Mental well-being has aroused interest in Europe as an indicator of population health. The Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-Being Scale (WEMWBS) was developed in the United Kingdom showing good face validity and has been previously adapted into Spanish. The aim of this study is to assess the validity and reliability of the Spanish version of WEMWBS in the general population.
Cross-sectional home face-to-face interview survey with computer-assisted personal interviewing was administered with the 2011 Catalan Health Interview Survey Wave 3, which is representative of the non-institutionalized general population of Catalonia, Spain. A total of 1,900 participants 15+ years of age were interviewed. The Spanish version of WEMWBS was administered together with socioeconomic and health-related variables, with a hypothesized level of association.
Similar to the original, confirmatory factor analysis fits a one-factor model adequately (CFI = 0.974; TLI = 0.970; RMSEA = 0.059; χ 2 = 584.82; df = 77; p < .001) and has a high internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.930; Guttman’s lambda 2 = 0.932). The WEMWBS discriminated between population groups in all health-related and socioeconomic variables, except in gender (p = 0.119), with a magnitude similar to that hypothesized. Overall, mental well-being was higher for the general population of Catalonia (average and whole distribution) than that for Scotland general population.
The Spanish version of WEMWBS showed good psychometric properties similar to the UK original scale. Whether better mental well-being in Catalonia is due to methodological or substantive cultural, social, or environmental factors should be further researched.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Abdallah, S., Mahony, S., Marks, N., Michaelson, J., Seaford, C., Stoll, L. et al. (2011). http://www.neweconomics.org/publications/measuring-our-progress. Accessed 15 Sep 2012.
Organisation for Economic and Co-operation and Development (2007). http://www.oecd.org/. Accessed 1 Sep 2012.
Diener, E., & Diener, M. (1995). Cross-cultural correlates of life satisfaction and self-esteem. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 68, 653–663.
Berridge, K. C., & Kringelbach, M. L. (2011). Building a neuroscience of pleasure and well-being. Psychol Well Being, 1, 1–3.
Waterman, A. S. (1993). Two conceptions of happiness: Contrasts of personal expressiveness (eudaimonia) and hedonic enjoyment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 64, 678–691.
Huppert, F. A., & Wittington, J. E. (2012). Positive mental health in individuals and populations. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Linley, P. A., & Joseph, S. (2012). Positive psychology in practice. NJ: Wiley.
Seligman, M. E., & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2000). Positive psychology. An introduction. American Psychologist, 55, 5–14.
Keyes, C. L. (2007). Promoting and protecting mental health as flourishing: a complementary strategy for improving national mental health. American Psychologist, 62, 95–108.
Tennant, R., Fishwick, R., Platt, S., Joseph, S., & Stewart-Brown, S. (2012). Monitoring positive mental health in Scotland: validating the Affectometer 2 scale and developing the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being scale for the UK. Edinburgh: NHS Health Scotland.
Keyes, C. L., Dhingra, S. S., & Simoes, E. J. (2010). Change in level of positive mental health as a predictor of future risk of mental illness. American Journal of Public Health, 100, 2366–2371.
Keyes, C. L., & Simoes, E. J. (2012). To flourish or not: Positive mental health and all-cause mortality. American Journal of Public Health, 102, 2164–2172.
The Scottish Government (2011). http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Topics/Statistics/Browse/Health/scottish-health-survey. Accessed 12 July 2012.
Ryff, C. D., & Keyes, C. L. (1995). The structure of psychological well-being revisited. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69, 719–727.
Diener, E., Emmons, R. A., Larsen, R. J., & Griffin, S. (1985). The satisfaction with life scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 49, 71–75.
Watson, D., Clark, L. A., & Tellegen, A. (1988). Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: the PANAS scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54, 1063–1070.
Joseph, S., Linley, P. A., Harwood, J., Lewis, C. A., & McCollam, P. (2004). Rapid assessment of well-being: The Short Depression-Happiness Scale (SDHS). Psychol Psychother, 77, 463–478.
Bench, P. (2004). Measuring the dimensions of psychological general well-being by the WHO-5. QoL Newsletter, 32, 15–16.
Tennant, R., Hiller, L., Fishwick, R., Platt, S., Joseph, S., Weich, S., et al. (2007). The Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale (WEMWBS): Development and UK validation. Health Qual Life Outcomes, 5, 63–76.
Stoll, L., Michaelson, J., & Seaford, C. (2012). http://www.neweconomics.org/sites/neweconomics.org/files/Well-being_Evidence_for_Policy_final.pdf. Accessed 22 Aug 2012.
Lopez, M. A., Gabilondo, A., Codony, M., Garcia-Forero, C., Vilagut, G., Castellvi, P., et al. (2013). Adaptation into Spanish of the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale (WEMWBS) and preliminary validation in a student sample. Quality of Life Research, 22, 1099–1104.
IDESCAT. (2008). www.gencat.cat/salut/esca. Accessed 8 March 2012.
Goldberg, D., & Williams, P. (1988). A user’s guide to the General Health questionnaire. Windsor, UK: NFER-Nelson.
Goldberg, D. P., & Blackwell, B. (1970). Psychiatric illness in general practice. A detailed study using a new method of case identification. British Medical Journal, 1, 439–443.
Lobo, A., & Muñoz, P. E. (1996). Cuestionario de salud general GHQ (General Health Questionnaire). Guía para el usuario de las distintas versiones en lengua española validadas. Barcelona: Masson.
Sanchez-Lopez, M. P., & Dresch, V. (2008). The 12-Item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12): Reliability, external validity and factor structure in the Spanish population. Psicothema, 20, 839–843.
Dolan, P. (1997). Modeling valuations for EuroQol health states. Medical Care, 35, 1095–1108.
The EuroQol Group. (1990). EuroQoL -A new facility for the measurement of health-related quality of life. Health Policy, 16, 199–208.
Badia, X., Schiaffino, A., Alonso, J., & Herdman, M. (1998). Using the EuroQoI 5-D in the Catalan general population: Feasibility and construct validity. Quality of Life Research, 7, 311–322.
Muthen, B., & Kaplan, D. (1985). A comparison of some methodologies for the factor analysis of non-normal Likert variables. British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology, 38, 171–189.
Muthen, B., & Kaplan, D. (1992). A comparison of some methodologies for the factor analysis of non-normal Likert variables: A note on the size of the model. British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology, 45, 19–30.
Hu, L. T., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modelling, 6, 1–55.
Bentler, P. M., & Bonnet, D. G. (1980). Significance tests and goodness of fit in the anlaysis of covariance structures. Psychological Bulletin, 88, 58–77.
Cole, D. F. A. (1987). Utility of confirmatory factor analysis in test validation research. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 55, 584–594.
Sijtsma, K. (2009). On the use, misuse and the very limited usefulness of Cronbach’s Alpha. Psychometrika, 74, 107–120.
Bentler, P. M. (2008). Alpha, dimension-free and model-based internal consistency reliability. Psychometrika, 74, 137–143.
Helms, J., Henze, K., Sass, T., & Mifsud, V. (2006). Treating Cronbach’s alpha realiability coefficients as data in counseling research. The Counseling Psychologist, 34, 630–660.
Weir, J. P. (2005). Quantifying test-retest reliability using the intraclass correlation coefficient and the SEM. J Strength Cond Res, 19, 231–240.
Streiner, G. L., & Normal, R. D. (1989). Health measurement scales a practical guide a their development and use. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Kazis, L. E., Anderson, J. J., & Meenan, R. F. (1989). Effect sizes for interpreting changes in health status. Medical Care, 27, S178–S189.
Cohen, A. (1988). Statistical power for the behavioral sciences. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Eribaum.
Muthen, L. K., & Muthen, B. O. (2010). MPlus user’s guide (1998–2010). Los Angeles, CA: Muthen & Muthen.
Eurostat. (2011). http://www.idescat.cat. Accessed 26 July 2011.
Michaelson, J., Mahony, S., & Schifferes, J. (2012). http://www.neweconomics.org/publications/measuring-well-being. Accessed 23 Aug 2012.
Maheswaran, H., Weich, S., Powell, J., & Stewart-Brown, S. (2012). Evaluating the responsiveness of the Warwick Edinburgh Mental Well-Being Scale (WEMWBS): Group and individual level analysis. Health Qual Life Outcomes, 10, 156–164.
Stewart-Brown, S., Tennant, A., Tennant, R., Platt, S., Parkinson, J., & Weich, S. (2009). Internal construct validity of the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale (WEMWBS): A Rasch analysis using data from the Scottish Health Education Population Survey. Health Qual Life Outcomes, 7, 15–23.
This work was supported by the grants from Instituto de Salud Carlos III (CD12/00440). Additional support included a grant from DIUE of Generalitat de Catalunya (2009 SGR 1095), and the support of Agència de Salut Pública de Catalunya, Subdirecció General de Drogodependències, Generalitat de Catalunya, Spain. The authors are indebted to Núria Duran Adroher and Oriol Cunillera for assistance in the management of databases. We also thank Carme Gasull and Roser Busquets for her assistance in the manuscript preparation.
About this article
Cite this article
Castellví, P., Forero, C.G., Codony, M. et al. The Spanish version of the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-Being Scale (WEMWBS) is valid for use in the general population. Qual Life Res 23, 857–868 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11136-013-0513-7
- Mental well-being
- Positive mental health
- General population
- Factor analysis