior on emergent literacy and word reading skills. Scientific Studies of Reading, 12, 24–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Torgesen, J. K., Wagner, R. K., & Rashotte, C. A. (2011). Test of Word Reading Efficiency (2nd ed.). Austin, TX: PRO-ED.Google Scholar
  45. Torppa, M., Parrila, R., Niemi, P., Lerkkanen, M. K., Poikkeus, A. M., & Nurmi, J. E. (2013). The double deficit hypothesis in the transparent Finnish orthography: A longitudinal study from kindergarten to second grade. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 26, 1353–1380.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. van Bergen, E., de Jong, P. F., Maassen, B., & van der Leij, A. (2014a). The effect of parents’ literacy skills and children’s preliteracy skills on the risk of dyslexia. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 42(7), 1187–1200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. van Bergen, E., de Jong, P. F., Regtvoort, A., Oort, F., van Otterloo, S., & van der Leij, A. (2011). Dutch children at family risk of dyslexia: Precursors, reading development, and parental effects. Dyslexia, 17, 2–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. van Bergen, E., van der Leij, A., & de Jong, P. F. (2014b). The intergenerational multiple deficit model and the case of dyslexia. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 8, 346.Google Scholar
  49. Vellutino, F. R., Fletcher, J. M., Snowling, M. J., & Scanlon, D. M. (2004). Specific reading disability (dyslexia): What have we learned in the past four decades? Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 45, 2–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Vellutino, F. R., Scanlon, D. M., Zhang, H., & Schatschneider, C. (2008). Using response to kindergarten and first grade intervention to identify children at-risk for long-term reading difficulties. Reading & Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 21, 437–480.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Wagner, R. K., Torgesen, J. K., & Rashotte, C. A. (1999). Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processes. Austin, TX: Pro-Ed.Google Scholar
  52. Wolf, M., & Bowers, P. G. (1999). The double-deficit hypothesis for the developmental dyslexias. Journal of Educational Psychology, 91, 415–438.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Wood, F. B., Hill, D. F., Meyer, M. S., & Flowers, D. L. (2005). Predictive assessment of reading. Annals of Dyslexia, 55, 193–216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Woodcock, R. W. (1998). Woodcock-Reading Mastery Tests-Revised/Normative Update. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hugh W. Catts
    • 1
  • Autumn McIlraith
    • 1
  • Mindy Sittner Bridges
    • 2
  • Diane Corcoran Nielsen
    • 2
  1. 1.Florida State UniversityTallahasseeUSA
  2. 2.University of KansasLawrenceUSA

Personalised recommendations