Skip to main content

The Spanish version of the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-Being Scale (WEMWBS) is valid for use in the general population

Abstract

Purpose

Mental well-being has aroused interest in Europe as an indicator of population health. The Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-Being Scale (WEMWBS) was developed in the United Kingdom showing good face validity and has been previously adapted into Spanish. The aim of this study is to assess the validity and reliability of the Spanish version of WEMWBS in the general population.

Methods

Cross-sectional home face-to-face interview survey with computer-assisted personal interviewing was administered with the 2011 Catalan Health Interview Survey Wave 3, which is representative of the non-institutionalized general population of Catalonia, Spain. A total of 1,900 participants 15+ years of age were interviewed. The Spanish version of WEMWBS was administered together with socioeconomic and health-related variables, with a hypothesized level of association.

Results

Similar to the original, confirmatory factor analysis fits a one-factor model adequately (CFI = 0.974; TLI = 0.970; RMSEA = 0.059; χ 2 = 584.82; df = 77; p < .001) and has a high internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.930; Guttman’s lambda 2 = 0.932). The WEMWBS discriminated between population groups in all health-related and socioeconomic variables, except in gender (p = 0.119), with a magnitude similar to that hypothesized. Overall, mental well-being was higher for the general population of Catalonia (average and whole distribution) than that for Scotland general population.

Conclusions

The Spanish version of WEMWBS showed good psychometric properties similar to the UK original scale. Whether better mental well-being in Catalonia is due to methodological or substantive cultural, social, or environmental factors should be further researched.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2

References

  1. 1.

    Abdallah, S., Mahony, S., Marks, N., Michaelson, J., Seaford, C., Stoll, L. et al. (2011). http://www.neweconomics.org/publications/measuring-our-progress. Accessed 15 Sep 2012.

  2. 2.

    Organisation for Economic and Co-operation and Development (2007). http://www.oecd.org/. Accessed 1 Sep 2012.

  3. 3.

    Diener, E., & Diener, M. (1995). Cross-cultural correlates of life satisfaction and self-esteem. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 68, 653–663.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Berridge, K. C., & Kringelbach, M. L. (2011). Building a neuroscience of pleasure and well-being. Psychol Well Being, 1, 1–3.

    PubMed Central  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Waterman, A. S. (1993). Two conceptions of happiness: Contrasts of personal expressiveness (eudaimonia) and hedonic enjoyment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 64, 678–691.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Huppert, F. A., & Wittington, J. E. (2012). Positive mental health in individuals and populations. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Linley, P. A., & Joseph, S. (2012). Positive psychology in practice. NJ: Wiley.

    Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Seligman, M. E., & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2000). Positive psychology. An introduction. American Psychologist, 55, 5–14.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Keyes, C. L. (2007). Promoting and protecting mental health as flourishing: a complementary strategy for improving national mental health. American Psychologist, 62, 95–108.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Tennant, R., Fishwick, R., Platt, S., Joseph, S., & Stewart-Brown, S. (2012). Monitoring positive mental health in Scotland: validating the Affectometer 2 scale and developing the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being scale for the UK. Edinburgh: NHS Health Scotland.

    Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Keyes, C. L., Dhingra, S. S., & Simoes, E. J. (2010). Change in level of positive mental health as a predictor of future risk of mental illness. American Journal of Public Health, 100, 2366–2371.

    PubMed Central  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Keyes, C. L., & Simoes, E. J. (2012). To flourish or not: Positive mental health and all-cause mortality. American Journal of Public Health, 102, 2164–2172.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    The Scottish Government (2011). http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Topics/Statistics/Browse/Health/scottish-health-survey. Accessed 12 July 2012.

  14. 14.

    Ryff, C. D., & Keyes, C. L. (1995). The structure of psychological well-being revisited. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69, 719–727.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Diener, E., Emmons, R. A., Larsen, R. J., & Griffin, S. (1985). The satisfaction with life scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 49, 71–75.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Watson, D., Clark, L. A., & Tellegen, A. (1988). Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: the PANAS scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54, 1063–1070.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Joseph, S., Linley, P. A., Harwood, J., Lewis, C. A., & McCollam, P. (2004). Rapid assessment of well-being: The Short Depression-Happiness Scale (SDHS). Psychol Psychother, 77, 463–478.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Bench, P. (2004). Measuring the dimensions of psychological general well-being by the WHO-5. QoL Newsletter, 32, 15–16.

    Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Tennant, R., Hiller, L., Fishwick, R., Platt, S., Joseph, S., Weich, S., et al. (2007). The Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale (WEMWBS): Development and UK validation. Health Qual Life Outcomes, 5, 63–76.

    PubMed Central  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Stoll, L., Michaelson, J., & Seaford, C. (2012). http://www.neweconomics.org/sites/neweconomics.org/files/Well-being_Evidence_for_Policy_final.pdf. Accessed 22 Aug 2012.

  21. 21.

    Lopez, M. A., Gabilondo, A., Codony, M., Garcia-Forero, C., Vilagut, G., Castellvi, P., et al. (2013). Adaptation into Spanish of the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale (WEMWBS) and preliminary validation in a student sample. Quality of Life Research, 22, 1099–1104.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    IDESCAT. (2008). www.gencat.cat/salut/esca. Accessed 8 March 2012.

  23. 23.

    Goldberg, D., & Williams, P. (1988). A user’s guide to the General Health questionnaire. Windsor, UK: NFER-Nelson.

    Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Goldberg, D. P., & Blackwell, B. (1970). Psychiatric illness in general practice. A detailed study using a new method of case identification. British Medical Journal, 1, 439–443.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Lobo, A., & Muñoz, P. E. (1996). Cuestionario de salud general GHQ (General Health Questionnaire). Guía para el usuario de las distintas versiones en lengua española validadas. Barcelona: Masson.

    Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Sanchez-Lopez, M. P., & Dresch, V. (2008). The 12-Item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12): Reliability, external validity and factor structure in the Spanish population. Psicothema, 20, 839–843.

    Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    Dolan, P. (1997). Modeling valuations for EuroQol health states. Medical Care, 35, 1095–1108.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    The EuroQol Group. (1990). EuroQoL -A new facility for the measurement of health-related quality of life. Health Policy, 16, 199–208.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    Badia, X., Schiaffino, A., Alonso, J., & Herdman, M. (1998). Using the EuroQoI 5-D in the Catalan general population: Feasibility and construct validity. Quality of Life Research, 7, 311–322.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    Muthen, B., & Kaplan, D. (1985). A comparison of some methodologies for the factor analysis of non-normal Likert variables. British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology, 38, 171–189.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  31. 31.

    Muthen, B., & Kaplan, D. (1992). A comparison of some methodologies for the factor analysis of non-normal Likert variables: A note on the size of the model. British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology, 45, 19–30.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  32. 32.

    Hu, L. T., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modelling, 6, 1–55.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  33. 33.

    Bentler, P. M., & Bonnet, D. G. (1980). Significance tests and goodness of fit in the anlaysis of covariance structures. Psychological Bulletin, 88, 58–77.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  34. 34.

    Cole, D. F. A. (1987). Utility of confirmatory factor analysis in test validation research. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 55, 584–594.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  35. 35.

    Sijtsma, K. (2009). On the use, misuse and the very limited usefulness of Cronbach’s Alpha. Psychometrika, 74, 107–120.

    PubMed Central  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  36. 36.

    Bentler, P. M. (2008). Alpha, dimension-free and model-based internal consistency reliability. Psychometrika, 74, 137–143.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  37. 37.

    Helms, J., Henze, K., Sass, T., & Mifsud, V. (2006). Treating Cronbach’s alpha realiability coefficients as data in counseling research. The Counseling Psychologist, 34, 630–660.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  38. 38.

    Weir, J. P. (2005). Quantifying test-retest reliability using the intraclass correlation coefficient and the SEM. J Strength Cond Res, 19, 231–240.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  39. 39.

    Streiner, G. L., & Normal, R. D. (1989). Health measurement scales a practical guide a their development and use. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  40. 40.

    Kazis, L. E., Anderson, J. J., & Meenan, R. F. (1989). Effect sizes for interpreting changes in health status. Medical Care, 27, S178–S189.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  41. 41.

    Cohen, A. (1988). Statistical power for the behavioral sciences. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Eribaum.

    Google Scholar 

  42. 42.

    Muthen, L. K., & Muthen, B. O. (2010). MPlus user’s guide (1998–2010). Los Angeles, CA: Muthen & Muthen.

    Google Scholar 

  43. 43.

    Eurostat. (2011). http://www.idescat.cat. Accessed 26 July 2011.

  44. 44.

    Michaelson, J., Mahony, S., & Schifferes, J. (2012). http://www.neweconomics.org/publications/measuring-well-being. Accessed 23 Aug 2012.

  45. 45.

    Maheswaran, H., Weich, S., Powell, J., & Stewart-Brown, S. (2012). Evaluating the responsiveness of the Warwick Edinburgh Mental Well-Being Scale (WEMWBS): Group and individual level analysis. Health Qual Life Outcomes, 10, 156–164.

    PubMed Central  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  46. 46.

    Stewart-Brown, S., Tennant, A., Tennant, R., Platt, S., Parkinson, J., & Weich, S. (2009). Internal construct validity of the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale (WEMWBS): A Rasch analysis using data from the Scottish Health Education Population Survey. Health Qual Life Outcomes, 7, 15–23.

    PubMed Central  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by the grants from Instituto de Salud Carlos III (CD12/00440). Additional support included a grant from DIUE of Generalitat de Catalunya (2009 SGR 1095), and the support of Agència de Salut Pública de Catalunya, Subdirecció General de Drogodependències, Generalitat de Catalunya, Spain. The authors are indebted to Núria Duran Adroher and Oriol Cunillera for assistance in the management of databases. We also thank Carme Gasull and Roser Busquets for her assistance in the manuscript preparation.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Jordi Alonso.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Castellví, P., Forero, C.G., Codony, M. et al. The Spanish version of the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-Being Scale (WEMWBS) is valid for use in the general population. Qual Life Res 23, 857–868 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11136-013-0513-7

Download citation

Keywords

  • Mental well-being
  • Positive mental health
  • General population
  • Validity
  • Factor analysis