Quality of Life Research

, Volume 25, Issue 3, pp 669–685 | Cite as

Smoking status and health-related quality of life: a longitudinal study in young adults

  • Jing Tian
  • Alison J. Venn
  • Leigh Blizzard
  • George C. Patton
  • Terry Dwyer
  • Seana L. Gall
Article

Abstract

Purpose

The possibility that tobacco use affects health-related quality of life (HRQoL) has attracted interest. However, a lack of prospective evidence weakens the case for a causal relationship. The aim was to examine the longitudinal relationship between change in smoking status and change in HRQoL in young adults.

Methods

We conducted a population-based cohort study with data collected in 2004–2006 (aged 26–36) and 2009–2011 (aged 31–41). Exposure was change in self-reported smoking status during follow-up. Outcomes were changes in physical and mental HRQoL measured by SF-12.

Results

For physical HRQoL (n = 2080), quitters had a 2.12 (95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.73, 3.51) point improvement than continuing smokers, whereas former smokers who resumed smoking had a 2.08 (95 % CI 0.21, 3.94) point reduction than those who maintained cessation. Resumed smokers were 39 % (95 % CI 10, 75 %) more likely to have a clinically significant (>5 point) reduction of physical HRQoL than former smokers who maintained cessation. In contrast, quitters were 43 % (95 % CI 3, 98 %) more likely to have a clinically significant (>5 point) improvement in physical HRQoL than continuing smokers. Change in smoking status was not significantly associated with change in mental HRQoL (n = 1788).

Conclusions

Smoking by young adults was cross-sectionally associated with lower physical HRQoL and longitudinally associated with reductions in physical HRQoL. The expectation of short- to medium-term gains in physical HRQoL as well as long-term health benefits may help motivate young adult smokers to quit.

Keywords

Smoking Smoking cessation Quality of life Mental health Longitudinal studies 

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jing Tian
    • 1
  • Alison J. Venn
    • 1
  • Leigh Blizzard
    • 1
  • George C. Patton
    • 2
  • Terry Dwyer
    • 1
    • 3
  • Seana L. Gall
    • 1
  1. 1.Menzies Institute for Medical ResearchUniversity of TasmaniaHobartAustralia
  2. 2.Murdoch Childrens Research InstituteMelbourneAustralia
  3. 3.The George Institute for Global HealthUniversity of OxfordOxfordUK

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