Quality & Quantity

, Volume 53, Issue 3, pp 1141–1163 | Cite as

Sustainability, welfare and efficiency of nations

  • C.-H. DiMariaEmail author


Adjusted net saving (ANS) has emerged as a leading indicator of sustainability. In addition, changes in ANS translate into changes in welfare (Hamilton in World Bank Econ Rev 13(2):333–356, 1999). This document uses a new data envelopment analysis model to assess efficiency of countries taking into account not only GDP creation but also sustainability and welfare by adding ANS in the set of desirable outcomes. Given that ANS can be negative a new anti-efficiency DEA model allowing for negative data recently proposed by DiMaria (2018) is used. Combining efficiency and anti-efficiency greatly increases discrimination of countries and proposes a more accurate ranking of countries.


Data envelopment analysis Negative output Anti efficient frontier Weak sustainability Welfare 



The author gratefully acknowledge the support of the Observatoire de la Compétitivité, Ministère de l’Economie, DG Compétitivité, Luxembourg and STATEC.


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© Springer Nature B.V. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centre Administratif Pierre WernerSTATEC ResearchLuxembourgLuxembourg

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