Quality of Life Research

, Volume 24, Issue 5, pp 1275–1280 | Cite as

Cultural adaptation and psychometric assessment of Pain Catastrophizing Scale among young healthy Malay-speaking adults in military settings

  • F. H. Mohd Din
  • Victor C. W. Hoe
  • C. K. Chan
  • M. A. Muslan
Brief Communication



The Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS) is designed to assess negative thoughts in response to pain. It is composed of three domains: helplessness, rumination, and magnification. We report on the translation, adaptation, and validation of scores on a Malay-speaking version of the PCS, the PCS-MY.


Guidelines for the process of cross-cultural adaptations of assessment measures were implemented. A sample of 303 young military recruits participated in the study. Factor structure, reliability, and validity of scores on the PCS-MY were examined. Convergent validity was investigated with the Positive and Negative Affect Scale, Short-form 12 version 2, and Ryff’s Psychological Well-being Scale.


Most participants were men, ranging in age from 19 to 26. The reliability of the PCS-MY scores was adequate (α = 0.90; mean inter-item correlation = 0.43). Confirmatory factor analysis showed that a modified version of the PCS-MY provided best fit estimates to the sample data. The PCS-MY total score was negatively correlated with mental well-being and positively correlated with negative affect (all ps < 0.001).


The PCS-MY was demonstrated to have adequate reliability and validity estimates in the study sample.


Soldier Quality of life Negative thoughts Mental health Psychological health 



The authors would like to thank Sullivan, M.J.L. for the usage of the original PCS in this study. This acknowledgment is also given to translators, to reviewers, and to all staff members from the MABTC in providing assistance and allowing us to conduct the study. VHCW was supported by the Ministry of Education High Impact Research Grant (H-20001-00-E2000069) and the University of Malaya Research Grant UMRG (RG467-12HTM).

Conflict of interest

The authors declared that they have no competing interest in the study.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • F. H. Mohd Din
    • 1
    • 4
  • Victor C. W. Hoe
    • 1
    • 2
  • C. K. Chan
    • 3
  • M. A. Muslan
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, Faculty of MedicineUniversity of MalayaKuala LumpurMalaysia
  2. 2.Centre for Occupational and Environmental Health-UM (COEHUM)University of MalayaKuala LumpurMalaysia
  3. 3.Centre for Poverty & Development Studies (CPDS), Faculty of Economics & AdministrationUniversity of MalayaKuala LumpurMalaysia
  4. 4.Malaysian Armed Forces Health ServicesMalaysian Armed ForcesKuala LumpurMalaysia

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