Reading and Writing

, Volume 25, Issue 1, pp 251–281 | Cite as

The reading performance of English learners in grades 1–3: the role of initial status and growth on reading fluency in Spanish and English

Article

Abstract

The purposes of this study were to (a) examine the developmental patterns in pseudoword reading and oral reading fluency in Spanish and English for Spanish-speaking English learners (ELs) in grades 1–3, and (b) investigate whether initial status and growth rates in reading fluency in Spanish and English, significantly predicted reading comprehension within languages and across languages. Participants were 173 Spanish-speaking ELs in first grade, 156 ELs in second grade, and 142 ELs in third grade across four schools providing a paired bilingual reading program. Results of hierarchical linear modeling indicated different patterns of reading growth in Spanish and English across measures and across grades. ELs at the beginning of first grade had higher scores on pseudoword reading in Spanish than in English and had a higher rate of growth on Spanish pseudoword reading. In second and third grades, initial scores on oral reading fluency were comparable in both languages, but oral reading fluency growth rates were higher in English than in Spanish. Results from regression and path analysis indicated that student initial scores and growth on reading fluency were strong and direct predictors of their reading comprehension within the same language, but not across different languages.

Keywords

Biliteracy English learners Fluency Early reading Comprehension 

References

  1. August, D., & Hakuta, K. (1997). Improving schooling for language-minority children: A research agenda. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.Google Scholar
  2. Baker, D. L. (2005). Alternate-form reliability of IDEL Fluidez en la Lectura Oral. Unpublished raw data. Eugene, OR: University of Oregon.Google Scholar
  3. Baker, D. L., Good, R., Knutson, N., & Watson, J. M. (2006). Indicadores Dinámicos del Éxito en la Lectura (7a ed.). Eugene, OR: Dynamic Measurement Group.Google Scholar
  4. Baker, D. L., Good, R., Peyton, J., & Watson, J. (2004). Alternate form reliability of IDEL Fluidez en las Palabras sin Sentido (raw data). Eugene, OR: University of Oregon.Google Scholar
  5. Baker, D. L., Park, Y., & Baker, S. K. (in press). Effect of initial status and growth in pseudoword reading on Spanish reading comprehension at the end of first grade. Psicothema, 22(4), 955–962.Google Scholar
  6. Baker, S. K., & Baker, D. L. (2008). English language learners and response to intervention. In E. Grigorenko (Ed.), Educating individuals with disabilities: IDEA 2004, beyond (pp. 249–273). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  7. Baker, S. K., & Good, R. (1995). Curriculum-based measurement of English reading with bilingual Hispanic students: A validation study with second-grade students. School Psychology Review, 24(4), 561–579.Google Scholar
  8. Baker, S. K., Smolkowski, K., Katz, R., Fien, H., Seeley, J., & Beck, C. (2008). Reading fluency as a predictor of reading proficiency in low-performing, high-poverty schools. School Psychology Review, 37, 18–36.Google Scholar
  9. Baron, R., & Kenny, D. (1986). The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51(6), 1173–1182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Capps, R., Fix, M., Murray, J., Ost, J., & Passel, J. (2005). Immigration and the no child left behind act. Washington, DC: Urban Institute.Google Scholar
  11. Cárdenas-Hagan, E., Carlson, C., & Pollard-Durodola, S. D. (2007). The cross-linguistic transfer of early literacy skills: The role of initial L1 and L2 skills and language of instruction. Language Speech and Hearing Services in Schools, 38(3), 249–259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Carlisle, J. F., Beeman, M., Davis, L. H., & Spharim, G. (1999). Relationship of metalinguistic capabilities and reading achievement for children who are becoming bilingual. Applied Psycholinguistics, 20, 459–478.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cirino, P., Vaughn, S., Linan-Thompson, S., Cardenas-Hagan, E., Fletcher, J., & Francis, D. (2009). One-year follow-up outcomes of Spanish and English interventions for English language learners at risk for reading problems. American Educational Research Journal, 46(3), 744–781.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cisero, C., & Royer, J. (1995). The development and cross-language transfer of phonological awareness. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 20(3), 275–303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cohen, J., Cohen, P., West, S., & Aiken, L. (2003). Applied multiple regression/correlation analysis for the behavioral sciences. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  16. Crosson, A., & Lesaux, N. (2009). Revisiting assumptions about the relationship of fluent reading to comprehension: Spanish-speakers’ text-reading fluency in English. Reading and Writing, 23, 1–20.Google Scholar
  17. Cummins, J. (1981). The role of primary language development in promoting educational success for language minority students. In C. Leyba (Ed.), Schooling and language minority students: A theoretical framework (pp. 3–49). Los Angeles: Evaluation, Dissemination and Assessment Center, California State University.Google Scholar
  18. Cummins, J. (1991). Interdependence of first- and second language proficiency in bilingual children. In E. Bialystok (Ed.), Language processing in bilingual children (pp. 70–89). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Deno, S., Fuchs, L., Marston, D., & Shin, J. (2001). Using curriculum-based measurement to establish growth standards for students with learning disabilities. School Psychology Review, 30(4), 507–524.Google Scholar
  20. Deno, S., Mirkin, P., & Chiang, B. (1982). Identifying valid measures of reading. Exceptional Children, 49, 36–45.Google Scholar
  21. Dickinson, D., McCabe, A., Clark-Chiarelli, N., & Wolf, A. (2004). Cross-language transfer of phonological awareness in low-income Spanish and English bilingual preschool children. Applied Psycholinguistics, 25(03), 323–347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Dominguez De Ramírez, R., & Shapiro, E. (2006). Curriculum-based measurement and the evaluation of reading skills of Spanish-speaking English language learners in bilingual education classrooms. School Psychology Review, 35(3), 356–369.Google Scholar
  23. Dominguez De Ramírez, R., & Shapiro, E. (2007). Cross-language relationship between Spanish and English oral reading fluency among Spanish-speaking English language learners in bilingual education classrooms. Psychology in the Schools, 44(8), 795–806.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Durgunoglu, A., Nagy, W., & Hancin, B. (1993). Cross-language transfer of phonemic awareness. Journal of Educational Psychology, 85(3), 452–465.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Eccles, J., & Wigfield, A. (2002). Motivational beliefs, values, and goals. Annual Review of Psychology, 53(1), 109–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Ehri, L. (1995). Phases of development in learning to read words by sight. Journal of Research in Reading, 18, 116–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Ehri, L. (2006). Alphabetics instruction helps students learn to read. In M. Joshi & P. G. Aaron (Eds.), Handbook of orthography and literacy (pp. 649–677). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  28. Engelmann, S., & Bruner, E. (1995). Reading mastery. Chicago: Science Research Associates.Google Scholar
  29. Fien, H., Baker, S. K., Smolkowski, K., Smith, J., Kame’enui, E. J., & Beck, C. (2008). Using nonsense word fluency to predict reading proficiency in kindergarten through second grade for English learners and native English speakers. School Psychology Review, 37(3), 391–408.Google Scholar
  30. Fien, H., Park, Y., Baker, S. K., Smith, J. L., Stoolmiller, M., & Kame’enui, E. J. (in press). An examination of the relation of nonsense word fluency initial skill status and growth to reading outcomes for beginning readers. School Psychology Review.Google Scholar
  31. Francis, D. J., Lesaux, N., & August, D. (2006). Language of instruction. In D. August & T. Shanahan (Eds.), Developing literacy in second-language learners: Report of the National Literacy Panel on language-minority children and youth (pp. 365–414). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  32. Francis, D. J., Santi, K. L., Barr, C., Fletcher, J. M., Varisco, A., & Foorman, B. R. (2008). Form effects on the estimation of students’ oral reading fluency using DIBELS. Journal of School Psychology, 46, 315–342.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Fuchs, L., Deno, S., & Mirkin, P. (1984). The effects of frequent curriculum-based measurement and evaluation on pedagogy, student achievement, and student awareness of learning. American Educational Research Journal, 21(2), 449–460.Google Scholar
  34. Fuchs, L., Fuchs, D., Hamlett, C., Walz, L., & Germann, G. (1993). Formative evaluation of academic progress: How much growth can we expect? School Psychology Review, 22, 27.Google Scholar
  35. Fuchs, L., Fuchs, D., Hosp, M., & Jenkins, J. (2001). Oral reading fluency as an indicator of reading competence: A theoretical, empirical, and historical analysis. Scientific Studies of Reading, 5(3), 239–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Genesee, F., Geva, E., Dressler, C., & Kamil, M. L. (2006). Synthesis: Cross-linguistic relationships. In D. August & T. Shanahan (Eds.), Developing literacy in second-language learners: Report of the National Literacy Panel on language-minority children and youth (pp. 153–174). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  37. Gersten, R., & Baker, S. K. (2000a). The professional knowledge base on instructional interventions that support cognitive growth for English-language learners. In E. Schiller & S. Vaughn (Eds.), Contemporary special education research: Synthesis of the knowledge base on critical instructional issues (pp. 31–79). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  38. Gersten, R., & Baker, S. K. (2000b). What we know about effective instructional practices for English-language learners. Exceptional Children, 66(4), 454–471.Google Scholar
  39. Goldenberg, C. (2008). Teaching English language learners. American Educator, Summer, 8–23, 42–44.Google Scholar
  40. Good, R., Baker, S. K., & Peyton, J. (2009). Making sense of nonsense word fluency: Determining adequate progress in early first-grade reading. Reading & Writing Quarterly, 25, 33–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Good, R., & Kaminski, R. (2002). Dynamic indicators of basic early literacy skills. Eugene, OR: Institute for the Development of Educational Achievement.Google Scholar
  42. Good, R., Simmons, D. C., & Kame’enui, E. J. (2001). The importance and decision-making utility of a continuum of fluency-based indicators of foundational reading skills for third-grade high-stakes outcomes. Scientific Studies of Reading, 5, 257–288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Greene, J. (1997). A meta-analysis of the Rossell and Baker review of bilingual education research. Bilingual Research Journal, 21, 103–122.Google Scholar
  44. Guirao, M., & de Manrique, A. (1972). Fonemas, sílabas y palabras del español de Buenos Aires. Filologia, 16, 135–165.Google Scholar
  45. Guthrie, J., Wigfield, A., Metsala, J., & Cox, K. (1999). Motivational and cognitive predictors of text comprehension and reading amount. Scientific Studies of Reading, 3(3), 231–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Hamilton, B. E., Martin, J. A., & Ventura, S. J. (2009). Births: Preliminary data for 2007. National Vital Statistics Reports 57(12). Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics.Google Scholar
  47. Harcourt Educational Measurement. (2002). Stanford achievement test [SAT-10]. San Antonio, TX: Author.Google Scholar
  48. Harcourt Educational Measurement. (2005). Aprenda: La prueba de logros en español. San Antonio, TX: Author.Google Scholar
  49. Honig, B., Diamond, L., & Gutlohn, L. (2000). Teaching reading: Sourcebook for kindergarten through eighth grade. Novato, CA: Arena Press.Google Scholar
  50. Houghton Mifflin. (2003a). Lectura. Boston, MA: Author.Google Scholar
  51. Houghton Mifflin. (2003b). Reading. Boston, MA: Author.Google Scholar
  52. Jenkins, J. R., Graff, J. J., & Miglioretti, D. L. (2009). Estimating reading growth using intermittent CBM progress monitoring. Exceptional Children, 75, 151–163.Google Scholar
  53. Jiménez, J. E., & O’Shanahan Juan, I. (2008). Enseñanza de la lectura: De la teoría y la investigación a la práctica educativa. Revista Iberoamericana de Educación, 45(5), 1–22.Google Scholar
  54. Judd, C., & Kenny, D. (1981). Process analysis: Estimating mediation in treatment evaluations. Evaluation Review, 5(5), 602–619.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Kame’enui, E. J., Simmons, D., & Coyne, M. (2000). Schools as host environments: Toward a schoolwide reading improvement model. Annals of Dyslexia, 50(1), 31–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Klauda, S., & Guthrie, J. (2008). Relationships of three components of reading fluency to reading comprehension. Journal of Educational Psychology, 100(2), 310–321.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. LaBerge, D., & Samuels, S. (1974). Toward a theory of automatic information processing in reading. Cognitive Psychology, 6(2), 293–323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Leafstedt, J., Richards, C., & Gerber, M. (2004). Effectiveness of explicit phonological-awareness instruction for at-risk English learners. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 19(4), 252–261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. MacKinnon, D. P. (2008). Introduction to statistical mediation analysis. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  60. MacKinnon, D. P., Krull, J., & Lockwood, C. (2000). Equivalence of the mediation, confounding and suppression effect. Prevention Science, 1(4), 173–181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Manis, F., Lindsey, K., & Bailey, C. (2004). Development of reading in grades K-2 in Spanish-speaking English-language learners. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 19(4), 214–224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Miller, J. F., Iglesias, A., Heilmann, J., Fabiano, L., Nockerts, A., & Francis, D. (2006). Oral language and reading in bilingual children. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 21, 30–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. National Center for Education Statistics. (2010). NAEP data explorer [Online data and analysis tool]. Washington, DC: Institute of Education Sciences.Google Scholar
  64. National Reading Panel [NRP]. (2000). Teaching children to read: An evidence-based assessment of the scientific research literature on reading and its implications for reading instruction (NIH pub. no. 00-4769). Washington, DC: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development.Google Scholar
  65. Oregon Department of Education. (2008). Oregon’s statewide assessment system technical report (Vol. 7): Alternate assessment. Salem, OR: Author.Google Scholar
  66. Perfetti, C. A. (1985). Reading ability. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  67. Perfetti, C. A. (1999). Comprehending written language: A blueprint of the reader. In C. Brown & P. Haggort (Eds.), The neurocognition of language (pp. 167–208). London: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  68. Posner, M., & Snyder, C. (1975). Facilitation and inhibition in the processing of signals. Attention and performance, V, 669–682.Google Scholar
  69. Proctor, C., August, D., Carlo, M., & Snow, C. (2006). The intriguing role of Spanish language vocabulary knowledge in predicting English reading comprehension. Journal of Educational Psychology, 98, 159–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Raudenbush, S. W., & Bryk, A. S. (2002). Hierarchical linear models: Applications and data analysis methods (2nd ed. ed.). Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  71. Read Naturally, Inc. (1998). Read Naturally (masters edition). Spanish. Saint Paul, MN: Author.Google Scholar
  72. Rolstad, K., Mahoney, K., & Glass, G. (2005). The big picture: A meta-analysis of program effectiveness research on English language learners. Educational Policy, 19(4), 572–594.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Schilling, S., Carlisle, J., Scott, S. E., & Zeng, J. (2007). Are fluency measures accurate predictors of reading achievement? Elementary School Journal, 107(5), 429–448.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Science Research Associates, Inc. (1981). Horizons. Desoto, TX: McGraw Hill.Google Scholar
  75. Seymour, P. H. K. (2005). Early reading development in European orthographies. In M. J. Snowling & C. Hulme (Eds.), The science of reading: A handbook (pp. 296–315). Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Shinn, M., Good, R., Knutson, N., Tilly, D., & Collins, V. (1992). Curriculum-based measurement of oral reading fluency: A confirmatory analysis of its relation to reading. School Psychology Review, 21, 459–479.Google Scholar
  77. Simmons, D., Kame’enui, E. J., Harn, B., Cole, C., & Braun, D. (2002). Building, implementing, and sustaining a beginning reading improvement model: Lessons learned school by school. In M. R. Shinn, H. M. Walker, & G. Stoner (Eds.), Interventions for academic and behavior problems II: Preventive and remedial approaches (pp. 537–570). Washington, DC: National Association of School Psychologists.Google Scholar
  78. Slavin, R. E., & Cheung, A. (2005). A synthesis of research on language of reading instruction for English language learners. Review of Educational Research, 75(2), 247–284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Sprick, M., Howard, L., & Fidanque, A. (1998). Read well: A research-based primary reading program. Longmont, CO: Sopris West.Google Scholar
  80. Urdan, T., & Schoenfelder, E. (2006). Classroom effects on student motivation: Goal structures, social relationships, and competence beliefs. Journal of School Psychology, 44(5), 331–349.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Verhoeven, L. (1994). Transfer in bilingual development: The linguistic interdependence hypothesis revisited. Language Learning, 44(3), 381–415.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Watson, J. (2004). Examining the reliability and validity of the Indicadores Dinámicos del Exito en la Lectura (IDEL ® ): A research study. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Oregon.Google Scholar
  83. Wolf, M., & Katzir-Cohen, T. (2001). Reading fluency and its intervention. Scientific Studies of Reading, 5(3), 211–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Doris Luft Baker
    • 1
  • Yonghan Park
    • 1
  • Scott K. Baker
    • 1
  1. 1.Center on Teaching & Learning5292 University of OregonEugeneUSA

Personalised recommendations