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Depression and suicidal ideation: association of physical, mental, social, and spiritual health status

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The aim of this study was to determine if multidimensional (physical, mental, social, spiritual) health status could predict the presence of depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation in the general population.


We administered a population-based, cross-sectional survey to 1200 participants from the general Korean population. The survey included the 5 Health Status Questionnaire (5HSQ) for self-rated health status, Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) for depression, and a question from the PHQ-9 for suicidal ideation. Multiple logistic regression was performed to estimate the association of significant socio-demographic factors and self-rated health status with depression and suicidal ideation.


Physical health status was associated with depression in both men and women (men: adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 4.69; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.44–9.00; women: aOR, 2.05; 95% CI 1.13–3.72) while spiritual health status only affected men (aOR, 5.50; 95% CI 2.59–11.65) and mental health status only women (aOR, 3.92; 95% CI 2.03–7.54). Social health status was associated with suicidal ideation in men (aOR, 4.87; 95% CI 2.74–19.99) while mental health status was associated with suicidal ideation in women (aOR, 4.31; 95% CI 1.90–9.76).


Physical, mental, social, and spiritual self-rated health statuses were all found to be associated with an individual’s predisposition to depression and suicidal ideation with notable differences between men and women.

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The corresponding author YH Yun thanks BK21 plus program through the National Research Foundation (NRF) for financial support.


The research was supported by the Korea Health Technology R&D Project through the Korea Health Industry Development Institute (KHIDI) and by the Ministry of Health and Welfare, Republic of Korea (Grant Number: HI16C0455). The authors conducted the study independently from the funders.

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Correspondence to Young Ho Yun.

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Mina Fukai and Seowoo Kim have contributed equally to this work.



See Appendix Table

Table 5 Religion with depression by multiple logistic regression analysis


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Fukai, M., Kim, S. & Yun, Y.H. Depression and suicidal ideation: association of physical, mental, social, and spiritual health status. Qual Life Res 29, 2807–2814 (2020).

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