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Female-to-male transgender quality of life



We evaluated health-related quality of life in female-to-male (FTM) transgender individuals, using the Short-Form 36-Question Health Survey version 2 (SF-36v2).


Using email, Internet bulletin boards, and postcards, we recruited individuals to an Internet site (, which contained a demographic survey and the SF36v2. We enrolled 446 FTM transgender and FTM transsexual participants, of which 384 were from the US.


Analysis of quality of life health concepts demonstrated statistically significant (p<0.01) diminished quality of life among the FTM transgender participants as compared to the US male and female population, particularly in regard to mental health. FTM transgender participants who received testosterone (67%) reported statistically significant higher quality of life scores (p<0.01) than those who had not received hormone therapy.


FTM transgender participants reported significantly reduced mental health-related quality of life and require additional focus to determine the cause of this distress. Providing this community with the hormonal care they request is associated with improved quality of life.

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Female-to-male (FTM) transgender participants were labeled female at birth and choose to identify as male


The Harry Benjamin International Gender Dysphoria Association (HBIGDA) is a US-based professional association for individuals that provide services to the transgender community


Health-related quality of life (QOL) is a way of defining the level of functioning and perceived well-being in an individual


The Short Form 36-Item Questionnaire version 2 (SF36v2) is a health-related quality of life measurement tool containing 36 questions, that cover 8 domains of physical and mental health


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Correspondence to Emily Newfield.

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Newfield, E., Hart, S., Dibble, S. et al. Female-to-male transgender quality of life. Qual Life Res 15, 1447–1457 (2006).

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  • Female
  • Female-to-male transgender
  • Gender identity
  • Internet
  • Male
  • Quality of life
  • Transgender
  • Transsexualism/psychology