Quality of Life Research

, Volume 24, Issue 2, pp 455–462 | Cite as

Differential exercise effects on quality of life and health-related quality of life in older adults: a randomized controlled trial

  • Elizabeth A. Awick
  • Thomas R. Wójcicki
  • Erin A. Olson
  • Jason Fanning
  • Hyondo D. Chung
  • Krystle Zuniga
  • Michael Mackenzie
  • Arthur F. Kramer
  • Edward McAuley
Article

Abstract

Purpose

Maintaining quality of life (QOL) and physical and mental health status are important outcomes throughout the aging process. Although cross-sectional studies suggest a relationship between global QOL and physical activity, it is unclear whether such a relationship exists as a function of exercise training.

Methods

We examined the effects of two exercise intervention arms on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and global QOL. Low-active, older adults (n = 179) were randomly assigned to either a 12-month aerobic walking group or a strengthening and flexibility group. HRQOL and QOL were measured at baseline, 6, and 12 months.

Results

There was a significant group by time effect on QOL [F(2,176) = 3.11, p = 0.047, η2 = 0.03]. There was also a significant overall group by time effect for HRQOL [F(4,174) = 2.46, p = 0.047, η2 = 0.05], which was explained by the significant group by time interaction for mental health status (p = 0.041, η2 = 0.02) favoring the walking condition. Further analyses using latent class analysis revealed three classes of individuals with differential patterns of change in QOL and HRQOL across time. These classes reflected no change, declines, and improvements in these constructs across time.

Conclusions

Walking appears to enhance the mental aspect of HRQOL and global QOL when compared to a non-aerobic intervention. Additionally, the patterns of change in QOL and HRQOL were not linear over time. Our findings are in contrast to previous reports that these outcomes change a little or not at all in randomized trials.

Keywords

Older adults Physical activity Aging Quality of life Randomized controlled trial 

References

  1. 1.
    Sebelius, K., Frieden, T. R., & Sondik, E. J. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics. (2009). Health, United States, 2009: With special feature on medical technology (76–641496). Retrieved from U.S. Government Printing Office website: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/hus/hus09.pdf.
  2. 2.
    Rejeski, W. J., & Mihalko, S. L. (2001). Physical activity and quality of life in older adults. The Journals of Gerontology, 56(A), 23–35. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11730235.
  3. 3.
    Bize, R., Johnson, J. A., & Plotnikoff, R. C. (2007). Physical activity level and health-related quality of life in the general adult population: A systematic review. Preventive Medicine, 45(6), 401–415. doi:10.1016/j.ypmed.2007.07.017.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Imayama, I., Alfano, C. M., Cadmus Bertram, L. A., Wang, C., Xiao, L., Duggan, C., et al. (2011). Effects of 12-month exercise on health-related quality of life: A randomized controlled trial. Preventive Medicine, 52(5), 344–351. doi:10.1016/j.ypmed.2011.02.016.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Dondzila, C., Gennuso, K. P., Swartz, A. M., Tarima, S., Lenz, E. K., Stein, S. S., et al. (2014). Dose-response walking activity and physical function in older adults. Journal of Aging and Physical Activity,. doi:10.1123/japa.203-0083.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ware, J. E., & Sherbourne, C. D. (1992). The MOS 36-item short-form health survey (SF-36). I. Conceptual framework and item selection. Medical Care, 30(6), 473–83. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1593914.
  7. 7.
    Kelley, G. A., Kelley, K. S., Hootman, J. M., & Jones, D. L. (2009). Exercise and health-related quality of life in older community-dwelling adults: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Journal of Applied Gerontology, 28(3), 369–394. doi:10.1177/0733464808327456.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Erickson, K. I., Prakash, R. S., Voss, M. W., Chaddock, L., Hu, L., Morris, K. S., et al. (2009). Aerobic fitness is associated with hippocampal volume in elderly humans. Hippocampus, 19(10), 1030–1039. doi:10.1002/hipo.20547.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    McAuley, E., Mailey, E. L., Mullen, S. P., Szabo, A. N., Wójcicki, T. R., White, S. M., et al. (2011). Growth trajectories of exercise self-efficacy in older adults: Influence of measures and initial status. Health Psychology, 30(1), 75–83. doi:10.1037/a0021567.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Voss, M. W., Erickson, K. I., Chaddock, L., Prakash, R. S., Colcombe, S. J., Morris, K. S., et al. (2008). Dedifferentiation in the visual cortex: An fMRI investigation of individual differences in older adults. Brain Research, 1244, 121–131. doi:10.1016/j.brainres.2008.09.051.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Stern, Y., Sano, M., Paulson, J., & Mayeux, R. (1987). Modified mini-mental state examination: Validity and reliability. Neurology, 37, 179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Diener, E., Emmons, R. A., Larsen, R. J., & Griffin, S. (1985). The satisfaction with life scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 49(1), 71–75. doi:10.1207/s15327752jpa4901_13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Pavot, W., & Diener, E. (1993). Review of the satisfaction with life scale. Psychological Assessment, 5, 164–172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Pavot, W., Diener, E., Colvin, C. R., & Sandvik, E. (1991). Further validation of the satisfaction with life scale: Evidence for the cross-method convergence of well-being measures. Journal of Personality Assessment, 57(1), 149–161. doi:10.1207/s15327752jpa5701_17.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ware, J. E., Kosinski, M., & Keller, S. D. (1996). A 12-Item short-form health survey: Construction of scales and preliminary tests of reliability and validity. Medical Care, 34(3), 220–233. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8628042.
  16. 16.
    Ware, J. E., Kosinski, M., & Keller, S. K. (1994). SF-36 ® physical and mental health summary scales: A user’s manual. Boston: The Health Institute.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ware, J. E. (2001). SF-36 Physical and mental health summary scales: A manual for users of version 1. Quality Metric Inc., 2nd edn.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    IBM Corp. Released 2013. IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 22.0. Armonk, NY: IBM Corp.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Muthen, L. K., & Muthen, B. O. (2010). MPLUS user’s guide (6th ed.). Los Angeles, CA: Muthen & Muthen.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Burnham, K. P., & Anderson, D. R. (2004). Multimodel inference: Understanding AIC and BIC in model selection. Sociological Methodology, 33, 261–304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Speight, J., & Barendse, S. M. (2010). FDA guidance on patient reported outcomes. British Medical Journal (Clinical research ed.), 340, c2921. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20566597.
  22. 22.
    Motl, R. W., Konopack, J. F., McAuley, E., Elavsky, S., Jerome, G. J., & Marquez, D. X. (2005). Depressive symptoms among older adults: Long-term reduction after a physical activity intervention. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 28(4), 385–394. doi:10.1007/s10865-005-9005-5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Wójcicki, T. R., Szabo, A. N., White, S. M., Mailey, E. L., Kramer, A. F., & McAuley, E. (2013). The perceived importance of physical activity: Associations with psychosocial and health-related outcomes. Journal of Physical Activity & Health, 10(3), 343–349. Retrieved from http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=3856648&tool=pmcentrez&rendertype=abstract.
  24. 24.
    Krueger, A. B., & Schkade, D. A. (2007). The Reliability of Subjective Well-Being Measures. Retrieved from http://www.nber.org/papers/w13027.
  25. 25.
    Mullen, S. P., Olson, E. A., Phillips, S. M., Szabo, A. N., Wójcicki, T. R., Mailey, E. L., et al. (2011). Measuring enjoyment of physical activity in older adults: Invariance of the physical activity enjoyment scale (paces) across groups and time. The International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 8, 103. doi:10.1186/1479-5868-8-103.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Elizabeth A. Awick
    • 1
  • Thomas R. Wójcicki
    • 1
  • Erin A. Olson
    • 1
  • Jason Fanning
    • 1
  • Hyondo D. Chung
    • 1
  • Krystle Zuniga
    • 1
  • Michael Mackenzie
    • 1
  • Arthur F. Kramer
    • 1
  • Edward McAuley
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Kinesiology and Community HealthUniversity of Illinois at Urbana-ChampaignUrbanaUSA

Personalised recommendations