Smoking status and health-related quality of life: a longitudinal study in young adults
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The possibility that tobacco use affects health-related quality of life (HRQoL) has attracted interest. However, a lack of prospective evidence weakens the case for a causal relationship. The aim was to examine the longitudinal relationship between change in smoking status and change in HRQoL in young adults.
We conducted a population-based cohort study with data collected in 2004–2006 (aged 26–36) and 2009–2011 (aged 31–41). Exposure was change in self-reported smoking status during follow-up. Outcomes were changes in physical and mental HRQoL measured by SF-12.
For physical HRQoL (n = 2080), quitters had a 2.12 (95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.73, 3.51) point improvement than continuing smokers, whereas former smokers who resumed smoking had a 2.08 (95 % CI 0.21, 3.94) point reduction than those who maintained cessation. Resumed smokers were 39 % (95 % CI 10, 75 %) more likely to have a clinically significant (>5 point) reduction of physical HRQoL than former smokers who maintained cessation. In contrast, quitters were 43 % (95 % CI 3, 98 %) more likely to have a clinically significant (>5 point) improvement in physical HRQoL than continuing smokers. Change in smoking status was not significantly associated with change in mental HRQoL (n = 1788).
Smoking by young adults was cross-sectionally associated with lower physical HRQoL and longitudinally associated with reductions in physical HRQoL. The expectation of short- to medium-term gains in physical HRQoL as well as long-term health benefits may help motivate young adult smokers to quit.
KeywordsSmoking Smoking cessation Quality of life Mental health Longitudinal studies
This study was supported by grants from the National Heart Foundation (Grant GOOH0578 and Fellowship PH11H6047 to S.L.G.); the National Health and Medical Research Council (Grants 211316 and 544923 and fellowship APP1008299 to A.J.V.); the Tasmania Graduate Research Scholarship (to J.T.); the Tasmanian Community Fund (Grant D0013808); and Veolia Environmental Services (Sydney, New South Wales, Australia). The study was sponsored by Sanitarium Health and Wellbeing Australia (Melbourne, Victoria, Australia), ASICS Ltd. (Kobe, Japan) and Target Australia Pty. Ltd. (North Geelong, Victoria, Australia). We gratefully acknowledge the contributions of the study project manager, Marita Dalton, and all other project staff.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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