Quality of Life Research

, Volume 14, Issue 4, pp 1057–1063 | Cite as

Quality of Life Profile – Adolescent Version: Assessing the relationship of covariates to scale scores using structural equation modeling

  • Lynn B. Meuleners
  • Andy H. LeeEmail author


This study investigates the effects of covariates on adolescent quality of life (QOL) using structural equation modeling (SEM). The Quality of Life Profile – Adolescent Version, a generic 54 item self-reported questionnaire, was administered to 363 adolescents aged between 10 and 18 years who were enrolled in 20 secondary schools within metropolitan Perth, the capital of Western Australia. Previous results based on a second-order SEM provided preliminary support for measuring adolescent QOL in terms of physical health, psychological, social, environment and opportunities for growth and development. The second-order model is further enhanced in this study by incorporating covariates age, presence of a chronic condition, amount of control and perception of health. The amount of control the adolescent perceived had a significant positive impact on QOL, whereas poorer reports of health had a negative impact. However, the presence of a chronic condition was found to have little effect on QOL, while the modest inverse relationship between age and QOL was not statistically significant.


Adolescents Quality of Life Structural equation model 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Cristovao, F. 1999Stress, coping and quality of life among chronic haemodialysis patientsEdtna-Erca J253538Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Devinsky, O, Westbrook, L, Cramer, J, Glassman, M, Perrine, K, Camfield, C. 1999Risk factors for poor health-related quality of life in adolescents with epilepsyEpilepsia4017151720PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Drotar, D eds. 1998Measuring Health-Related Quality of Life in Children and Adolescents: Implications for Research and Practice MahwahLawrence Erlbaum AssociatesNew JerseyGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Raphael, D, Rukholm, E, Brown, I, Hill-Bailey, P, Donato, E. 1996The Quality of Life Profile – Adolescent Version: Background, description, and initial validationJ Adoles Health19366375Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bowling, A. 1997Measuring Health: A Review of Quality of Life Measurement ScalesOpen University PressMilton Keyes.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Eiser, C. 1997Children’s quality of life measuresArch Dis Childhood77350354Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Apajasalo, M, Sintonen, H, Holmberg, C,  et al. 1996Quality of life in early adolescence: A sixteen-dimensional health-related measure (16D)Qual Life Res5205211PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Collier, J, MacKinlay, D, Phillips, D. 2000Norm values for the generic children’s quality of life measure (GCQ) from a large school-based sampleQual Life Res9617623PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Grey, M, Boland, EA, Yu, C, Sullivan-Bolyai, S, Tamborlane, WV. 1998Personal and family factors associated with quality of life in adolescents with diabetesDiabetes Care21909914PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Meuleners, LB, Lee, AH, Binns, CW, Lower, A. 2003Quality of life for adolescents: Assessing measurement properties using structural equation modelingQual Life Res12283290PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Perrin, EC, Newacheck, P, Pless, IB,  et al. 1993Issues involved in the definition and classification of chronic health conditionsPediatrics91787793PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Guggenmoos-Holzmann, I, Bloomfield, K, Brenner, H, Flick, U. 1995Quality of Life and Health: Concepts, Methods, and ApplicationsBlackwell Wissenchafts-VerlagGermany, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Fayers, P, Machin, D. 2000Quality of Life – Assessment, Analysis and InterpretationJohn Wiley & SonsWest Sussex, EnglandGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Bollen, KAScott Long, J eds. 1993Testing Structural Equation ModelsSage PublicationsCA: Newbury ParkGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Byrne, B. 1998Structural Equation Modeling with Lisrel, Prelis, and Simplis, MahwahLawrence Erlbaum AssociatesNew JerseyGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kline, RB. 1998Principles and Practice of Structural Equation ModelingThe Guilford PressNew YorkGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Rowe, KJ. Simultaneous estimation of interdependent effects among multilevel composite variables in psychosocial research: An annotated example of the application of multilevel structural equation modelling. In Duan N., Reise S. (eds), Multilevel Modeling: Methodological Advances, Issues and Applications. Hillsdale, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2000.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Hu, L, Bentler, PM. 1998Fit indices in covariance structure modeling: Sensitivity to underparameterized model misspecificationPsychol Meth3424453Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Curran, PJ, West, SG, Finch, JF. 1996The robustness of test statistics to nonnormality and specification error in confirmatory factor analysisPsychol Meth11629Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Joreskog, KG, Sorbom, D. 1996Lisrel 8: User’s Reference GuideScientific Software InternationalChicagoGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Smith, MS, Wallston, KA, Smith, CA. 1995The development and validation of the Perceived Health Competance ScaleHealth Educ Res105164PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. Australia’s Young People: Their Health and Well-being 1999, Canberra: AIHW, 1999Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Lindstrom, B, Kohler, L. 1991Youth, disability and quality of lifePediatrician18121128PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Stawski, M, Auerbach, JG, Barasch, M, Lerner, Y, Zimin, R., Miller, MS. 1995Behavioural problems of adolescents with chronic physical illness: A comparison of parent-report and self-report measuresEur Child Adolesc Psychiatry41420PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Staab, D, Wenninger, K, Gebert, N,  et al. 1998Quality of life in patients with cystic fibrosis and their parents: What is important besides disease severity?Thorax53727731PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Frey, M. 1996Behavioral correlates of health and illness in youths with chronic illnessAppl Nurs Res9167176PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Bukowski, WM, Sandberg, D. 1999Peer relationships and quality of lifeActa Paediatr Suppl88108109PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Wang, X, Matsuda, N, Ma, H, Shinfuku, N. 2000Comparative study of quality of life between the Chinese and Japanese adolescent populationsPsychiatry Clin Neurosci54147152PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Public HealthCurtin University of TechnologyPerthAustralia
  2. 2.Injury Research CentreUniversity of Western AustraliaCrawley

Personalised recommendations