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Reduction of quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) in patients with premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD)



Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) refers to the depression that occurs during the premenstrual phase and remits soon after the onset of menses. It affects the quality of life (QOL) of patients with PMDD. Therefore, this preliminary survey from chart recordings aimed to understand the symptom appearance and QOL reduction patterns in patients with PMDD, and to examine the extent of the loss of their quality-adjusted life years (QALYs).


Participants were 66 untreated female patients with PMDD. Data on symptom appearance and QOL reduction during the menstrual cycle, and the EuroQoL-5D (EQ-5D) scores during the premenstrual phase and immediately after the completion of a menstrual period were collected.


The mean EQ-5D score of the 66 patients with PMDD was 0.795 ± 0.120 (range 0.362–0.949), indicating that their expected mean loss of QALYs was about 0.14 years.


If untreated, PMDD is expected to cause a mean loss of QALYs of about 0.14 years. However, on accounting for the period from disease development to menopause, and subtracting the menstruation-free periods such as pregnancy and breastfeeding, patients with untreated PMDD are expected to experience a QALY loss of about 3 years during their lifetime.

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Fig. 1



The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale


Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders




EuroQoL-visual analogue scale


Health-related quality of life


Premenstrual dysphoric disorder


Premenstrual syndrome


Quality-adjusted life year


Quality of life


Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor


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This work was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number JP26670544.

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Correspondence to Kazuo Yamada.

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Yamada, K., Kamagata, E. Reduction of quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) in patients with premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). Qual Life Res 26, 3069–3073 (2017).

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  • Quality-adjusted life years
  • Premenstrual dysphoric disorder
  • Quality of life
  • EuroQoL-5D