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Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Korean version of the EQ-5D in patients with rheumatic diseases

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Objectives: This study aimed to determine the cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Korean version of the EQ-5D in rheumatic conditions. Methods: Translation, back-translation and cognitive debriefing were performed according to the EuroQol group’s guidelines. For validity, 508 patients were recruited and administered the EQ-5D, Short-Form 36 and condition-specific measures. Construct validity and sensitivity were evaluated by testing a-priori hypotheses. For reliability, another 57 patients repeated the EQ-5D at 1-week interval, and intra-class correlations (ICC) and kappa statistics were estimated. For responsiveness, another 60 patients repeated it at 12-week interval within the context of clinical trial, and standardized response mean(SRM) were calculated. Results: The cross-cultural adaptation produced no major modifications in the scale. The associations of the EQ-5D with the generic- and condition-specific measures were observed as expected in hypotheses the higher: EQ-5D index and EQ-5D VAS scores, the better health status by generic- or condition-specific measures, and the better functional class. The ICCs were 0.751 and 0.767, respectively, and kappa ranged from 0.455 to 0.772. The SRM were 0.649 and 0.410, respectively. Conclusion: The Korean EQ-5D exhibits good validity and sensitivity in various rheumatic conditions. Although its reliability and responsiveness were not excellent, it seems acceptable if condition-specific measures are applied together.

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ankylosing spondylitis


fibromyalgia syndrome


Health Survey Short-Form 36




rheumatoid arthritis


standardized response mean


systemic lupus erythematosus


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Correspondence to Sang-Cheol Bae.

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Kim, MH., Cho, YS., Uhm, WS. et al. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Korean version of the EQ-5D in patients with rheumatic diseases. Qual Life Res 14, 1401–1406 (2005).

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